The 4th International Conference Buddhism & Australia
Call for Papers
26-28 February, 2015
Perth, Western Australia

The IC Buddhism & Australia is pleased to invite abstracts for panel sessions and individual papers for the 4th International Conference Buddhism & Australia.
The conference investigates the history, current and future directions of Buddhism in Australasian region and will be held on 26-28 February, 2015 at the University of Western Australia, in Perth.
The conference is a platform for scientists and Buddhists to present their recent and latest researches and to complete each other by revealing different aspects and materials on Buddhism; to consider future directions of Buddhism so that Buddhist education continues to be responsive to the needs of learners in changing times across diverse contexts.

The organizers are open to proposals for contributions on Buddhist history, philosophy, texts as well for proposals on any related theme.

Special focus for Buddhism & Australia 2015:
Buddhist Symbols and Symbolism

All Buddhists, scholars and members of the general public interested in Buddhism are invited to present their papers in this coming conference. Researchers across a broad range of disciplines are welcomed as well the submission of pre-formed panel proposals.

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Vīrya (Sanskrit; Pāli: Viriya; Tibetan Wylie: brtson 'grus) is a Buddhist term commonly translated as "energy", "diligence", "enthusiasm", or "effort". It can be defined as an attitude of gladly engaging in wholesome activities, and it functions to cause one to accomplish wholesome or virtuous actions.



Vīrya literally means "state of a strong man" or "manliness." In Vedic literature, the term is often associated with heroism and virility. In Buddhism, the term more generally refers to a practitioner's "energy" or "exertion," and is repeatedly identified as a necessary prerequisite for achieving liberation.

In Buddhist contexts, Viriya has been translated as "energy," "persistence," "persevering," "vigour," "effort," "exertion," or "diligence."

Mental factor

Within the Buddhist Abhidharma teachings, Virya is identified as:

In this context, Virya is defined the attitude of gladly engaging in what is wholesome; its function is to cause one to accomplish wholesome actions.

The Abhidharma-samuccaya states:

What is Virya? It is the mind intent on being ever active, devoted, unshaken, not turning back and being indefatigable. It perfects and realizes what is conducive to the positive.

In the context of the Mahayana Abhidharma, Virya is commonly translated as diligence.

Pali literature

In Buddhism's Pali literature, Viriya is identified as critical component in each of the following sets of qualities conducive to Enlightenment (bodhi-pakkhiyā-dhammā):

It is also associated with "Right Effort" (sammā-vāyāma) of the Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; Skt.: aṣṭāṅga mārga) and with the "Four Right Exertions" (samma-ppadhāna).

In the Kīṭāgiri Sutta (MN 70), The Buddha instructs his followers:

... For a faithful disciple who is intent on fathoming the Teacher's Dispensation, it is natural that he conduct himself thus: 'Willingly, let only my skin, sinews, and bones remain, and let the flesh and blood dry up on my body, but my energy [[[Pali]]: viriya] shall not be relaxed so long as I have not attained what can be attained by manly strength [purisa-tthāmena], manly energy [purisa-viriyena], and manly persistence [purisa-parakkamena]...."

Other characterizations

It stands for strenuous and sustained effort to overcome unskillful ways (akusala Dhamma), such as indulging in sensuality, ill will and harmfulness (see, e.g., ahiṃsa and Nekkhamma).

It stands for the right endeavour to attain dhyāna.

Vīrya can also signify courage and physical strength and was cultivated by Buddhist guardians including the Shaolin monks. It signifies strength of character and persistent effort for the well-being of others as well as the ability to defend the Triratna from attacks.

In the absence of sustained effort in practicing meditation, craving creeps in and the meditator comes under its influence. Right effort (vīryabala) is thus required to overcome unskillful Mental factors and deviation from Dhyāna.