Svadhishthana (Sanskrit: स्वाधिष्ठान, IAST: Svādhiṣṭhāna, English: "one's own base"), or sacral chakra, is the second primary chakra according to Hindu Tantrism.
Svadhishthana is illustrated as a white lotus (Nelumbo nucifera).
It has six vermilion-colored petals inscribed with syllables: बं ban, भं bhaṃ, मं maṃ, यं yaṃ, रं raṃ and लं laṃ.
Inside this lotus is a white crescent moon which represents the water region presided over by the deity Varuna.
The seed mantra, located in the innermost circle, is a moon-white वं vaṃ.
Above the mantra that is within the bind, or dot, is the deity Vishnu.
He is dark blue and wears a yellow dhoti. He holds a conch, a mace, a wheel and a lotus.
He wears the shriwatsa mark, and the koustabha gem.
He is seated either on a pink lotus, or on the divine eagle Garuda.
His strength is the goddess Rakini (or Chakini).
She is black, dressed in red or white and seated on a red lotus.
She is commonly depicted with one face and two arms, holding a sword and a shield, or two faced and four armed, and holds a trident, lotus, drum and vajra, or an arrow, skull, drum and axe.
The six petals represent the following modes of consciousness, also known as vrittis: affection, pitilessness, feeling of all-destructiveness, delusion, disdain and suspicion.
Svadhishthana is associated with the unconscious and with emotion.
It is closely related to the Muladhara in that Svadhishthana is where the different samskaras (potential Karmas) lie dormant, and Muladhara is where these Samskaras find expression.
It is associated with the element of water, the sense of taste and the act of procreation.
Svadhishthana contains unconscious desires, especially sexual desire.
It is said that to raise the kundalini shakti (energy of consciousness) above Svadhishthana is difficult .
Many saints have had to face sexual temptations associated with this chakra.
One who meditates on Svadhishthana is believed to obtain the following siddhis or occult powers:
freedom from enemies, the status of a lord among yogis, eloquence and clarity ("words flowing like nectar in well-reasoned discourse"), loss of fear of water, awareness of astral entities and the ability to taste anything desired for oneself or others.
Association with the body
Svadhishthana is located near the coccyx (tailbone), two finger-widths above the Muladhara chakra. Its corresponding point in the front of the body (i.e. its kshetram) is the pubic bone.
It is connected with the sense of taste, (the tongue) and with reproduction (the genitals).
It is often associated with the testes and ovaries.
They produce the hormones testosterone or estrogen, which influence sexual behaviors.
They are stored in areas where genetic information lies dormant, in the same way that samskaras lie dormant within Svadhishthana.
Practices in kundalini yoga to control and balance the energy in Svadhisthana chakra include vajroli mudra (contraction of the genitals), ashvini mudra (contraction of the anus), and various asanas and pranayamas.
The equivalent chakra in the Vajrayana tantra systems of Tibet is called the "Secret Place" four fingers below the navel. It is red in colour, with 32 downward pointing spokes.
Meditation on this point produces great bliss.
According to certain interpretations of Sufism, the spiritual body of a man is defined as an interconnected system (Lataif-e-sitta), in which there is an energy center called the nafs.
According to Lataif-e-sitta, the nafs is just below the navel.
The nafs incorporates all the elements of man's 'lower self,' which is tamed in order to attain closeness to Allah.
Western occultists make the kabbalistic association of Svadhishthana with the Sephirah Yesod. Yesod is also associated with the sexual organs.
Its function in the tree of life is to gather the different energies that have been created in the descent of the tree downwards and distribute them to Malkuth, the material world, where the energy can find physical expression.