Articles by alphabetic order
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 Ā Ī Ñ Ś Ū Ö Ō
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0


Sarva-tathāgata-tattva-saṃgraha

From Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
122p¨p.jpg




Sarva-tathāgata-tattva-saṃgraha ; An extensive work in five parts.


Composed during the late decades of the 7th century ce, it forms the root text of yoga-tantra.


Though it had some popularity in early Tibetan Buddhism, it was more important in Sino-Japanese forms of tantric Buddhism where attention was focused upon its first section, the Mahā-maṇḍala, which circulated separately under the title of the Vajra-śekhara Sūtra.


SARVA TATHAGATA TATTVA SAMGRAHA


COMPENDIUM OF ALL THE TATHAGATAS A STUDY OF ITS ORIGIN, STRUCTURE AND TEACHINGS


SARVA TATHAGATA TATTVA SAMGRAHA


THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


AT THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF LONDON - 2002



COMPENDIUM OF ALL THE TATHAGATAS A STUDY OF ITS ORIGIN, STRUCTURE AND TEACHINGS DO-KYU0N KWON



Abstract


This thesis constitutes a study of the Sarva-tathagata-tattva-samgraha, the principal Buddhist tantra of the Yoga Tantra class. The thesis is based on the original sources in Sanskrit, Tibetan, Chinese, Japanese and Korean. The text of this tantra is preserved in the original Sanskrit, and in Tibetan and Chinese translations. As for the commentaries, the thesis makes use of two commentaries written by the Indian masters Anandagarbha and Sakyamitra, which are preserved only in their Tibetan versions. In addition, the thesis incorporates the information culled from the relevant works in Chinese by Amoghavajra and Donjaku, and several Japanese and Korean works as indicated in the bibliography. The Sarva-tathagata-tattva-samgraha is divided into five parts and twenty six chapters. In conformity with this tantra's structure, the thesis is also divided in the same way.


The thesis starts with a general introduction, and then proceeds step by step to provide a textual study of the doctrinal, ritual, and other dimensions of the entire tantra. In conformity with its structure, first there are provided expositions of each part as a whole, and then there follow detailed studies of individual chapters contained in each part. In the case of individual chapters, first there is explained their overall structure, then, whenever appropriate, there are given translated excerpts from the tantra, followed by an integrated interpretation of their doctrinal and other aspects in the light of the commentaries. Since all chapters of this thesis have similar structures, the overall presentation is somewhat repetitive. However, this style reflects the structure of the tantra and its logical progression, and also the style of its commentaries.


In terms of its teachings, the Sarvatathdgata-tattva-samgraha provides the foundational exposition of the doctrines and practices of the Yoga Tantra. This tantra class focuses predominately on meditation, visualisation of deities, and on ritual activities performed in connection with mandalas. This tantra contains a seminal treatment of the Yoga Tantra theories, but all such theories are not divulged in an open and plain language, but are encoded in esoteric terminology, and cast in visionary, meditational, and ritualised ways. The overall discourse is built around a logically devised group of mandalas in connection with which the tantra explains the meditational and ritual process leading to Buddhahood. According to this tantra, Sakyamuni Buddha attained Buddhahood in the Akanistha abode, proclaimed the Yoga Tantra on the summit of Mount Sumeru, and then returned to earth and reenacted the state of enlightenment under the bodhi tree in Bodhgaya. His enlightenment in the Akanistha and his proclamation of die Yoga Tantra on Sumeru are recast in this tantra and revealed as a body of the Yoga Tantra teachings.


Contents

Abstract 2

Contents 3 -


List of Abbreviations 5


Bibliography 7


Introduction 13


1. Meaning of the title Sarvatathagatatattvasamgraha 13
2. Textual Classification of the Sarvatathagatatattvasamgraha 14
3. Sanskrit Version, Translations and Commentaries 17
4, Dates of the Texts 18
5. Origin of the Sarvatathagatatattvasamgraha 27
6. General Structure of the Sarvatathagatatattvasamgraha 32
7. Mandala derived from the Sarvatathagatatattvasamgraha 37


PART ONE


Mahayana Realisation of All the Tathagatas

Chapter 1. Vajradhatu Mahamandala 41
Chapter 2. Vajraguhya Vajramandala 96
Chapter 3. Vajrajnana Dharmamandala 107
Chapter 4. Vajrakarya Karmamandala 116
Chapter 5. Epilogue of Part One 124

A. Vajrasiddhi Caturmudramandala 124

B. Mahayanabhisamayamandala 131


PART TWO


Vajra-Pledge of All the Tathagatas

Chapter 6. Trilokavijaya Mahamandala 139
Chapter 7. Krodhaguhya Mudramandala 159
Chapter 8. Vajrakula Dharmajnanasamayamandala 168
Chapter 9. Vajrakula Karmamandala 175
Chapter 10. Epilogue of the Trilokavijaya 181


A. Trilokavijaya Caturmudramandala 181

B. Vajrahumkara Mandala 185

Chapter 11. Trilokacakra Mahamandala 189
Chapter 12. Sarvavajrakula Vajramandala 198
Chapter 13. Sarvavajrakula Dharmasamayamandala 201
Chapter 14-a. Sarvavajrakula Karmamandala 205
Chapter 14-b. Epilogue of the Trilokacakra 210


PART THREE


Dharma-Pledge of All the Tathagatas


Chapter 15. Sakalajagadvinaya Mahamandala 213
Chapter 16. Padmaguhya Mudramandala 225
Chapter 17. (Padmakula) Jnanamandala 232
Chapter 18-a. (Padmakula) Karmamandala 237
Chapter 18-b. Epilogue of Part Three 242


A. Padmakula Caturmudramandala 242

B. Sarvajagadvinaya Mandala 244


PART FOUR

Karma-Pledge of

All the Tathagatas


Chapter 19. Sarvarthasiddhi Mahamandala 249
Chapter 20. Ratnaguhya Mudramandala 257
Chapter 21. (Manikula) Jnanamandala 264
Chapter 22-a. (Manikula) Karmamandala 269
Chapter 22-b. Epilogue of Part Four 272

A. Manikula Caturmudramandala 272

B. Sarvarthasiddhi Mandala 274


PART FIVE


Tantra, Uttaratantra and Anuttaratantra of the Mahayana Sutra

Called the Compendium of Truth of All Hie Tathagatas


Chapter 23. Upayasiddhitantra 279
Chapter 24, Guhyatantra 288
Chapter 25. Guhyottaratantra 294
Chapter 26-a. Anuttaratantra 299
Chapter 26-b. Epilogue 305

Appendix I 307


Abbreviations

BHS

Cl. or Chinese 1

C2. or Chinese 2

DoC

Kosalalamkara

MW

OEAVS

Recitation-sutra

S. or [[Sanskrit]

STTS

T. or Tibetan Tattvaloka

Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, Franklin Edgerton, 1953, (rp. Kyoto, 1985).

Jin-gang-ding-i-qie-ru-lai-zhen-shi-she-da-cheng-xian-zhengda- jiao-wang-jing, Chinese translation of the STTS (chapter 1) by Amoghavajra, (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 865, pp. 207-223-2-21). Fo-shuo-i-qie-ru-lai-zhen-shi-she-da-cheng-xian-zheng-sanmei- da-jiao-wang-jing, complete Chinese translation of the STTS by Danapala, (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 882, pp. 341-445-2- 10).

A Dictionary o f Chinese Buddhist Terms, compiled by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodons, 1934, (rp. Taipei, 1975). Kosalalamkara-tattva-samgraha-tikd, originally written in Sanskrit by Sakyamitra, Tibetan translation by Dharmasribhadra and Rin-chen-bzang-po, (TTP. No. 3326, Vol. 70, pp. 190-305 & Vol. 71, pp. 2-94-2-6).

Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Sir Monier Monier-Williams, 1899, (rp. Oxford, 1988).

Outline o f Eighteen Assemblies o f the Vajrasekhara Sutra (Chinese Jin-gang-ding-jing-yu-qie-shi-ba-hui-zhi-gui), Chinese translation by Amoghavajra, (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 869, pp. 284- 3-9-287-3-14).

Recitation-sutra abridged from the Vajrasekhara-yoga (Chinese Jin-gang-ding-yu-qie-zhong-liie-chu-nian-song-jing), (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 866, pp. 223-2-22-253-3-10). Yamada Isshi's edition o f the STTS.

Sarva-Tathagata-Tattva-Samgraha Ndma Mahayana-Sutra. Tibetan translation o f the STTS, by Sraddhalcaravarman and Rin-chen-bzang-po, (TTP. Vol. 4, No. 112, pp. 218-283).

Sarva-tathagata-tattvasamgraha-mahaydndbhisamaya-ndmatantra-vydkhya-tattvalokakan-nama, originally written in Sanskrit by Anandagarbha, Tibetan translation by Thugs-rje-


chen-po and Thags-pa-shes-rab, (TTP. No. 3333, Vol. 71, pp.

134-301 & Vol. 72, pp. 2-152).

Tibetan Tripitaka Peking Edition, (D.T. Suzuki).

Taisho Shinshu Daizolzyd Edition o f the Chinese Buddhist Canon, (J. Takakusu & K. Watanabe).


Bibliography


Sanskrit Sources


Chandra, Lokesh: Sarva-Tathagata-Tattva-Samgraha, Sanskrit Devanagari edition with introduction and illustrations of mandalas, Delhi, 1987. Snellgrove, David L. and Chandra, Lokesh: Sarva-Tathagata-Tattva-Sangraha, facsimile reproduction of a tenth century Sanskrit manuscript from Nepal, Sata-Pitaka series, Vol. 269, Delhi, 1981. This contains the introduction written by David Snellgrove.

Yamada Isshi (ed.): Sarva-Tathagata-Tattva-Samgraha Ndma Mahayana-Sutra, a critical edition based on a Sanskrit manuscript and Chinese and Tibetan translations, Sata-Pitaka series, Vol. 262, New Delhi, 1981. Tibetan Sources

Anandagarbha: Sarva-tathdgata-tattva-samgraha-mahdydndbhisamaya-namatantra-vydkhyd-tattvalokakan-nama, the Sanskrit original is missing, Tibetan translation by Thugs-ije-chen-po and Thags-pa-shes-rab, (TTP. No. 3333, Vol. 71, pp. 134-301 & Vol. 72, pp. 2-152).

Buddhaguhya: Tantra Dashavatara, the Sanskrit original is missing, Tibetan translation by ’Jam-dpal-go-cha, (TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3324, pp. 34-73-4-7).

Sakyamitra: Kosalalamkara-tattva-samgraha-tlka, the Sanskrit original is missing, Tibetan translation by Dharmasribhadra and Rin-chen-bzang-po, (TTP. No.

3326, Vol. 70, pp. 190-305 & Vol. 71, pp. 2-94-2-6).

Sraddhakaravarman and Rin-chen-bzang-po (trs.): De-bzhin-gshegs-pa thams-cad- J<yi de-kho-na-nyid bsdus-pa zhes-bya-ba theg-pa chen-po ’i mdo, Tibetan translation of the STTS, (TTP. Vol. 4, No. 112, pp. 218-283).


Chinese Sources


Amoghavajra (Chinese Bu-kong) (trs.): Dou-bu-tuo-luo-ni-mu, this text contains some information of the STTS, (TSD, Vol. 18, No. 903, pp. 898-3-1-900- 1-19).


(trs.): Jin-gang-ding-yi-qie-ru-lai-zhen-shi-she-da-cheng-xian-zheng-dajiao-

wang-jing, Chinese translation of the STTS (chapter 1), (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 865, pp. 207-223-2-21).

(trs.): Jin-gang-ding-jing-yu-qie-shi-ba-hui-zhi-gui, this text provides the outline of the structure of the STTS, (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 869, pp. 284-3- 9-287-3-14).

(trs.): Jin-gang-ding-yu-qie-hu-mo-yi-gui, this text focuses on the homa rites relevant to the STTS, (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 908, pp. 916-920-2-16; No. 909, pp. 920-2-17-924-3-9).

— (trs.): Jin-gang-ding-yu-qie-liie-shu-san-shi-qi-zun-xin-yao, this text contains the same joyful utterances (udanas) of the thirty-seven deities of the Vajradhatu-mandala as the STTS, (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 871, pp. 291-3- 18-297-3-7).

(trs.): Jin-gang-ding-yu-qie-san-shi-qi-zun-chu-sheng-yi, this text provides brief explanation about the origin of the thirty-seven deities of the Vajradhatu-mandala, (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 872, pp. 297-3-8-299-1-22).


(trs.): Liie-shu-jin-gang-ding-yu-qie-fen-bie-sheng-wei-xiu-zheng-fa-men,

this text provides some information about the thirty-seven deities of the Vajradhatu-mandala, (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 870, pp. 288-2-1-291-3-17).

Danapala (Chinese Shi-hu) (trs.): Fo-shuo-yi-qie-ru-lai-zhen-shi-she-da-chengxian- zheng-san-mei-da-jiao-wang-jing, complete Chinese translation of the STTS, (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 882, pp. 341-445-2-10).

Donjaku (Chinese Tan-ji): Jin-gang-ding-da-jiao-wang-jing-si-ji, (TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, pp. 117-371-1-28).

Ennin (Chinese Yuan-ren): Jin-gang-ding-da-jiao-wang-jing-shu, (TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2223, pp. 7-2-23-114-2-6).

Kulcai (Chinese Kong-hai): Jin-gang-ding-jing-kai-ti, (TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2221, pp. 1-5-2-26).

Jiao-wang-jing-kai-ti. (TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2222, pp. 5-3-1-7-2-22).

Vajrabodhi (Chinese Jin-gang-zhi) (trs.): Jin-gang-ding-yu-qie-zhong-liie-chunian- song-jing, this text shows the earliest stage of the STTS, (TSD. Vol.

18, No. 866, pp. 223-2-22-253-3-10).


Other Chinese Sources


Da-le-jin-gang-bu-kong-zhen-shi-san-mei-ye-jing, this text was translated by Amoghavajra, and is also called Li-qu-jing (Japanese Ri-shu-kyo) in Japanese Shingon tradition, (TSD. Vol. 8, No. 243).

Dai-zong-chao-zeng-si-kong-da-ban-zheng-guang-zhi-san-zang-he-shang-biaozhi- ji, (TSD. Vol. 52, No. 2120) & Zhen-yuan-xin-ding-shi-jiao-mu-lu, (TSD. Vol. 55, No. 2157), these two texts contain the historical records and documents of Amoghavajra.

Jin-gang-ding-jing-da-yu-qie-mi-mi-xin-di-fa-men-yi-jue, this text contains some information about the origin of the STTS, (TSD. Vol. 39, No. 1798).


Japanese Sources


Matsunaga Yukei: Mikl<yd no Reldshi (Study of Tantrism) Kyoto, Heiralcuji shoten, 1969.

Sawa Ryuken (ed.): Miklcyo Jiten (Dictionary of Tantrism), Kyoto, Japan, 1975. Toganoo Shdun: Kongochokyo no Kenkyu (Study of the STTS), Toganoo Shun Zenshu, Extra Vol. Ill, Rinsen shoten, KySto, 1985.

— : Mandara no kenkyu (Study of Mandala), Koyasan Daigaku, 1927.

Tsuda Shiniclii (trs.): Kongdchdgyo, Japanese translation of the Sanskrit STTS (chapter 1), Tokyo, Japan, 1995.


Korean Sources


Heo 11-Bum and Kim Young-Deok (trs.): Dae-il-gyung (Mahavairocana sutra) and Keum-gang-jung-gyung (Amoghavajra's version of STTS), etc., translated into modem Korean from the Goryeo Tripitaka written in classical Chinese, Dopg-guk University Press, Seoul, Korea, 1994,


Mandala Sources


bSod nams rgya mtsho: Tibetan Mandalas (The Ngor Collection), Vol. I & II, Kodansha Ltd., Kyoto, Japan, 1983.

Chandra, Lokesh: A Ninth Century Scroll o f the Vajradhatu Mandala, Sata-Pitaka series, Vol. 343, New Delhi, 1986, (rp. 1997). This book contains the whole Gobushinkan and its counterpart of the Nine Assemblies Mandala, both of which are reproduced from the Chinese Buddhist Canon.

Jin-gang-jie-jiu-hui-da-man-tu-luo (Great Mandala of the Nine Assemblies of the Vajradhatu), TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 1, pp. 887-1004.


Li-duo-seng-nie-luo-wu-bu-xin-guan (Meditation on the Five Families of the Rasamgraha), TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 2, pp. 73-148.

This is called Gobushinkan (Chinese Wu-bu-xin-guari) in Japan. The World of Tibetan Buddhism, photographs by Fujita Hiroki and supervision by Council of Religious Affairs of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Gyosei Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, 1982.


Secondary Sources


Astley-Kristensen, Ian: The Riskukyo, Buddhica Britannica series III, The Institute of Buddhist Studies, Tring, U.K., 1991.

Bharati, Agehananda: The Tantric Tradition, London, 1965, (rp. London, 1992). Bhattacharyya, Benoytosh: An Introduction to Buddhist Esoterism, Motilal Banarsidass, 1931.


Bu-ston: History o f Buddhism, translated by E. Obermiller, Part I, (The Jewellery of Scripture), Heidelberg, 1931, Part II, (The History of Buddhism in India and Tibet), Heidelberg, 1932.

Cabezon, Jose Ignacio & Jackson, Roger R, (ed.): Tibetan Literature; Studies in Genre, Snow Lion Publication, USA, 1996. Chandra, Lokesh: Tibetan-Sanskrit Dictionary, New Delhi, 1959, (rp. Kyoto, 1982).

Chattopadhyaya, Alaka: Atisa and Tibet, Indian Studies, Past & Present, 1967, (rp. Delhi, 1996).

Chou Yi-liang: “Tantrism in China”, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 8, March 1945, pp. 241-332.

Das, Chandra S.: A Tibetan-English Dictionary with Sanskrit Synonyms, Calcutta, 1902, (rp. Kyoto, 1985).

Dasgupta, Shashi Bhushan: An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism, Shambhala, Berkeley & London, 1974.

Dayal, Har: The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sanslcrit Literature, Delhi, 1932, (ip. Delhi, 1978).

Dowman, Keith (trs. and com.): Masters of-Mahamudra; Songs and Histories o f the Eighty-Four Buddhist Siddhas, State University of New York Press, 1985.

Eliade, Mircea (ed.): The Encyclopaedia o f Religion, 16 vols., New York and London, 1987.

Yoga] Immortality and Freedom, translated from the French by Willard R.

Trask, 1958, New York, (rp. Princeton University Press, 1990).

Hirakawa Akira: “Buddhist Literature] Survey o f Texts”, The Encyclopaedia of Religion (ed. Mircea Eliade), Vol. 2, pp. 504-529.

A Buddhist Chinese-Sanskrit Dictionary, The Reiyukai, Tokyo, 1997. Jaschke, LI. A. : A Tibetan-English Dictionary, 1881, (rp. London, 1968). Kitagawa, Joseph M. and Cummings, Mark D. (ed.): Buddhism and Asian History, New York, 1989.


Lessing, F. D. and Wayman, Alex (trs.): Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems, The Hague, 1968, (rp. Delhi, 1993).

Lopez Jr., Donald S. (ed.): Religions o f India in Practice, Princeton University Press, 1995.

Nakamura Hajime: Indian Buddhism, Japan, 1980, (rp. Delhi, 1987). Orzech, Charles D.: “Amoghavajra”, The Encyclopaedia of Religion (ed. Mircea Eliade), Vol. 1, pp. 238-239.

Vajrabodhi”, The Encyclopaedia of Religion (ed. Mircea Eliade), Vol. 15,

p. 181.

Pagel, Ulrich: The Bodhisattvapitaka, Buddhica Britannica series V, The Institute of Buddhist Studies, Tring, U.K., 1995.


Roerich, George N. (trs.): The Blue Annals, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 1949, (rp. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1996).


Ruegg, David Seyfort: The Literature o f the Madhyamaka School o f Philosophy in India, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1981.

Saunders, E. Dale: Mudra; A Study o f Symbolic Gestures in Japanese Buddhist Sculpture, New York, 1960, (rp. Princeton University Press, 1985).


 : “Mandalas; Buddhist Mandalas”, The Encyclopaedia of Religion (ed.

Mircea Eliade), Vol. 9, pp. 155-158.

Skorupski, Tadeusz: The Sarvadurgatiparisodhana Tantra (Elimination o f All Evil Destinies), Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1983.


 : “Jyotirmahjarl: Abhaydkaragupta's Commentary on Homa Rites”,

Bulletin of the Research Institute of Esoteric Buddhist Culture (Milckyd Bunka kenkyiisho Kiyo), Vol. 8, December 1994, Koyasan University, Japan.



: “Saltyamuni's Enlightenment According to the Yoga Tantra”, Sambhasa 6,

1985, pp. 87-94.


 : “The Practices Conducive to Enlightenment The Thirty-seven

Bodhipdksikas and Other Practices According to Ndgdrjuna's Mahdprajhdparamitd-sdstra,\ London, SOAS, 1998.

Snellgrove, David L.: Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, London, 1987.

The Hevajra Tantra, Oxford University Press, 1959, (rp. 1980).

Snodgrass, Adrian: The Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas in Shingon Buddhism, Sata-Pitaka series, Vol. 354-355, New Delhi, 1988, (rp. 1997).

Takeuchi, K.: “On the Translation o f Sutras in the Song period and Appendix: A Chronological Catalogue o f the Translations”, The Mikkyo Bunka, Vol. 113,1975, pp. 27-53.


Taranatha: History o f Buddhism in India, translated from the Tibetan by Lama Chimpa and Alaka Chattopadhyaya, edited by Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya, Simla, 1970, (rp. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1997).

Thomas, Edward J.: The Life o f Buddha as Legend and History, London, 1927, (rp. 1956).

Todaro, Dale: An Annotated Translation o f the 1 Tattva-samgraha’ (part I) with an Explanation o f the Role o f the ‘ Tattva-samgraha' Lineage in the Teaching of Kukai, Ph.D., Columbia University, 1985, order no. 85-23250.

Tucci, Giuseppe: The Theory and Practice of the Mandala, translated from the Italian by Alan Houghton Brodrick, London, 1961.

Wayman, Alex: The Buddhist Tantras; Light on Indo-Tibetan Esotericism, New York, 1973, (rp. Delhi, 1990).



 : “Buddhism; Esoteric Buddhism”, The Encyclopaedia of Religion (ed.

Mircea Eliade), Vol. 2, p. 472-482,


Williams, Paul: Mahayana Buddhism; The Doctrinal Foundations, Routledge, London, 1989, (rp. 1991).

Wintemitz, Maurice: A History o f Indian Literature, English translation by V. Srinivasa Sarma, Delhi, 1981, (rp. Delhi, 1987),



Introduction


7. Meaning o f the title Sarvatathagatatattvasamgraha


The Sanskrit title of the text Sarva-tathagata-tattva-samgraha-ndma-mahayanasutra is translated into English as Mahayna Sutra Called the Compendium o f Truth o f All the Tathagatas} Although labelled a Mahayana sutra, being based on the philosophy of Mahayana Buddhism, especially the Yogacara school,2 the text is included among the tantras because it contains a body of tantric theories and practices. At the time of compilation the term tantra was not widely employed for this category of texts. However, it is notable that out of the five parts of this text, the term tantra is used only in the title of the fifth part. The Sanskrit title of the fifth part is called Tantra, Uttara-tantra and Anuttara-tantra o f the [[Sarva-tathagata-tattvasamgraha- ndma-mahdydina-sutra]]. In this part, the term tantra seems to clearly


imply that it stands for the practical and concrete ways of accomplishing the various kinds of attainments (siddhi). In a literal sense both sutra and tantra mean ‘thread’ or ‘continuous line’. In the case of the tantra, the ‘continuous line’ is open to various interpretations, either as the lineage of master-disciple, or the continuity of vows and pledges in the practitioner's stream of consciousness, or the continuity of practice leading to the ultimate goal.3 Apart from the doctrinal and practical differences between the two categories of texts, sutras and tantras differ with regard to the speaker, the audience and the locations for their teaching. Whereas the historical Buddha Sakyamuni teaches the sutras to human beings at various

geographical locations, the celestial Buddha Vairocana teaches the tantras to 1. According to the Japanese commentator Kukai (774-835 CE), the term sarvatathagata has two meanings, namely, exoteric and esoteric. In its exoteric meaning, it indicates all the Buddhas in the ten directions and the three times, and in its esoteric meaning, it indicates only the Five Buddhas and the corresponding Five Wisdoms, i.e. Vairocana and Pure-Absolute-Wisdom,

Aksobhya and Mirror-like-Wisdom, Ratnasambhava and Equality-Wisdom, Amitabha and Discriminating-Wisdom, and Amoghasiddhi and Active-Wisdom. (TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2221, pp. 2-3-22-3-1-18).


2. Japanese scholars assert that Mahavairocana sutra accepts the teaching of the Madhyamika school as its basic doctrine, but the STTS accepts the teaching of the Yogacara school as its basic doctrine.

3. Alex Wayman, “Buddhism; Esoteric Buddhism”, The Encyclopaedia of Religion, Vol. 2, p. 472-482; Joseph M. Kitagawa and Mark D. Cummings (ed.), Buddhism and Asian History, p.



Buddhas, bodhisattvas and gods in a variety of celestial palaces or Pure Lands. According to the text, The Compendium of Truth of All the Tathagatas was promulgated in the abode of the king of the Akanistha gods by die Lord Sakyamuni through his Sambhogakaya as Vairocana.


2. Textual Classification o f the Sarvatathagatatattvasamgraha


The Buddhist tantras broadly divide into four categories or classes, namely, Kriya (action)-, Carya (performance)-, Yoga (meditation)- and Anuttarayoga (supreme meditation)-tantras.4 Within these four classes, the STTS is classified as the principal text of the Yoga-tantras. The Tibetan monk and scholar Mkhas-grubije divides the Yoga-tantras into three groups, namely, the fundamental tantra, the explanatory tantras and the tantras which conform to respective sections of the fundamental tantra.6 Within this classification, the STTS constitutes the fundamental tantra and the Vajrasekhara tantra serves as the explanatory tantra? The above classifications into four tantra categories, the fundamental and

explanatory tantras, appertain to the Indo-Tibetan tradition. By contrast in China, Korea and Japan, the STTS is traditionally regarded as an integral part of the Vajrasekhara sutra % It is important to indicate at this point that the title Vajrasekhara sutra implies a completely different text from the Vajrasekhara tantra mentioned above. Apart from including the STTS as an integral part of the Vajrasekhara sutra, in a limited sense, the Far Eastern Buddhist tradition also


4. This kind o f categorisation is well attested in Tibetan sources but ultimately it originated in India and it has been widely accepted by scholars. The Tibetan historian, Bu-ston (1290-1364 CE) also employed this classification in compiling the Tibetan canon. The Kriyd-tantras treat c outer worship and ceremonies such as the building of temples, the erection of images of gods, etc. The Carya-tantras give instructions for cultic rituals. The Yoga-tantras deal with the practice of yoga. The Annuttarayoga-tantras teach higher mysticism, (Maurice Wintemitz, History of Indian Literature, Vol. II, p. 375).

In contrast, a complete Hindu Tantra should consist of four parts according to four main themes: firstly, {{Jnana[[ (knowledge) which comprises actual philosophical doctrines, sometimes with a monotheistic bias but sometimes leaning towards monism,, and also a ‘confused’ occultism including the ‘knowing’ of the secret powers of the letters, syllables, formulas and figures (mantrasastra & yantrasastra); secondly, Yoga (meditation & concentration) especially with a view to acquiring magical powers, hence also ‘magic’ (maydyoga); thirdly, Kriya (action)


including instructions for the making of idols and the construction and consecration of temples; finally, Caryd (conduct), such as rules regarding rites and festivals, and social duties. Although all these four branches are not treated in every single one of these works, they do all contain a medley o f philosophy and occultism, mysticism, magic, ritual and ethics. (Maurice Wintemitz, History o f Indian Literature, Vol. I, pp. 560-561).


5. Mkchas-grab-rje, Rgyud-sde-spyi’i-rnam-par-gzhag-pa-rgyas-par-brjod, translated into English under the title of Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems by F.D. Lessing and A. Wayman, The Hague, 1968.


6. Ibid., p. 215.

7. Ibid,, p. 25.


According to Nakamura Hajime, the original name of the Vajrasekhara tantra is the Vajrasekhara-mahaguhyayogatantra. He maintains that this tantra is the second or third section of the Vajrasekhara sutra and is the explanatory tantra of the first section of the Vajrasekhara sutra. (Nakamura Hajime, Indian Buddhism, p. 323, footnote).


8. Chinese Jin-gang-ding-jing.


considers the Vajrasekhara sutra identical to the STTS. According to the two texts translated into Chinese by Amoghavajra, and known only in their Chinese versions, namely, Jin-gang-ding-jing-yu-qie-shi-ba-hui-zhi~gui translated as Outline of the Eighteen Assemblies of the Vajrasekhara Sutra (hereafter abbreviated OEA VS) and Dou-bu-tuo-luo-nUmu translatable as Eye o f the Dharani of All the Families,10 the Vajrasekhara sutra in its original form consisted of one hundred thousand gathas and eighteen assemblies preached in the different places of the Buddhist heavens.11 Out of the eighteen assemblies, the STTS forms the first and, as such, the most important and fundamental assembly. An analysis of these two texts provided in the following paragraphs reveals a whole range of complex and tangled problems concerning the origin and content of the Vajrasekhara sutra and its relationship to the STTS.


The OEAVS provides a detailed description of the STTS as the first assembly, but sheds very little information on the remaining seventeen assemblies. When comparing the description of the first assembly in the OEAVS and the Sanskrit version of the STTS, it is evident that the STTS was in existence during the time of Amoghavajra. However, since the Vajrasekhara sutra in its complete version describing the eighteen assemblies is not available, and since we have only rather brief descriptions of the remaining seventeen assemblies, it is difficult to assume that those seventeen assemblies mentioned in the OEAVS have ever existed. Moreover the actual existence of the Vajrasekhara sutra remains uncertain. Some Japanese scholars accept and affirm its real existence in the same way as the Prajnaparamita sutra and the {{Mahavairocana sutra]] consist of one hundred thousand gathas. Other scholars disagree and maintain that instead of accepting its


9. TSD. Vol. 18, No. 869, pp. 284-3-9-287-3-14.


The Chinese title of this text is literally translated into English as Outline of the Eighteen Assemblies of the Vajrasekhara-sutra-yoga. In abbreviating it to OEA VS, I have omitted the word yoga (Chinese yu-qie) on purpose because the word yoga is problematic. The OEAVS text reads Vajrasekhara-sutra-yoga, but its footnote reads Vajrasekhara-yoga-sutra. According to the first reading, either sutra-yoga contrasts with the tantra-yoga because of the difference in the method of practice, or the word yoga is used because the Vajrasekhara-sutra was completely different from the Mahayana sutras. However, according to the reading in the footnotes, the title refers to a kind of sutra called Vajrasekhara-yoga.

10. TSD. Vol. 18, No. 903, pp. 898-3-1-900-1-19.

11. According to the Japanese commentator Donjaku (1674-1742 CE) in his commentary on STTS, in the Sanskrit text, thirty-two syllables become one sloka. (TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, p. 128-2-5-6). Lokesh Chandra also asserts in a footnote on the STTS that “One hundred thousand gathas does not mean that the STTS is written in verses. It is a classical way of counting the syllables in a text. One gatha (slolca) is thirty-two syllables. Thus the STTS should have about three million two hundred thousand syllables.” (Lokesh Chandra, [[Sarva- Tathagata-Tattva-Samgraha]], Introduction, p. 26. There are two Sanskrit Devanagari editions of the STTS published by Lokesh Chandra under the same title. The first was reproduced in a facsimile and published jointly by Lokesh Chandra and David Snellgrove in 1981 and the second was published by Lokesh Chandra alone in 1987. The first one contains an introduction written by David Snellgrove and the second one contains an introduction written by Lokesh Chandra. In order to avoid confusion, whenever the introduction of David Snellgrove is quoted, the name of Lokesh Chandra is omitted in the reference.)


historical existence containing a systematised exposition of the eighteen assemblies, the Vajrasekhara sutra should be regarded as a kind of tantric Buddhist legend. Those scholars assume the existence of various kinds of STTS lineage texts, on the grounds that in OEAVS they can only find evidence for three out of the eighteen assemblies in the Chinese and Tibetan canons. These three assemblies have been regarded as the first, sixth and fifteenth assemblies in the Japanese tradition.12 According to the OEAVS, the first assembly is called STTS, the sixth is called Truth-Yoga of the Pledge of Unceasing-Great-Joy ([[maha-sukha-amogha-samayatattva- yoga]]) and the fifteenth is called Yoga o f the Secret Assembly (guhya-samajayoga).


Even though the sixth assembly appears to correspond with the text called Li-qu-jing and although the fifteenth assembly has been regarded as corresponding to the Guhyasamaja tantra,14 except for the first assembly, it cannot be asserted that the other two assemblies have ever existed as fully developed texts at the time of Amoghavajra, and the brief explanations concerning these two assemblies as given in the OEAVS are not adequate to confirm their existence. The original author of the OEAVS remains unknown, and only the name of Amoghavajra is recorded as its translator. Two possible explanations relate to the original author. Firstly, this text may have been composed or directly transmitted in Sanskrit to Amoghavajra by his teacher Nagabodhi. Secondly, it may have been compiled or composed in Sanskrit by Amoghavajra himself as an analysis or a


short essay on the STTS lineage texts which were in circulation at that time. This possibility is based on the fact that there exists neither an original Sanskrit version of the OEAVS, nor any Tibetan translation. As far as it is known, there is no Tibetan text which mentions the Vajrasekhara sutra or the eighteen assemblies.

The second text, called Dou-bu-tuo-luo-ni-mu, consists of extracts from six tantric texts, namely, the Vajrasekhara sutra, Mahavairocana sutra, [[Susiddhi sutra]], Guhya-tantra sutra, Subdhupariprccha sutra and Trisamaya sutra. In terms of the Vajrasekhara sutra, this text briefly explains only two assemblies out of the eighteen assemblies, namely, the first assembly (STTS) and the third assembly. The contents of both assemblies are mostly based on the OEAVS.


12. Some Japanese scholars have tried to find the existence of the other fifteen assemblies in the Chinese and Tibetan canons. They believe that the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 13 th, 15th and 16th assemblies are identifiable. For further details, see Matsunaga Yukei, Miklyd no Rekishi, pp. 64-65 and its footnote; pp. 71-72.


13. The Far Eastern tantric tradition regards the sixth assembly as Li-qu-jing (Japanese Ri-shu- Icyo), and when Li-qu-jing is mentioned in the Japanese Shingon tradition, it indicates a text called Da-le-jin-gang-bu-kang-zhen-shi-san-mei-ye-jing translated by Amoghavajra. (TSD. . Vol. 8, No. 243, pp. 784-1-786-2). Including this Chinese translation by Amoghavajra, there are ten versions, one in Sanskrit, six in Chinese and three in Tibetan. Regarding Li-qu-jing, see Ian Astley-Kristensen, The Rishulcyo, The Institute of Buddhist Studies, 1991. 14. Versions of the Guhyasamaja tantra exist in Sanskrit, Chinese and Tibetan. The Chinese version was translated by Danapala in 1002 CE under the title of Fo-shuo-i-qie-ru-lai-jingang- san-ye-zui-shang-mi-mi-da-jiao-wang-jing. (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 885, pp. 469-3-12-511- 2-18).


Consequently, this text, like the first text, does not provide a positive proof for the existence of the Vajrasekhara sutra and the eighteen assemblies.


3. Sanskrit Version, Translations and Commentaries


The one and only extant Sanskrit manuscript of the STTS is preserved in the National Archives in Kathmandu. This manuscript has been reproduced in a Romanized version by Yamada Isshi and forms the basis of the present study. Two major translations of the STTS are found in the Chinese canon. One is a complete translation of the whole text made by Danapala (Chinese Shi-hu) called Fo-shuo-yi-qie-ru-lai-zhen-shi-she-da-cheng-xian-zheng-san-mei-da-jiao-wangjin g j5 which translated into English is The Sutra called the King of the Great Ordinance o f the Perfect Comprehension of the Mahayana, the Compendium of


Truth of All the Tathagatas Preached by the Buddha, and reconstructed into Sanskrit is [[Buddha-bhdsita-sarva-tathagata-tattva-samgraha-mahdydnaabhisamaya- mahakalpa-raja-sutra]]. The second Chinese translation by Amoghavajra (Chinese Bu-kong) is earlier but incomplete, containing only chapter 1 which amounts to one fifth of die whole text, entitled Jin-gang-ding-yi-qie-ru-laizhen- shi-she-da-cheng-xian-zheng-da-jiao-wang-jing,16 which translated into English is The Sutra called the [[King of the Great Ordinance of the Perfect Comprehension of the Mahayana, the Compendium of Truth o f All the Tathagatas of the Vajra-peak, and its Sanskrit reconstruction [[Vajra-sekhara-sarva-tathagata tattva- samgraha-mahdydna-abhisamaya-maha kalpa-raja-sutra]].

There is one complete Tibetan version translated from Sanskrit by Sraddhakaravarman and Rin-chen-bzang-po called De-bzhin-gshegs-pa thams-cad- Icyi de-kho-na-nyid bsdus-pa zhes-bya-ba theg-pa chen-po 7 mdo.xl Mkhas-grub-ije maintains that there are three primary commentaries on the STTS written by Buddhaguhya, [[Sakyamitra] and Anandagarbha,18 all of whom were well known tantric masters in India. These three commentaries were originally written in Sanskrit, but unfortunately none of the original Sanskrit versions survived. At present they exist only in Tibetan translations preserved in the Tibetan canon. There are no Chinese translations of these commentaries. Buddhaguhya’s commentary called Tantrdrthavatdra was translated into Tibetan by ’ Jam-dpal-go-cha under the title of Rgyud-kyi don-la jug-paP Sakyamitra's commentary called


Kosalalamkara-tattva-samgraha-tikd was translated by Dharmasribhadra and [[Rinchen- bzang-po]] under the tide of De-kho-na-nyid bsdus-pa’i rgya-cher bshad-pa ko-sa-la 7 rgyanP Anandagarbha's commentary called Sarva-tathagata-


15. TSD. Vol. 18, No. 882, pp. 341-445-2-10.

16. TSD. Vol. 18, No. 865, pp. 207-223-2-21.

17. TTP. Vol. 4, No. 112, pp. 218-283.

18. F.D. Lessing and Alex Wayraan (trs.), Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems, p. 25.

19_ XTP V ol. 70i No. 3324, pp. 34-73-4-7.

20. TTP. No. 3326, Vol. 70 (pp. 190-305); Vol. 71 (pp. 2-94-2-6).


tattvasamgraha-mahdydndbhisamaya-ndma-tantra-vydkhya-tattvdlokakari-ndma was translated by Thugs-qe-chen-po and Thags-pa-shes-rab under the title of Debzhin- gshegs-pa thams-cad-Icyi de-kho-na-nyid bsdus-pa theg-pa chen-po mngonpar rtogs-pa zhes-bya-ba ’i rgyud-kyi bshad-pa de-kho-na-nyid snang-bar byed-pa zhes-bya-ba.21 While Buddhaguhya's commentary provides a broad exposition of the theories and practices of the STTS, Sakyamitra's and Anandagarbha's commentaries are very extensive and explain in great detail the entire text of the STTS. Furthermore, in the introduction to his commentary, Anandagarbha gives an outline of the structure of the STTS.


4. Dates of the Texts


As the tantras are considered as being ‘Buddha-Word (Buddhavacana)’, they do not have human authors who could be dated, and since the actual dates of their compilations are not given either, it is difficult to establish the time of'their appearance in either oral or written forms. However, taking into account the scattered pieces of information, it is possible to establish at least an approximate date for the compilation of the STTS. The STTS itself contains no information about its author or the date of its compilation, and it does not contain any other information which could be helpful in establishing the exact date of its compilation. Nakamura Hajime maintains that Nagabodhi of South India is the author of the STTS, or if not, at least he is the one who completed it.22 His opinion is based on stories relating to Vajrabodhi, which will be assessed in the next section. The Sanskrit manuscript of the STTS which Yamada Isshi reproduced in a Romanized version was discovered and photographed by David Snellgrove and John Brough in Kathmandu, Nepal, in 1956. Snellgrove discusses the date of this Sanskrit manuscript in his introduction to the facsimile reproduction of the STTSP Snellgrove argues that the discovered bundle of Indian palm-leaves written in Brahmi-script had its origin in the 9th-10th century Bihar. However, this argument is only based on the antiquity of the manuscript.


While the Sanskrit version is difficult to date, it is relatively easy to date the Chinese translations of the STTS. When the Chinese translations of the STTS were made, they were dedicated to the emperors by the translators, and they included the names of the translators and the dates when the translations were made. Taking into account such information, we can attempt to estimate the dates of the first Sanskrit edition of the STTS. The Chinese translation of the entire text of the STTS was completed by Danapala between 1012 CE and 1015 CE during the Bei-song dynasty. Its contents can be regarded as being basically the same as the available Sanskrit version. So far as the biography of Danapala is concerned, there are no 21. TTP. No. 3333, Vol. 71 (pp. 134-301); Vol. 72 (pp. 2-152).


22. Nakamura Hajime, Indian Buddhism, p. 324.

23. David Snellgrove, Sarva-Tathagata-Tattva-Samgraha, Introduction, p. 5.


detailed records, but according to some Chinese sources, he arrived in China from northern India in 980 CE.24 If this is the case, then the Sanskrit version acquired by Danapala was composed at some date before 980 CE. The earlier and incomplete Chinese translation was completed by Amoghavajra (705-774 CE) in 753 CE during the Tang dynasty. His translation is very similar to the present Sanskrit version, but it contains only the first chapter, which is, however, the longest and most important of all the chapters. According to his biography, Amoghavajra25 left China in 741 CE, visited Ceylon and India, and then returned to China in 746 CE.


During his stay in Ceylon and India, he is said to have learned not only about the doctrines and rituals of the STTS, but also to have collected five hundred Sanskrit texts, including the STTS and its lineage texts. If we accept this information as reliable, then we can assume that the Sanskrit version of the STTS which he acquired had been already in existence before 741 CE. This, in turn, leads to the question whether the existing Sanskrit version is actually Amoghavajra's original work, the answer to which is found in two Chinese sources. Firstly, there is a letter dedicated to the emperor by Amoghavajra just before his death, in which, he writes

"... I travelled the five regions (of India)27 across the South Sea (of China). There I learned and collected not only the Vajrasekharayoga text consisting of one hundred thousand gathas, but also all the (five) families' mantras and sutras and commentaries which amounted approximately to five hundred thousand gathas. I hoped to translate them all in order to repay your benefits. However, without accomplishing my hope, I have suddenly arrived at the end of my life. This is my regret....”


24. See Takeuchi, K., “On the Translation o f Sutras in the Song period and Appendix: A Chronological Catalogue o f the Translations”, The Mikkyo Bunka, Vol. 113, 1975, pp. 27-53.


25. Amoghavajra (705-774 CE) was bom in a North Indian brahman family and his father died in his childhood. At fifteen, he became the disciple of Vajrabodhi (671-741 CE), and travelled with him to Srivijaya (Sumatra) and then on to China in 720 CE. He learned about Buddhism, especially about tantric doctrines and rituals under the instruction of Vajrabodhi, until Vajrabodhi’s death in 741 CE. After Vajrabodhi's death, he visited Sinhala (Ceylon) and India as the late Master had once ordered him to do. He learned about the doctrines o f the tantras of the STTS lineage and the rituals of the Mahavairocana sutra from the acarya, Nagabodhi (Samantabhadra) in Ceylon. Then, he returned to China with five hundred Sanskrit sutras and commentaries in 746 CE. From that time until his death, he spent most of his time translating and performing rites for members of the imperial family. After he had translated the Sanskrit texts into Chinese, he presented them (77 sections and 101 volumes) to the emperor in 771 CE. All of them were then included in the Chinese canon. (Chou Yiliang, “Tantrism in China”, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 8, pp. 241-332; Orzech, Charles D., “Amoghavajra”, The Encyclopaedia of Religion, Vol. 1, pp. 238-239; Sawa Ryuken (ed.), Mikkyo Jiten, p. 589).


26. See Zhen-yuan-xin-ding-shifiao-mu-lu, TSD. Vol. 55, No. 2157, p. 890-2-12-15; Dai-zongchao- zeng-si-kong-da-ban-zheng-guang-zhi-san-zang-he-shang-biao-zhi-ji, TSD. Vol. 52, No.

2120, p. 846-2-14-18.

27. According to the DoC (p. 116), the five regions of India indicate the north, south, east, west and central regions of India.


According to this letter, the whole collection of the Vajrasekhara sutra including the STTS might have already been in existence. However, so far no one has discovered the Sanskrit version of the Vajrasekhara sutra consisting of one hundred thousand gathas and the eighteen assemblies which Amoghavajra brought back from India and Ceylon. Furthermore, talcing into account the evidence provided in his letter which suggests that Amoghavajra did not translate the whole Vajrasekhara sutra or die complete STTS as its first assembly from Sanskrit into Chinese, it is rather difficult to believe in or affirm the existence of the


Vajrasekhara siitra and the complete STTS. However, different kinds of the STTS lineage texts may have existed when Amoghavajra visited India, which he collected. Furthermore, as already mentioned above, there is the evidence of the OEA VS text. The present Sanskrit version of the STTS consists of five parts, but the first assembly as described in the OEAVS consists of four parts. The OEAVS28 reads:- “The first assembly is called King of the Ordinance o f the Compendium o f Truth o f All the Tathagatas ([[Sarva-tathagata tattva- samgraha-kalpa-raja]]). It comprises four main parts: the first is called Vajra-sphere,29 the second is called [[Conquest of the Three Worlds]],30 die third is called Conversion of the Entire World and the fourth is called Universal Success.”


Relying on this evidence, Japanese scholars, such as Matsunaga Yukei,33 argue that Amoghavajra brought to China the Sanskrit version of the STTS consisting of only four parts, and that the fifth part was probably added later. A comparison of the above titles with the titles in the Sanskrit version shows they are not the same. The main titles of the first assembly in the OEA VS are based on the names of the maha~ mandalas of the first four parts, but the main titles of the present Sanskrit STTS are based on the four families, namely, Tathagata, Vajra, Dharma and Karma.


However, the subtitles of both texts focusing on the mandalas are mostly the same. The fifth part of the present Sanskrit STTS containing no mandala explains the secret methods of the various attainments (siddhi) corresponding to the four families, i.e. Tathagata, Vajra, Padma and Marti (or Ratna). This may be one of reasons that the OEAVS divides the STTS into four parts because it focuses on the mandalas in its analysis of the STTS. This classification of the STTS based on mandalas is also employed by the Tibetan commentator, Mlchas-grub-qe


(1385-1483 CE).34


28. TSD. Vol. 18, No. 869, p. 284-3-9-18.


29. Vajradhatu-mandala is described in S. part one (pp. 3-152).

30. Trailokyavijaya-mandala: S. part two (pp. 153-313).

31. Sakalajagadvinaya-mandala: S. part three (pp. 314-381).

32. Sarvarthasiddhi-mandala: S. part four (pp. 382-434).

33. Matsunaga Yukei, Miklcyo no ReJdshi, p. 67.

34. F.D. Lessing and Alex Wayman (trs.), Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems, p. 217.


So far as the subject matter of the first four parts are concerned, from a comparison of the first assembly with the present Sanskrit STTS, the descriptions of the four parts in the OEAVS are mostly the same as the four parts in the Sanskrit version except for the fifth part. However, there are some indications of the existence of the fifth part in the first assembly of the OEA VS. The closing section of the first assembly also includes a brief description which can be found in the fifth part of the present Sanskrit STTS. The OEAVS35 reads


“Next, (the text) completely explains the recitations of the verses about the secret-assistance-means (updya)36 of each mandala mentioned previously. Then it unfolds the enlightenment of the eight events of the Buddha's life as a Transformation-body (nirmanakaya) of the Buddha Sakyamuni manifested in Jambudvipa, All of these are the illusory transformations of the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra. All the Tathagatas praise again Vajrasattva with the one hundred and eight names. The first assembly has thus been explained.”


The fifth part of the Sanskrit STTS consists of four chapters, namely, chs. 23, 24, 25, 26-a and 26-b. Only chapter 23 contains the term upaya in its title. In chapters 23, 24 and 25, the STTS explains the methods of gaining the various attainments t (siddhiy), the secret-attainments (guhya-siddhi) and the higher secret-attainments (guhya-uttara-siddhi), which are connected with the four families or the four main mandalas described in the first four parts of the STTS. In addition, these three chapters are mostly composed in verse. Chapter 26-a of the STTS entitled Supreme Tantra (anuttara-tantra) is composed in prose and verse and deals with the rituals


devised for the attainments. In this chapter, we find a fourfold verse dealing with the upaya-siddhi,37 which can be regarded as the corresponding part of the above statement made in the OEA VS.


As in the above statement of the OEAVS, chapter 26-b, serving as an epilogue, describes the story of Sakyamuni's Enlightenment as follows:- “The Buddha Sakyamuni having become enlightened, approached his Seat of Enlightenment (bodhi-manda) under the Bodhi-tree from the summit of Mount Sumeru.... Having subjugated the Evil Ones (mara), he gained complete Enlightenment ([[anuttarasamyak- sambodhi]]). He praised firyn-Yajrapani residing in his heart with one hundred and eight names.... Then all the Tathagatas praised the Mahabodhisattva Vajrapani with one voice.”38 35. TSD. Vol. 18, No. 869, p. 286-1-21-25.

36. David Snellgrove asserts: “The term updya was firstly employed as a pair together with the term ‘wisdom’ (prajna) in Mahayana Buddhism. Then in Tantric Buddhism the dual concept of ‘two-in-one ’ expressed as Wisdom/Means, Voidness/Compassion, Female/Male, Lotus/ Vajra, was developed as the fundamental symbol and practice o f the Tantric-yoga.”


(David Snellgrove, Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, pp. 281-288).

37. S. pp. 533-8-534-7, T. p. 279-1-6-2-3, C2. p. 440-2-10-24.

3S. S. pp. 556-563, T. pp. 282-2-2-283-2-1, C2. pp. 444-1-13-445-2-1.


According to Donjaku in his commentary on the STTS from the Chinese translation (of Danapala) and the OEAVS, the first assembly (the STTS) explains in its concluding passages the skilful means {updya) of the secret-attainments of all the families. Furthermore, Donjaku explains the Enlightenment of the eight events of the Buddha's life as a (transformation) body of the Buddha Sakyamuni manifested in Jambudvipa as the illusory transformations of the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra.39 Taking into account the matters discussed above, the Sanskrit version acquired by Amoghavajra should be regarded as a foil version closely corresponding to the present Sanskrit STTS. Whenever there are some differences between them, they can be explained such differences by assuming that the present Sanskrit version has been revised at some later period and that its fifth part was subsequently expanded. Therefore, the first edition of the STTS which basically corresponds to the present Sanskrit version was completed in the early eighth century CE.


In addition to the translated versions of Danapala and Amoghavajra, extant in the Chinese canon is the oldest Chinese version by Vajrabodhi (Chinese Jin-gangzhi), Al which shows the earliest stage of the STTS. The Chinese title of this text Jingang- ding-yu-qie-zhong-liie-chu-nian-song-jingf2 is translated into English as Recitation-sutra abridged from the Vajrasekhara-yoga. This Recitation-sutra was translated from the Sanskrit into Chinese in 723 CE. The Sanskrit version of Vajrabodhi definitely existed before 720 CE because Vajrabodhi brought this version of the text into China in 720 CE. The contents of Vajrabodhi's version may be compared briefly with those of Amoghavajra, Danapala and the present Sanskrit versions. The Recitation-sutra begins with the following salutation:- “... I salute the One (Vairocana) whose Body, Speech and Mind Vajra penetrated into the three realms, and who became the sovereign and expounded the Vajradhatu, and I also salute


39. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, p. 124-1-20-23.


40. The few minor differences between the OEAVS and the STTS are found in the STTS chapters 6 and 9. All such differences have been indicated in the relevant chapters. See footnote no. 34 of chapter 6 and introductory section of chapter 9.


41. Vajrabodhi (671-741 CE) was bom into a South Indian brahman family. He became a monk in Nalanda Monastery at the age of ten and studied the sabdavidya under Master Santijnana. At the age of fifteen, he went to West India, where he studied Dharmakirti's sastra for four years, and then returned to Nalanda where he studied the sutras, abhidharma and so on. He was fully ordained at the age of twenty. Again he went to West India to study the Hinayana treatises and the doctrine of yoga, ‘The Three Mysteries’ and dharani. Leaving India, he travelled to Ceylon and Srivijaya (Sumatra), where he was apparently taught a Vajrayana tradition distinct from that taught at Nalanda. From Srivijaya, he sailed to China and arrived

at the capital of the Tang dynasty in 720 CE. He was accompanied by his soon-to-be-famous disciple Amoghavajra. From that time to his death, he spent most of his time in ritual activity, in translating texts and in the production of esoteric art. (Chou Yi-liang: “Tantrism in China”, Harvard Journal o f Asiatic Studies, Vol. 8, pp. 241-332; Orzech, Charles D., “ Vajrabodhi", The Encyclopaedia o f Religion, Vol. 15, p. 181; Sawa Ryuken (ed.): Mildtyo Jiten, p. 241).

42. TSD. Vol. 18, No. 866, pp. 223-2-22-253-3-10.


Aksobhya, Amitabha, Vajrasattva, Akasagarbha, Avalokitesvara and Visvakarma.”


However, the Sanskrit STTS begins with the standard introductory statement, “Thus have I heard, at one time, the Lord was staying in the abode of the king of the Akanistha gods.” Throughout the entire Recitation-sutra, there is no indication of the name of the speaker explaining the doctrine. However, Vajrabodhi learned the doctrine of the STTS from his master Nagabodhi, so this Recitation-sutra might have been composed by Nagabodhi.


After the opening salutations, the Recitation-sutra continues as follows:- “I will briefly explain the doctrine of the Supreme Secret of the Truth gathered by all the Tathagatas, which is derived from The Ordinance-ldng o f Great Yoga o f the Vajrasekhara consisting of one hundred thousand gathas, for the purpose of guiding the yoga-practitioner towards accomplishing the method of yoga.”


Taking into consideration the above statement we can assume that the Recitation sutra constitutes an abridged version of the full Vajrasekhara sutra consisting of one hundred thousand gathas. However, the Recitation-sutra does not mention the eighteen assemblies. The statement that the Vajrasekhara sutra consists of eighteen assemblies was mentioned not by Vajrabodhi, but by Amoghavajra. Furthermore, the Recitation-sutra contains the descriptions of the thirty-seven deities These descriptions can be regarded as being mostly the same as found in the Sanskrit STTS. In addition to that, the Recitation-sutra contains the same mantras as the Sanskrit STTS employed in ‘the five consecutive stages of perfect enlightenment


(panca-abhisambodhi). However, there are some differences between these two texts. While the Sanskrit STTS describes the five abhisambodhis following a systematic structure which consists of five mantras only and brief accompanying explanations, the Recitation-sutra inserts some mantras and mudras both between the third and fourth mantras and between the fourth and fifth mantras. Thus the Recitation-sutra contains a more elaborate procedure and additional mantras in connection with the five abhisambodhis. Finally, the Recitation-sutra appears to be a kind of tantric manual rather than a standard sutra because it does not describe any historical background and focuses mainly on the detailed exposition of tantric rituals such as the construction mandalas, the performance of consecrations, as well


43. Ibid., pp. 223-2-26-3-11. 44. Nakamura Hajime, Indian Buddhism, p. 324. 45. TSD. Vol. 18, No. 866, pp. 223-3-12-14. 46. TSD. Vol. 18, No. 866, pp. 227-3-9-236-3-16. Cf. S. pp. 11-58, C l. pp. 208-2-9-216-1-9, C2. pp. 342-2-29-351-2-14, T. pp. 220-3-3-228-4-6.


The thirty-seven deities include the five Tathagatas, i.e. Vairocana, Aksobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha (or Lokesvararaja) and Amoghasiddhi, the sixteen Mahabodhisattvas, the four Paramitas, the four Internal Offerings, the four External Offerings and the four Guardians. With regard to the descriptions of the five Tathagatas, they are not the same in the Recitation-sutra and the STTS. The former gives a more detailed explanation, but the explanations of the other thirty-two deities are largely the same.


as the execution of homa rites. Furthermore, it seems that it employs a direct method of teaching person to person, master to pupil. Therefore, it is possible that the full version of the STTS might have developed gradually from tantric manuals such as the Recitation-siitra and that eventually it reached its present format as a standard sutra. Taking into account the similarities in many parts between the Recitation-sutra and the STTS, most Japanese scholars assert that the Sanskrit version of the Recitation-sutra may have been the earlier version of Amoghavajra's Sanskrit version, and that it should be considered as the oldest alternative version of the STTS. However, this does not mean that it can be regarded as the first version of the present STTS.


With respect to the date of the Tibetan translation of the STTS, most scholars argue that it was translated in the early eleventh century because one of its two translators was Rin-chen-bzang-po, who lived between 958 CE and 1055 CE. The possible dates of the present STTS depend on assumed dates of the Indian commentaries. As mentioned above, there are three major commentators Buddhaguhya, 6akyamitra and Anandagarbha, from whose dates the date of the fully developed version of the STTS can be deduced. Although the fully-fledged biographies of these three commentators are not available, certain texts provide biographical information.

Concerning Buddhaguhya, there is a general agreement between scholars that he was a famous tantric master active in the eighth century. According to the Tibetan Lama Taranatha, Buddhaguhya lived during die period of the Indian king


Dharmapala (770-810 CE or 775-812 CE),49 a contemporary of the Tibetan king, Khri-srong-lde-btsan, who ruled from 755 CE to 797 CE.50 King Khri-srong-lde- 47. Taranatha, History o f Buddhism in India, pp. 274-283.

rGya-gar-chos- ’byung (History o f Buddhism in India) written by the Tibetan Lama Taranatha in 1608 CE gives some information about the lives of Buddhist masters in India, particularly those relevant to Tibetan teaching lineages.


48. The contemporaries of Buddhaguhya included the great logician Kalyan Gupta, Haribhadra, Sundaravyuha, Sagaramegha, Prabhakara, Purnavardhana, the great vajracharya Buddhajnanapada and his disciple Buddhasanti, and in Kashmir, the acarya Padmakaraghosa, the logician Dharmakaradatta and Simhamukha, the expert in Vinaya. Buddhaguhya and Buddhasanti were disciples of the acarya Buddhajnanapada. (Taranatha, History o f Buddhism in India, pp. 276-277).


49. The above dates given for Dharmapala are provided by David Seyfort Ruegg. In his opinion, Dharmapala ruled for thirty-seven or forty years. (David Seyfort Ruegg, The Literature o f the Madhyamaka School o f Philosophy in India, p. 101 and footnote). But Taranatha says that Dharmapala ruled for sixty-four years. (Taranatha, History of Buddhism in India, p. 274). 50. Alaka Chattopadhyaya maintains that concerning the reigning period of the Tibetan king [[Khrisrong- lde-btsan]], there is a difference between Tibetan and Chinese historians. ’Gos lo-tsa-ba (1392-1481 CE) asserts that Khri-srong-lde-btsan ruled from 755 CE to 780 CE, then his son, Mu-ne-btsan-po ruled from 780 CE to 797 CE, and then Ju-tse-btsan-po ruled from 797 CE to 804 CE. (George N. Roerich (trs,), The Blue Annals, pp. 51-52). However, according to Chinese annals, Khri-sron-lde-btsan ruled from 755 CE to 797 CE, and then Mu-ne-btsanpo ruled from 797 CE to 804 CE. (Alaka Chattopadhyaya, Atisa and Tibet, pp. 212-265).


btsan invited Buddhaguhya to Tibet, but Buddhaguhya declined the invitation.51 Thus, it would seem certain that Buddhaguhya lived in the late eighth century CE, and that the complete STTS was composed before that time since Buddhaguhya wrote a commentary on it. However, Buddhaguhya's commentary is relatively brief and deals mainly with doctrines of the five abhisambodhis and the thirty-seven deities. Furthermore, it does not comment on the text, sentence by sentence, like the other two commentaries, nor does it refer to or speak about the whole text like Anandagarbha. Therefore, it cannot be assumed with any degree of certainty that the STTS existed in his time in the format in which it was available to the other


commentators and in which it is now known to us. Thus, it is necessary to seek and establish the dates of Sakyamitra and Anandagarbha whose commentaries provide detailed expositions of the teachings of the whole STTS. Unfortunately, the dates of these two commentators are not fixed and remain open to conjecture. Scholars have different opinions regarding Sakyamitra and Anandagarbha. Alex Wayman suggests that both Sakyamitra and Anandagarbha may be only tentatively placed in the tenth century, just prior to the translation of their works into Tibetan.52 On the other hand, there are scholars such as Matsunaga Yukei, who argue that all three Indian commentators were contemporary masters of Yoga-Tantra schools in the eighth century. Similar dates and explanations are given in the Mikkyo Jiten (p. 11). This source also maintains that Anandagarbha was contemporary with


Buddhaguhya and Sakyamitra, and that all three of them lived in the eighth century. According to the Tibetan historian Taranatha, there were two Sakyamitras. The first Sakyamitra is said to have been a disciple of the acarya Nagarjuna,54 but no concrete information is available about his life.55 The second Sakyamitra is the one who wrote a commentary on the STTS. He lived during the reign of the Indian king Devapala, and was a disciple of the acarya Sakyaprabha. According to Taranatha, since Sakyamitra composed his commentary on the STTS in Kosala, he called it Kosalalamkara. In the latter part of his life, he went to Kashmir and intensively worked for the welfare of the living beings.56 Thus, in order to calculate the dates of Sakyamitra, we need to establish the dates of the Indian king Devapala and of the acarya Sakyaprabha. Taranatha says that king Devapala ruled for forty-eight years, his son Rasapala ruled for twelve years, and Rasapala's son was Dharmapala


51. Taranatha, History of Buddhism in India, p. 282.

52. F.D. Lessing and Alex Wayman (trs.), Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems, pp.

24~25, footnote.

53. Matsunaga Yukei, Mikity o no Rekishi, p 68.

54. ’Gos lo-tsa-ba also gives the same information about Sakyamitra as a disciple of Nagarjuna. He mentions that the acarya Nagarjuna, who was a disciple of Saraha, had four chief disciples, namely, Sakyamitra, Aryadeva, Nagabodhi and Candrakirti. (George N. Roerich (trs.), The Blue Annals, pp. 359-360).


55. Taranatha, History o f Buddhism in India, p. 128. 56. Ibid., pp. 268-270.


(770-810 CE or 775-812 CE) who ruled for sixty-four years. The acarya Sakyaprabha lived during the time of Gopala who ruled prior to Devapala. In the light of this information, Sakyamitra probably lived between the late seventh and early eighth centimes. However, the veracity of Taranatha's chronology is undermined by Bu-ston who states in his history that Devapala was the grandson of Dharmapala and the father of Mahipala. Maurice Wintemitz states that Sakyamitra is mentioned by Taranatha as a contemporary of Devapala of Bengal (about 850 CE).59 Keith Dowman also mentions that King Devapala ruled between 810 CE and 840 CE.60 On the basis of this evidence, Sakyamitra was active in the middle of the ninth century.


Concerning the dates of Anandagarbha, Toganoo Shoun argues that he lived in the tenth century and wrote two commentaries on the STTS, the Tattvaloka, as already mentioned above, and tire Vajradhatu-mahamandalapayika,62 which describes the rites that deal with the worship and consecration of the Vajradhdtumandala. However, Taranatha claims Anandagarbha lived during the reign of Mahipala who died in the same year as the Tibetan king Ral-pa-can (814-836 CE or 817-836 CE).63 Anandagarbha, therefore, belongs to the early ninth century. From the above pieces of information about the dates of Sakyamitra mid Anandagarbha, it is evident that there is no agreement between the available sources and scholars. However, it seems reasonable to assume that both Sakyamitra and Anandagarbha lived in the early ninth century because their commentaries cover the whole of the STTS and are fully-fledged compositions, and are probably later than Buddhaguhya's commentary. An additional argument is that when comparing the commentaries of Sakyamitra and Anandagarbha, the latter was composed on the basis of Sakyamitra's commentary.


Vajrabodhi's version of the STTS, which belongs to the late seventh century, appears incomplete and Amoghavajra's version, which belongs to the middle of the eighth century, is no more than the first compilation of the STTS. In addition, Amoghavajra never mentions the three Indian commentaries by Buddhaguhya, Sakyamitra and Anandagarbha, which were not translated into Chinese. There is a


57. Ibid., pp. 271-274.

5S. Ibid., p. 266, footnote; Bu-ston, History o f Buddhism, Part II, pp. 156-158.

59. Maurice Wintemitz, History of Indian Literature, Vol. II, p 382.

60. Keith Dowman, Masters of Mahamudra, p. 50.

6h Toganoo Shoun, Kongocholcyo no Kenlcyu, Toganoo Shoun Zenshu, Extra Vol. Ill, pp. 11—13.

62. TTP. Vol. 74, No. 3339, pp. 2-25-2-8.


63. Taranatha, History o f Buddhism in India, pp. 284-287.


According to Taranatha, Masuraksita, a son-in-law of king Dharmapala, ruled for about eight years, Vanapala, a son of king Dharmapala, ruled for about ten years, and Mahipala, the son of king Vanapala, ruled for fifty-two years. The time of the death of this king was the same as that of the Tibetan king [[Khri-ral (Ral-pa-can). The Tibetan king Ral-pa-can, from 814 CE to 836 CE according to ’Gos lo-tsa-ba, (George N. Roerich (trs.), The Blue Annals, pp. 52-53), but in the Chinese annals he ruled from 817 CE to 836 CE. (Alaka Chattopadhyaya, Atisa and Tibet, pp. 250-265).


possibility that there existed different persons who had the same names or that the commentaries were composed by the disciples of the commentators under the names of their masters.


5. Origin of the Sarvatathagatatattvasamgraha


Just as the Prajnaparamita sutras are said to have consisted of one hundred thousand gathas, similar legends regarding die STTS appear in the Chinese canon. The account which describes the origin of the STTS is given in a text called [[Jingang- ding-jing~da-yu-qie-mi-mi-xin-di-fa-men-yi-jue]], translated into English as Secret of the Meaning of the Doctrine of the Esoteric Mind of the Great Yoga of the Vajrasekhara sutra. The introductory paragraph of this text reads "The Vajrasekhara sutra has an extensive version consisting of one hundred thousand gathas. (maybe Amoghavajra) have never heard of it, and since it encapsulates aspects of the very profound and esoteric phenomenal world of all the Buddhas and Mahabodhisattvas, the Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, gods and men cannot hear or understand it with their humble knowledge. The two volumes of the Brahmajala sutra which originated from this sutra contain only the most simple aspects (of the Vajrasekhara sutra). The profound aspect (of the Vajrasekhara sutra) is


basically too difficult (for me) to understand. The abridged yogatext (of the Vajrasekhara sutra) was explained and handed down by someone who was initiated in India, but its extensive version was not transmitted. The version in one hundred thousand gathas is the second short text in the Bodhisattva-pitaka. According to the acarya (maybe Vajrabodhi), the large collection of the Vajrasekhara sutra, whose size was as wide and as long as a bed and whose thickness was approximately fifteen metres, contained countless gathas. For several hundred years after the death of the Buddha, it was preserved inside an iron stupa in Southern India, which nobody could open due to it being sealed behind an iron gate and locked with an iron key. However, when the influence of


64. TSD. Vol. 39, No. 1798, pp. 808-821.

65. The real author of this text will never be known

. In its introductory part, an important word is


used, that is, the acarya (maybe Vajrabodhi), which may be closely related to the author of the text. Toganoo Shoun (Kongochdkyo no Kenlcyu, Toganoo Shoun Zenshu, Extra Vol. m , pp. 3~4) maintains that Vajrabodhi translated this text (from Sanskrit into Chinese), and that Amoghavajra wrote it down. In contrast, although the tradition (since Kukai) attributes the dictation of this text to Vajrabodhi and written down by Amoghavajra, Matsunaga Yukei (Mikkyo no Reldshi, p. 65) asserts that it might have been composed by somebody else at a later period because there is no mention of this text in the biography o f Amoghavajra or other related texts. One sentence in the introductory paragraph of the text states: “The abridged yoga-text (of the Vajrasekhara sutra) was explained and handed down by someone who was initiated in India.” The author of the above text, therefore, could have been the master of Vajrabodhi, i.e. Nagabodhi, and also that he could have been one of the authors of the STTS. Nakamura Hajime {Indian Buddhism, pp. 323-324) maintains that the STTS appeared in South India later than the Mahavairocana sutra and Nagabodhi of South India is said to be its author or at least the one who completed it.


Buddhism declined in India, there lived a bhadanta.66 First of all, this bhadanta recited the mantras of Mahavairocana, whereupon the Buddha Vairocana appeared to him, manifested in his Body and in many of his Bodies. Then, in the sky (Vairocana) explained die doctrines and verses of this (Vajrasekhara sutra). Next, (Vairocana) induced the bhadanta to write them down. As soon as they were completely written down, Vairocana disappeared. (These doctrines and verses) formed a single volume which became known as ‘The Secret of the Recitation-Method of

Vairocana’. Through reciting the mantras, the bhadanta hoped to open the stupa. He circumambulated the stupa for seven days while reciting mantras. Then, he knocked at the gate of the stupa with seven white mustard seeds, and at last it opened. However, all the guardians inside the stupa were furious and prevented him from entering it. He glanced inside the stupa, which was filled with brightly lit lamps and contained various flowers, jewels and gems. He also heard sounds of praise for this sutra-king. It was then that the bhadanta sincerely repented for his sins and made a great vow (to save all living beings). It was only then that he was allowed to enter into the stupa. As soon as he entered, the stupa closed. Although it seemed to him that he was there for a short time, he spent several days and nights in the stupa praising an


extensive version (Vajrasekhara sutra consisting of one hundred thousand gathas) of this sutra Adn wholeheartedly. He also obtained teachings from all the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, and made an effort to memorise them all in order not to forget them. As soon as the bhadanta came out from the stupa, the gate was locked as before. He then wrote down all the teachings from memory and they amounted to one hundred thousand gathas. This siitra became named Vajrasekhara sutra, but the large collection (consisting of countless gathas) inside the stupa which contained the Bodhisattva-/?zta/ca became inaccessible to the world again, although the brightness of the lamps inside the stupa has persisted up until the present time.”67


66. According to the MW (p. 745), the Sanskrit term bhadanta is a term o f respect applied to a Buddhist or a Buddhist mendicant. The BHS (p. 405) translates it as a venerable or reverend person. According to the DoC (p. 88), it is translated as ‘Da-de’ in Chinese, which literally means most virtuous and it is also used either as a title of honour for a Buddha or a title applied to monks in the Vinaya.

67. TSD. Vol. 39, No. 1798, p. 808-1-17-2-14.


Based upon the above story and Vajrabodhi story, the Japanese commentator, Donjaku, states: “There were three versions of the Vajrasekhara sutra inside the iron stupa. The first version was the large collection of the Vajrasekhara sutra, containing countless gathas, whose size was as wide and as long as a bed and whose thickness was approximately fifteen metres; the second was the extensive version consisting of one hundred thousand gathas which was memorised and written down by a bhadanta', the third was an abridged version consisting o f four thousand gathas which was brought into China by Vajrabodhi.” (TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, pp. 123-2-13-124-1-5).


The above legend provides two pieces of useful information. Firstly, the majority of Japanese scholars argue that the STTS, which is regarded as a part of the Vajrasekhara sutra, originated in Southern India. In addition, the commentator Sakyamitra is said to have also learned the doctrines of the STTS at Konkana and Sahya in Southern India. Thus, Southern India might have been die place where the STTS originated and where there was a teaching centre which propagated the doctrine of the STTS. Secondly, the Sanskrit term bhadanta (Chinese Da-de) is a


general term of respect which is given to honoured Buddhist mendicants and not a proper name. According to the commentary of Donjaku,69 Vajrabodhi states: “After the death of the Buddha, there was one bhadanta called Nagarjuna.70 He received According to Adrian Snodgrass in The Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas in Shingon Buddhism (pp. 111~113), based upon modem Japanese scholarly works such as Toganoo Shoun's Mandara no kenkyu, there are several interpretations of the above legend in Japan. According to Snodgrass, "Some Shingon scholars take the story literally and identify the iron stupa with some actual Southern Indian stupa such as Amaravati, or they interpret it as an illusion created by the divine powers o f Mahavairocana. A more traditional view sees the story as an expression in symbolic form of the descending stages in the revelation of

Awakening. Mahavairocana personifies perfected Buddhahood as it abides immutable, absolute, unconditioned and self-contained within its own nature in the Diamond World ( Vajra-dhatu). The stupa, as the samaya-form of Mahavairocana, equates to his Dharma Body; it embodies the Awakening that is innate within the mind of living beings. The bhadanta's entry into the iron stupa is the realisation of this innate Bodhicitta (Thought of Enlightenment); it is the revelation of his fundamental and inherent Buddha-Nature. The gate

of the stupa represents the obstacles of ignorance, delusion and passion that obstruct the realisation o f one's innate Buddhahood. The bhadanta's circumambulation of the stupa is a performance of meditational rituals. The seven white mustard seeds which he used to knock at the gate o f the stupa are the seeds of the Bodhicitta which, cultivated by the practice of ritual, grow to perfected Buddhahood; his entry into the stupa is a merging with the Dharma Body

of the Tathagata, and his re-emergence from the stupa is his return to the state of ‘fundamental Awakening’, the state in which Awakening is once more innate within his mind. According to a complementary interpretation, the bhadanta's entry into the iron stupa refers to esoteric meditational practices, in which the sadhaka visualises a symbol (in this case the stupa) and draws it into his mind, where he merges it with his body: i.e., he literally incorporates the symbol. The bhadanta's entry into the iron stupa is a meditational visualisation of this order. The iron stupa is the stupa of the Dharma World (Dhannadhdtu), created as an illusion by the divine power of Mahavairocana and used by the bhadanta as am object of meditation in order to gain the Knowledge of the Universal Dharma World. Having attained this Knowledge in samadhi, the bhadanta recorded it in the esoteric sutras


6S. Matsunaga Yukei, Mikkyo no Reldshi, p 68.

69. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, p. 126-2-12-15.

70. According to the available information in the STTS and the Prajnaparamita sutras, both texts were discovered by Nagarjuna. According to Taranatha {History o f Buddhism in India, p. 110), Nagarjuna lived for either five hundred and twenty-nine years or five hundred and seventy-one years. However, modem scholars, such as David S. Ruegg {The Literature o f the Madhyamaka School o f Philosophy in India, pp. 4-9; pp. 104-108), argue that there were two Nagarjuna. The first was bom in South-Central India perhaps in the second century and was the founder of the Madhyamaka school which is closely related with the Prajnaparamita sutras and the Madhyamika Sastra text. The second was a tantric master, the arya Nagarjuna,

who lived in the seventh century. He probably composed the Bodhicitta-vivarana, the commentary on the Guhyasamaja (the Tantratika) and the Pahcalcrama. Benoytosh Bhattacharyya (An Introduction to Buddhist Esoterism, pp. 62-68) also asserts that the tantric Nagarjuna (645 CE) was a disciple of the early tantric master, Sahara (633 CE).


the consecration and empowerment of Sattva, memorised the secret doctrine, and then proclaimed it to all human beings.” We can also infer from the next story who could have been regarded as the bhadanta.


“At the age of thirty-one (702 CE), Vajrabodhi went to Southern India where he met Nagabodhi who was seven hundred years old and a disciple of Nagarjuna. Although seven hundred years old, Nagabodhi looked young. Vajrabodhi attended on Nagabodhi as his master for seven years and learned from him the

Vajrasekhara Yoga sutra, the doctrine of Vairocana-dharani, the Mahayana sutras and the five sciences (pahca-vidya). Then he received the fivefold consecration (panca-abhiseka)71 and could understand completely all the esoteric doctrines of Buddhism. After this, he returned to Central India.”72


Basing their studies on this story, scholars such as Nakamura Hajime 73 and Hirakawa Akira assert that the first version of the STTS was composed around 680-690 CE. This story has also generated a tradition among Japanese tantric Buddhists that the doctrine of tantric Buddhism was transmitted from Mahavairocana to Vajrasattva, and then in sequence through Nagarjuna to Nagabodhi, Vajrabodhi, Amoghavajra and so forth. Following the Japanese tantric tradition, we can assume that Nagarjuna, the master of Nagabodhi might in fact


have been the bhadanta mentioned in the above account. The Japanese commentator Kukai also asserts that both the Vajrasekhara sutra (the STTS) and the Mahavairocana sutra found or seen within the iron stupa were memorised and written down by Nagarjuna. Donjaku also recognises it as a fact that Nagarjuna opened the iron stupa, and was initiated by Vajrasattva personally while inside the stupa 76 However, the Nagarjuna referred to by these scholars must be the second tantric Nagarjuna who lived in the seventh century. Concerning the age of Nagabodhi, there are two possibilities. The above text reads


“At the age of thirty-one, Vajrabodhi went to Southern India, where he met Nagabodhi who was seven hundred years old and a disciple of Nagarjuna. Although Nagabodhi was seven hundred years old, he looked young.”


7h The Sanskrit term pahca-abhiselca means consecrations of the five families of the Vajradhatu, which consist of Buddha-, Vajra-, Padma-, Ratna- and Karma -families.


72. Zhen-yuan-xin-ding-shi-jiao-mu-lu. (TSD. Vol. 55, No. 2157, p. 875-2-9-14). This paragraph was also translated into English by Chou Yi-liang. (“[[Tantrism] in China]]”, Harvard Journal o f Asiatic Studies, Vol. 8, Appendix F, pp. 313-314).


73. Nakamura Hajime, Indian Buddhism, p. 324.

74. Hirakawa Akira, “Buddhist Literature', Survey of Texts”, The Encyclopaedia of Religion, Vol.

2, pp. 504-529.

75. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2222, p. 7-1-8-10.

76. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, p. 120-3-12-26; p. 126-1-20-28.


The first possibility is that the biographer made a mistake and recorded Nagabodhi as being seven hundred years old instead of seventy years old because he confused the tantric Nagarjuna who lived in the seventh century with the Madhyamaka Nagarjuna who lived perhaps in the second century because there is no Sanskrit or Tibetan record mentioning the fact that Nagabodhi lived for seven hundred years unlike Nagarjuna whose age is recorded in some texts as six or seven hundred years. It seems that there probably existed two Nagabodhis just as there existed two Nagarjuna; the first Nagabodhi was a disciple of tire first Madhyamaka Nagarjuna and the second Nagabodhi was a disciple of the second tantric Nagarjuna.


Concerning the biography of Nagabodhi, Taranatha mentions that “Nagabodhi was bom into a brahman family of Bharigala in the east. He became a disciple of the acharya Nagarjuna, received ordination, and became a master of the three pitakas. He served the acharya Nagarjuna for as long as Nagarjuna lived. After the death of his master, he sat in a deep cave and as a result of concentrated meditation for twelve years, he attained the mahamudra siddhi. He had two different names, Nagabodhi and Nagabuddhi (alias Nagamati).”77 According to ’Gos lo-tsa-ba, the acharya Nagarjuna who was a disciple of Saraha had four chief disciples, namely, Satyamitra, Aryadeva, Nagabodhi and Candrakirti.78 According to Bu-ston, Nagabodhi composed the Guhyasamaja-mandala-vidhi, the Panca-krama-tika and many other works


The second possibility is that the biographer recorded the age of Nagabodhi as seven hundred years old purposely in order to establish the origin of the STTS within Mahayana Buddhism and to attribute the authority of their doctrine to Nagarjuna who lived in the second century. David S. Ruegg argues “The Indo- Tibetan records frequently identify some tantric masters, namely, the arya Nagarjuna, Nagabodhi, Candrakirti-pada, Aryadeva-pada and (later) Shantideva, with the illustrious teachers of the earlier Madhyamaka school whose names they bore, and to whom these records accordingly ascribe extraordinarily long life-spans. However, at the same time, these records often differentiate very clearly between distinct phases in these masters' teachings—such as the so-called Sutra-system and Mantra-system—-so that the identification of these masters did not in fact necessarily result in confusion by the doxographers of distinct doctrines.”80 Finally, there is another story which explains why Vajrabodhi did not succeed in bringing the whole of the Vajrasekhara sutra into China.


Vajrabodhi said: ‘Having started from South India, I was sailing via the South Sea in a fleet of approximately thirty large ships. On


77. Taranatha, History o f Buddhism in India, p. 127.

7S. George N. Roerich (trs.), The Blue Annals, pp. 359~360.

-f 79. Bu-ston, History o f Buddhism, Part II, p. 132.

80. David Seyfort Ruegg, The Literature o f the Madhyamaka School o f Philosophy in India, p. 106.


each ship there were some five or six hundred people. One day, while those ships were crossing the ocean, they met with high winds. All the ships, along with the people on board, began to sink into the sea, and the ship on which I found myself also appeared to be sinking. In those days, I always carried the collections of the two basic sutras (the Mahavairocana and Vajrasekhara sutras) near me so as to be able to retain and worship the Buddha's teaching. However, the Captain of the ship,


thinking that at any moment the ship would go completely under, ordered everyone on board to throw everything into the sea. In that instant, I was very frightened and forgot to hold onto the sutratexts. Therefore, (the Vajrasekhara sutra consisting of) one hundred thousand gathas was thrown into the sea, and only its abridged version remained on board. Then, in my mind, I decided to perform the propitiatory rite (santika) in my mind whereupon the high winds stopped. ... Subsequently, I arrived in China.’”


If we accept the above story as a plausible fact, we could assume that the whole of the Vajrasekhara sutra was already composed before Vajrabodhi arrival in China. On the other hand if further compilations were still in progress in India, Vajrabodhi could not have carried the whole text to China. Thus, Amoghavajra visited Ceylon and India in order to search for the entire text in accordance with die will of Vajrabodhi.


It is a well known pattern in Buddhist history that whenever new doctrines distinct from the existing doctrines were established, their founders introduced appropriate legends or stories in order to avoid having their doctrines regarded as heterodox and also in order to establish their authority. There was no exception in the case of the Yoga-Tantra. As the doctrine of the Yoga-Tantra developed on the basis of the Madhyamika and Yogacara doctrines, the Yoga-Tantra Buddhists hied to present their doctrine as an expanded form of Mahayana Buddhism having the same authority as Mahayana Buddhism. Having accepted the theory of the Buddha Bodies, they attributed the origin of their doctrine to Sakyamuni Buddha as Vairocana.


6. General Structure of the Sarva Tathagata Tattva Samgraha


The structure of the STTS is explained in the first section of the OEA VS and the Dou-bu-tuo-luo-ni-muA2 These two texts, translated into Chinese by Amoghavajra, provide similar expositions of the structure and basic content of the STTS. The structural analysis given in these two works is correlated with the basic structure of the Sanskrit and Tibetan versions of the STTS.

The OEA VS reads

81. Jin-gang-ding-jing-da-yu-qie-mi-mi-xin-di-ja-men-yi-jue, TSD. Vol. 39, No. 1798, p. 808-2- 15-25.

82. TSD. Vol. 18, No. 903, pp. 898-3-1-900-1-19.


"The first assembly is called King of the Ordinance of the Compendium of Truth of All the Tathagatas. It comprises four main parts which are called:-

1. Vajradhatu (Fh/ra-sphere),


2. Trilokavijaya (Conquest of the Three Worlds),

3. Sakala-jagad-vinaya (Conversion of the Entire World),

4. Sarva-artha-siddhi (Universal Success).

These four parts manifest the four knowledge-w?wt/ras (catur jnana-mudra) f ’87 As already discussed, the first assembly of the OEA VS refers to the STTS in its currently known format, and its title as given in the OEA VS may be reconstructed into Sanskrit as Sarva-tathagata-tattva-samgraha-kalpa-rdja. The title as given in the Sanskrit version is Sarva-tathagata-tattva-samgraha ndma Mahayana-sutra. As it can be seen instead of the words kalpa-raja, the Sanskrit title has Mahayana Sutra. However, the words kalpa-raja are included in the titles of the first four parts of the Sanskrit version. As already discussed above, the Sanskrit version comprises the following five parts

I. Sarva-tathagata-mahdydndbhisamaya ndma Mahd-kalpa-rdja.

II. Sarva-tathagata-vajra-samaya ndma Mahd-kalpa-rdja.

III. Sarva-tathagata-dharma-samaya ndma Mahd-kalpa-rdja.

IV. Sarva-tathagata-karma-samaya ndma Maha-kalpa-rdja.

V. Tantra, Uttara-tantra and Anuttara-tantra of the Sarva Tathagata-tattva-samgraha ndma Mahayana-sutra.89


The title of the first part in the OEAVS refers to part one of the Sanskrit version which is divided into five chapters. The title of this part as given in the OEAVS is Vajradhatu while in the Sanskrit version the title of part one is King o f the Great Ordinance Called Mahayana Realisation o f All the Tathagatas. The title given in the OEAVS appears to be clearly derived from the first chapter of the Sanskrit version, which in fact constitutes the major portion of part one, and which deals with Vajradhatu Mahamandala. The next three chapters in the Sanskrit version

83. Vajradhatu-mandala: S. part one, pp. 3-152, T. pp. 218-239-2-8, C2. pp. 341-369-2-22.

84. Trailokyavijaya-mandala: S. part two, pp. 153-313, T. pp. 239-2-8-254-4-2, C2. pp. 369-3- 1-399-1-2.

85. Sakalajagadvinaya-mandala: S. part three, pp. 314-381, T. pp. 254-4-2-261-1-7, C2. pp. 399-1-3-411-3-21.

86. Sarvarthasiddhi-mandala: S. part four, pp. 382-434, T. pp. 261-1-8-266-3-3, C2. pp. 411-3- 22-423-1-14.

87. TSD. Vol. 18, No. 869, p. 284-3-16-19.


88. According to David Snellgrove, the term raja is often added to the titles of major tantras. The term kalpa is clearly used in the same sense as in the last of the six Veddngas, namely as ‘that which lays down the ritual and prescribed rules for ceremonial and sacrificial acts’. (David Snellgrove, Sarva-Tathagata-Tattva-Samgraha, Introduction, pp. 7-9). 89. See the contents of Yamada Isshi (ed.), Sarva-Tathagata-Tattva-Samgraha Ndma Mahayana-Sutra. Concerning the title of part five of the STTS, David Snellgrove omits ‘ Tantra, Uttaratantra and Anuttara-tantra'. (David Snellgrove, Sarva-Tathagata-Tattva-Sangraha, Introduction, p. 7).


deal with Hie rites relating to Vajra Guhya Vajra Mandala, Vajrayana Dharma Mandala and Vajrakaya Karma Mandala. The fifth and final chapter of part one serves as an epilogue.

The title of the second part as given in the OEAVS refers to part two of the Sanskrit version which in the Sanskrit version is called [[King of the Great Ordinance Called Vajra-Pledge of All the Tathagatas]]. Part two of the Sanskrit version is divided into nine chapters. The name of this part as given in the OEA VS broadly corresponds to the name of chapter 6 in the Sanskrit edition, which is ‘Extensive Rites of the Great Mandala of the Conquest of the Three Worlds'. The third part of the OEA VS refers to part three of hie Sanskrit version which is called King of the Great Ordinance Called Dharma-Pledge of All the Tathagatas. Like in the previous parts, the name of this part as given in the OEAVS broadly corresponds to the name of the initial chapter (marked as 15th) of part three in the Sanskrit edition, which is called Extensive Rites of the Great Mandala of the Conversion of the Entire World.


Finally, the fourth part of the OEA VS refers to part four of the Sanskrit version. Once again, its title corresponds to the initial chapter (marked as 19th) of part four of the Sanskrit version. The title of part four of hie Sanskrit version is given as King o f the Great Ordinance Called Karma-Pledge o f All the Tathagatas, and the title of its initial chapter as Extensive Rites o f the Great Mandala o f the Universal Success.

The OEAVS does not refer to part five of the Sanskrit version as an independent part because, as already discussed, this part of the Sanskrit text is considered as a subordinate part in that it contains no main mandala and related rituals, but explains the secret methods of the various attainments corresponding to the four families, i.e. Tathagata, Vajra, Padma and Mani (or Ratna).

The Doihbu-tuo-luo-ni-mu explains the structure and content of the STTS in the following way:-

“The Fundamental Sutra of Yoga consists of one hundred thousand gathas and eighteen assemblies. The first assembly is called The Compendium of Truth of All the Tathagatas. This siitra explains the five families, namely, the Buddha-family whose Head is the Buddha Vairocana, the Vajra-family whose Head is the Buddha Akshobhya, the Ratna-family whose Head is the Buddha Ratnasambhava, the Padma-family whose Head is the Buddha Amitabha and the Karma-family whose Head is the Buddha Amoghasiddhi. The Head of each of the five families has a retinue of four Bodhisattvas. They are positioned to the front, right, left and rear (of each Head). Each of the four Internal Offerings belongs to (each of) the four families according to a specific order which needs to be known. (Each of) the four External Offerings also belongs to (each of) the four families. (Each of) the four Guardians, namely, Ahkusa, Pasa, Sphota and


Avesa (belongs to each of) the four families according to a specific order which needs to be known. In the four directions, there are the sixteen Maha Bodhisattvas of Bhadra Kalpa? They manifest all the Bodhisattvas of the Bhadra Kalpa. There are also five groups of deities on the outside (of the mandala). Each group consists of four gods and their consorts. Thus, all together there are twenty gods and their consorts. The five groups of deities consist of the four gods (and their consorts) living in the upper-spheres, the four gods (and their consorts) living in space (akdsa-cara), the four gods (and their consorts) wandering in space (antariksa-cara), the four gods (and their consorts) living on the earth, and the four gods (and their consorts) living beneath the earth.

There are four mandalas in the Yoga-family. The first is the Vajradhatu, the second is the Trailokyavijaya, the third is the Sakalajagadvinaya and the fourth is die Sarvarthasiddhi. These four mandalas manifest the four Knowledge-Bodhisattvas inside the Buddha Vairocana, namely, Vajra, Abhiseka, Padma and Karma (respectively). These are regarded as the four Knowledges, namely, Mirror-like-Wisdom (ddarsajhdna), Equality-Wisdom (samatajhdna), Discriminating-Wisdom (pratyaveksandjhdna) and the Active-Wisdom (krtyanusthanajndna). Furthermore, each of the (main) mandalas establishes six mandalas, i.e.mahamandala, samaya-mandala, dharma-mandala, karma-mandala,

catur-mudra-mandala and eka-mudra-mandala. It is only Trailokyavijaya-mandala that contains ten mandalas', (each of) the other (three main) mandalas contains six mandalas. All the mudras and all the essential factors of the Dharma are completely included in the four Knowledge-mudra. Maha-jndna mudra refers to the attainment of the sva-deva-yoga by means of the five abhisambodhi. Samaya-jnana-mudra refers to the attainment of the mudrd generated from the vajra-bandha (vajrabond) by means of joining both hands. Dharma-jnana-mudra refers to the seed-syllable (bija) of the sva-deva, the samadhi of the Dharmakaya and the meaning of the letters of all the sutras. Karma-jnana-mudra refers to the making of vajra-musti (vajrafist) with both hands as if firmly holding a weapon and pennant, and to the holding of the body in a dignified posture. In addition, there are four kinds of eyes in Yoga, namely, the Dharma Eye which indicates subjugation (vashikaran), the

According to the BUS (p. 406), the term Bhadrakalpa means ‘a kalpa such as the present in which five Buddhas are to appear (four, from Krakucchanda to Sakyamuni, and the fifth, Maitreya)’.

91. The four kinds of eyes in this context indicate the four kinds of homa rites, namely, subjugation (vashikaran), attraction (alcarsana), destruction (abhikram) and pacification (santika). However, according to the [[Sarva] Durgati Parisodhana tantra]], the four kinds of


Effulgent Eye which indicates attraction (akarshana), the Wrathful Eye which indicates destruction (abhisarika) and the Compassionate Eye which indicates pacification (santika)” Taking into account the information provided above, the classification of the first four parts of the Sanskrit STTS is based on the four knowledge-mudras or four families. However, the division of the OEAVS is dependent on the four mandalas. In addition, David Snellgrove subdivides the second part of the STTS into two sections: Trailokyavijaya and Triloka Chakra,93 Though the OEAVS explains the additional four mandalas connected with Triloka Chakra in the second part, it uses only Trailokyavijaya as the title of the second part.

As Amoghavajra has pointed out above, the first four parts of the STTS entitled according to the names of the mandalas correspond to the following four knowledge-mudras respectively: Great-knowledge-mudra (maha-jnana-mudra), Pledge-knowledge-mudra samanya-jnana-mudra), Dharma-knowledge-mudra dharma-jnana-mudra) and Action-knowledge-ra Ad karma-jnana-mudra). In addition, they are also closely connected with the four families, i.e. die Tathagata family, the Vajra-family, the Dharma or Lotus {Padma)-family and die Action {Karma) or Gem {Ratna or Mam)-family. Donjaku also asserts that the first four parts of the STTS correspond to the Buddha-family, the Vajra-family, the Lotus family and the Gem-family and in the homa rites, they respectively relate to


pacification {santika), destruction {abhisarika), subjugation (vashikaran) and acquisition of prosperity {paustika).94 The first part of the STTS shows ways of subduing the Tathagata-family, whose presiding Buddha is Vairocana, the second part shows ways of subduing the Vajra-family, whose presiding Buddha is Aksobhya, the third part shows ways of subduing the Lotus-family, whose presiding Buddha is Amitabha 95 and the fourth part shows ways of subduing the homa rites consist of pacification, acquisition of prosperity (paustika), subjugation and destruction. (Tadeusz Skorupski, Sarva Durgati Parisodhana Tantra, pp. 68-72). According to the Vajrasekhara Yoga Homa Vidhi (Chinese Jin-gang-ding-yu-qie-hu-mo-yi-gid) translated into Chinese by Amoghavajra (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 908, pp. 916-920-2-16; No. 909, pp. 920-2-17-924-3-9), there are five kinds of homa rites, i.e. pacification, acquisition of prosperity, destruction, attraction and subjugation.

According to the Mikltyo Jiten (ed. Sawa Ryuken, p. 367), there are four groups of homa rites. In addition to the above mentioned two groups of homa rites, there are two more groups. There is one group of three kinds of homa rites which consist o f pacification, acquisition of prosperity and destruction. There is a second group of six kinds of homa rites which consist of pacification, acquisition of prosperity, subjugation, destruction, attraction and longevity.

92. TSD. Vol. 18, No. 903, pp. 898-3-7-899-1-8.

93. David Snellgrove, Sarva-Tathagata-Tattva-Sangraha, Introduction, p. 11. Trailokyavijaya-mandala: S. part two (pp. 153-252): Triloka Ch'a-mandala: S. part two (pp. 253-313). Though David Snellgrove subdivides the second part into two sections, Mkhas Grub- rje division is the same as Amoghavajra. (F.D. Lessing and Alex Wayman (trs.),


Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems, p. 217).

94. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, p. 157-1-12-25.

95. Sanskrit STTS employs the term ‘Lokesvararaja’ (S. p. 10, p. 45, p. 49, p. 53) or ‘Amitayus

(S. p. 64, p. 89, p. 101, p. 117, p. 131, p. 143, p. 333, p. 334) instead of ‘Amitabha’. The


Gem-family, whose presiding Buddha is Ratnasambhava. The STTS only describes four families, although there are actually five families. The presiding Buddha of the Action-family is Amoghasiddhi. David Snellgrove asserts that the difference between the four families and the regular five families is caused by the amalgamation of both die Gem-family and the Action-family. This probably goes back to an earlier stage of the development of Buddha-families, which began as three, namely, the Tathagata-family, the Fo/ra-family and the Lotus-family, and which only later became five.96

According to Amoghavajra division, each of the four parts contains six mandalas but exceptionally the second part has ten mandalas which include six mandalas connected with the Trailokyavijaya and four mandalas connected with the Triloka Chakra. The first four mandalas in each part of the STTS also seem to relate to the four knowledge-mnc/ras1. Thus, based on the four knowledge-mudras', the titles of the first four mandalas should respectively be maha-mandala, samaya mandala (alias dharani-mandala), dharma-mandala and karma-mandala. The other two mandalas are catur-mudra-mandala and eka-mudra-mandala. Each of the maha-mandalas occupies the first position in each of the four parts. However, the maha-mandala of the Vajradhatu is regarded as the most important because all the other mandalas are dependent on it.


7. Mandala derived from the Sarva Tathagata Tattva Samgraha


Three different types of mandala are known to be derived from the STTS. The first mandala, which is regarded as the earliest, is found on a scroll called [[Li-duoseng- nie-luo-wu-bu-xin-guan]] (Japanese Ri-ta-so-gya-ri-go-bu-shin-kan),91 which translates into English as ‘[[Meditation on the Five Families of the Rta-samgraha’. In the title of this scroll, the Chinese term Li-duo-seng-nie-luo (Japanese Ri-ta-so-gyari) is a transliteration of the Sanskrit term ‘Rta-samgraha’ (Compendium of Truth), which, as Lokesh Chandra 98 points out, indicates Tattva-Samgraha, that is, the STTS text, while the Chinese term wu-bu (Japanese go-bu) means the five families,

i.e. Tathagata-, Vajra-, Ratna-, Padma- and Karma-families .

The Gobushinkan (i.e. Chinese versions translate ‘Lokesvara Raja’ as ‘Avalokitesvara Raja’. Both ‘Amitabha’ and ‘Amitayus’ are interchangeable, and according to the Miklcyo Jiten (ed. Sawa Ryuken, p. 13), Avalokitesvara Raja is the alias of Amitabha. In his footnote on p. 45 of his edition of the STTS, Yamada Isshi states that Lokesvara was an epithet of Siva. In Buddhism, the Tathagata Lokesvara Raja is the Buddha Teacher of Dharmakara. The latter, due to his Pranidhana, becomes the Tathagata Amitabha (or Amitayus) in the Sukhavati Buddhaksetra. However, Avalokitesvara is one o f two Bodhisattvas who works under Amitabha and who succeeds him after Amitabha's Nirvana.

96. David Snellgrove, Sarva-Tathagata-Tattva-Samgraha, Introduction, p. 12. 97. TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 2, pp. 73~148; Lokesh Chandra, A Ninth Century Scroll o f the Vajradhatu Mandala, pp. 54~346; Toganoo Shoun, Kongochokyo no Kenltyu, Toganoo Shoun Zenshu, Extra Vol. Ill, pp. 154~453. 98. Lokesh Chandra, A Ninth Century Scroll o f the Vajradhatu Mandala, pp. 7—13.


Ri-ta-s5-gya-ri-go-bu-shin-kan), several copies of which are extant in Japan," was originally brought from China by Japanese monk Enchin (814-891 CE), who had received it in 855 CE from the monk Fa-quan during his stay in China between 853 and 858 CE.100 The Gobushinkcin consists of six mandalas, which correspond to the six mandalas of the Vajradhatu described in the Sanskrit STTS, and contains the four mudras of the deities, i.e. the bodily images of the deities holding symbols (representing maha-mudras), the hand gestures (representing samaya-mudras and karma-mudras), and the mantras (representing dharma-mudras), Thus, the most important rituals explained in the first part of the Sanskrit STTS are illustrated in the Gobushinkan. In addition, as it includes his portrait at the end, the Gobushinkan is closely connected with Subhakara Simha (637-735 CE),101 who arrived in China in 716 CE and together with the monk Yi-xing (d. 727 CE) translated into Chinese the Mahavairocana sutra.102

The second mandala called Jin-gang-jie-jiu-hui-da-man-tu-luo,m (Great Mandala of the Nine Assemblies of the Vajradhatu) was brought from China to Japan in 806 CE by the Japanese monk Kukai (774-835 CE), the founder of the Japanese Shingon sect. Several copies of the Nine Assemblies Mandala 104 which consists of nine squares are also extant in Japan. The first assembly, the Vajradhatu- maha-mandala (ch. 1 of the STTS), is positioned in the centre. Out of the other eight mandalas which surround the Vajra-dhatu-maha-mandala, the second assembly, the Vajra-guhya-vajra-mandala (ch. 2) is positioned in the lower middle, the third the Vajra-jhana-dharma-mandala (ch. 3) in the lower-left, the

Ibid., pp. 16-18.

I0°. Sawa Ryuken (ed.), Miklcyo Jiten, pp. 55-56 & p. 224.

101. Ibid., p. 440.


102. Mahavairocana sutra is an abbreviated title derived from the Sino-Japanese tradition. It is called Vairocana-abhisambodhi-tantra by the Indo-Tibetan tradition. Its fullest form, found in the catalogues of the Tibetan canon, is Mana Vairocana-abhisambodhi-vilcurvataadhisthdna- vaipulya-sutra~indra-raja-nama-dharma-paryaya.

103. TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 1, pp. 887-1004.

104. Two mandalas have been regarded as the most important mandalas in Japanese Shingon tradition, namely, the Garbhakosadhdtu-mandala, which is derived from the Mahavairocana sutra, and the Vajradhatu-mandala, i.e., Nine Assemblies Mandala, which is derived from the STTS. These two, known in Japanese as genzu, or ‘iconographic’ mandalas, were allegedly transmitted from India to China in the eighth century. The Garbhakosadhdtu-mandala consists of twelve courts. A central divinity is the cosmic Vairocana, whose essential quality is ‘principle’. The various other deities represent the fragmentation o f this central unity. The Vajradhatu-mandala consists of a group o f nine individual mandalas. The central assembly represents the Buddha's function to enlighten. The central divinity is the cosmic Vairocana, who in this mandala represents ‘knowledge’. (E. Dale Saunders, “Mandalas; Buddhist Mandalas”, The Encyclopaedia o f Religion, Vol. .9, pp. 155-158. In this article, Dale Saunders makes an error, because he states that the Garbhadhatu-mandala represents ‘knowledge’ and the Vajradhatu Mandala represents ‘principle’. From the above this should be in reverse.) One of the main differences between the Garbhakosadhdtu-mandala and the Vajradhatu-mandala is that the former consists of three families, i.e. Tathagata-family, Vajra-family and Lotus-family, and the latter consists of five families, i.e. Tathagata-family, Vajra-family, Lotus-family, Gem-family and Action family-.


fourth the Vajra-karya-karma-mandala (ch. 4 ).in the middle-left, the fifth the Vajra-siddhi-catur-mudra-mandala (ch. 5-A) in the upper-left, the sixth the [[Ekamudra- mandala]] or Mahaydnabhisamayamandala (ch. 5-B) in the upper-middle, the seventh the Naya-mandala in the upper-right, the eighth the [[Triloka-vijayamahd- mandala]] (ch. 6) in the middle-right, and the ninth the [[Krodha-guhyamudrd- mandala]] or Triloka-vaijaya-samaya-mandala (ch. 7) positioned in the lower-right. Of these, only the seventh Naya-mandala is not derived from the STTS, but from the Rishulcyd (Chinese Li-qu-jing).

Differing from the above two types of mandala having a characteristic [[Sino- Japanese]] style, the third type of mandala, which is found in the Indo-Tibetan area, has a characteristic Indo-Tibetan style. The specific difference between the Indo- Tibetan mandalas and the Sino-Japanese mandalas is that all the deities face the central Vairocana in the former but face the viewer of the mandala in the latter. In addition, the former has clearly defined doors of the inner enclosure as well as the outer enclosure, but the latter does not have doors. Two similar Vajradhara Mandalas are preserved in the eastern chapel of Chachapuri Monastery (Tshatshapuri Gompa, Ladakh, India), and also four different Vajradhatu Mandala and one Trailokyavijaya-mahamandala (ch. 6 of the STTS) are painted on the walls of Alchi Monastery (Alchi Gompa, Ladakh, India),107 which was built, according to Toganoo Shoun,108 in the time of the Tibetan translator [[Rinchen- bzang-po]] (958~1055 CE). In addition, The Ngor Collection,109 which consists of one hundred and thirty-nine Tibetan mandalas painted in the nineteenth century, also includes two mandalas derived from the STTS, i.e. Vajradhatu-mehndi mandala and Triloka Vijaya-mahamandala, each of which consists of thirty-seven deities and one thousand Bhadra Kalpa Bodhisattvas.

105. David Snellgrove Sarva-Tathagata-Tattva-Sangraha, Introduction, p. 13) regards the eighth as the Triloka-vijaya-karma-mandala.

106. Lokesh Chandra, A Ninth Century Scroll o f the Vajradhatu Mandala, pp. 24~25.

107. The World o f Tibetan Buddhism, photographs by Fujita Hiroki and supervision by Council of Religious Affairs of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, pp. 213~214.

108. Toganoo Shoun, Mandara no kenlcyu, pp. 201~203.

109. bSod nams rgya mtsho: Tibetan Mandalas (The Ngor Collection), Vol. I & II, Kodansha Ltd., Kyoto, Japan, 1983.


Mahayana Realisation of All the Tathagatas


The first part of this study provides a detailed analysis of the structure and content of part one of the STTS. The analysis as given below is based on the relevant sections of both the first assembly in Amoghavajra OEA VS1 and the introductory section in Anandagarbha's Tattvaloka as indicated in the footnotes, and on a detailed study, with extensive quotations, of the Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese versions of the STTS. Part one of the Sanskrit STTS is divided into five chapters, four of which provide expositions of four different mandalas and related rituals, and chapter 5 deals with the perfect realisation of the Mahayana. The names of the four mandalas used as the titles of its first four chapters are Vajradhatu Mahamandala, Vajra Guhya Vajra Mandala, Vajrajnana Dharma Mandala and

Vajrakaya Karma Mandala respectively. Though chapter 5 of the Sanskrit STTS contains some information on two mandalas, i.e. Vajra Siddhi Caturmudr Mandala and Mahay dnabhisamayamandala, it is regarded as an epilogue of part one in that the two mandalas are employed for the purpose of the accomplishment of the practices which have already been explained in the previous four chapters. Therefore, it does not use the term mandala in its title. However, according to Amoghavajra, part one comprises six mandalas j i.e. Vajradhatu Mahamandala, Dharma Mandala, Suksma Vajra Mandala, Sarvatathdgatavistara Puja Karma Mandala, Caturmudrdmandala and Ekamudramandala. Anandagarbha also classifies part one as consisting of six mandalas, i.e. Vajradhatu Mahamandala, Dharani Mandala, Dharma Mandala, Karma Mandala, Caturmudrdmandala and Ekamudramandala. Concerning the classification of the six mandalas, the only difference between the Sanskrit STTS and Amoghavajra (or Anandagarbha) is that the former regards the last two mandalas as subordinate mandalas but the latter regards them as main mandalas.

f OEAVS, TSD. Vol. 18, No. 869, pp. 284-3-9-286-1-25.

2. TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, pp. 134-147-1-7.

3. OEAVS, TSD. Vol. 18, No. 869, pp. 284-3-19.

Part One


Chapter 1. Vajradhatu Mahamandala


The first mandala is called the maha-mandala of the Vajradhatu. Amoghavajra provides the following outline of this chapter:- “(This section of the tantra) describes the Enjoyment-body (sambhoga-kdya) of the Buddha Vairocana, who has attained complete enlightenment (samyak-sambodhi) by means of the five consecutive stages of perfect enlightenment 4 (panca abhisambodhi). 5 Having become a Buddha, he generated the thirty-seven knowledges through the vajra-samadhi.6 The text extensively explains the rites of the mandala.1 For the benefit of the pupil, the text sets forth the speedy-attainment 8 of both the Bodhisattva-fr/mmi and the Buddha-6/mmz'.”

The structural analysis provided by Anandagarbha is more detailed than that of Amoghavajra and it directly relates to specific passages of the Sanskrit text of the STTS. At the beginning of his commentary, the Tattvaloka, he outlines the general structure of the entire tantra, and then he proceeds to explain in detail the structure and basic content of the individual parts. According to Ananda Garba, the introductory scene (Tibetan glenggzhi) which opens with the words, “Thus have I heard”10 teaches die nature of Vairocana and Mahavairocana and the excellent

qualities which benefit oneself and others. It is enunciated so that the trainees should generate expectations towards the nature of the characteristics of Vairocana and Mahavairocana and the excellent qualities which benefit oneself and others. In order to induce the realisation of the nature of Vairocana and Mahavairocana in those trainees who have generated such expectations, the rest of the tantra's text, starting with the words, “Then this Buddha-field (became replete just like the husks of sesame seeds) with all the Tathagatas”11 and concluding with the words, “The 4 According to a footnote in the OEAVS, the five stages are: ‘perceiving the mind’, ‘raising the thought of enlightenment (bodhi-cittaY, ‘perfecting the vq/Va-thought’, ‘realising the vajra body’,

and ‘perfecting the Buddha-body’. Such are the perfections of the five knowledges.

5. S. pp. 7-9, T. pp. 219-4-2-220-2-1, C l. pp. 207-3-8-208-1-24, C2. pp. 341-3-18-342-2-12. 6. S. pp. 10-58, T. pp. 220-2-1-228-4-6, C l. pp. 208-1-24-216-1-9, C2. pp. 342-2-13-351-2-


7. S. pp. 63-72, T. pp. 229-2-6-230-4-8, C l. pp. 216-3-21-219-1-15, C2. pp. 352-2-8-354-2- 27. 8. S. pp. 73-99, T. pp. 230-4-8-233-4-3, Cl. pp. 219-1-15-223-2-21, C2. pp. 354-2-28-359-2- 19.

9. OEAVS, TSD. Vol. 18, No. 869, p. 284-3-20-24.


There are ten Bodhisattva-Bhumis which are as follows:-


Pramudita (Joyful), Vimala (Pure), Prabhakari (Illuminating), Arcismatl (Radiant), Sudurjayd (Very-difficult-to-conquer), Abhimulcht (Face to face), Durahgama (Far-going), Acald (Immovable), Sadhumatl (Stage of the good Beings) and Dharmamegha (Cloud of the Doctrine). The eleventh Bhumi is not a Bodhisattva-Bhumi but a Tathagata-Bhumi (Stage of a Buddha). (Har Dayal, The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sansh'it Literature, chapter six). 10. evam mayd srutam: S. p. 3-2, T. p. 218-3, C l. p. 207-1-9, C2. p. 341-1-8. V atha sarvatathdgatair idam buddhalcsetram (tadyathd tilabimbam iva paripurnam); S. p. 7- 2 -3 , T. p. 219-4-3-4, Cl.'p. 207-3-9, C2. p. 341-3-19-20.


Lord enunciated those words”12 teaches the expedients (updya) and the realisation of their nature. In it there are taught the categories of the expedients among which there are also samadhis which truly serve as expedients.13 After this outline of the general structure of the tantra, Anand Garba proceeds to provide a detailed analysis of specific sections and shows how they fit together. 7, Introductory Scene: Nature o f Vairocana and Mahavairocana As already stated above, the introductory scene unveils the nature of Vairocana and Mahavairocana. The STTS opens in the traditional manner employed in the Buddhist scriptures with the words

“Thus have I heard,14 at one time, the Lord was staying in the abode of the king of the Akanistha gods.”

Concerning the word T , Japanese commentators such as Donjaku assert that since Vajrapani (alias Vajrasattva)16 himself heard the doctrines of the STTS directly from Mahavairocana and since the STTS text was assembled by Vajrapani, T in this context should be regarded as Vajrapani.17 Anandagarbha also states that the STTS was thoroughly understood, assembled and explained by Vajradhara residing in the tenth bhumi.18 In this context, ‘at one time’19 indicates ‘a time’ just before the Tattvaloka reads: “Then this Buddha-field of all the Tathagatas”.

12. idam avocad bhagavdn: S. p. 562-8, T. p. 283-1-8, C2. p. 445-1-26.

13. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 135-1-6-2-5.

14. The Sanskrit and Chinese versions start with these words, but the Tibetan version prefixes one sentence before it, i.e., “I bow before the Buddha and all the Bodhisattvas.”

15. Tibetan reads: “the great compassionate Lord Vairocana”, but Chinese 2 reads: “the Lord Tathagata Mahavairocana”.

16. In the STTS, the three names, for example, Vajrasattva, Vajrapani and Vajradhara, ate employed interchangeably because all of them can be regarded as being the same, even if all o f them have slightly different literal meanings. With regard to these three names, David Snellgrove (Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, p. 131) states:-

“The highest state of all, in which all Buddha-emanations ultimately dissolve and yet continually reemerge, is the Adamantine Being (Vajrasattva) and thus it is defined as Vajra, meaning diamond or thunderbolt. As the weapon of the Vedic god, Indra, transferred to the yaksa (local divinity) who acts as escort to Sakyamuni in the earlier Buddhist period, ‘thunderbolt’ might suggest itself as a convenient translation. Precisely as the wielder of this weapon this chief of yaksas, known as Vajrapani (Thunderbolt-in-Hand), appears as chief of Boddhisattvas in several tantras, for he has become the holder of the supreme symbol of this whole latter phase of Buddhism. He is also referred to as Vajradhara (Thunderbolt-Holder) and with this name becomes the supreme Buddha of tantric traditions. He may also be acclaimed as Vajrasattva (Thunderbolt-Being), but this is more logically understood as a general appellation of the highest state of tantric being, a term formed on the analogy of Bodhisattva.”

17. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, pp. 162-3-10-164-1-24.

Donjaku also asserts: “Mahavairocana is the speaker and Vajrapani is the listener. Since Vajrapani is Vairocana, Vajrapani's listening means Mahavairocana listening to himself.”


(TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, pp. 125-3-4-126-1-19).

1S. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 147-1-7-2-1.


19. Based upon Mkhas-grub-ije’s analysis, we can see that in relation to Sakyamuni’s life, there are two different opinions concerning the time at which the STTS was proclaimed. The first theory maintained by Sakyamitra and Buddhaguhya is that while the historical Sakyamuni's


historical Sakyamuni's perfect enlightenment. This is because the STTS text begins with the moment of Sakyamuni engaging in the imperturbable concentration (asphanaka-scimadhita) as an endeavour for enlightenment on the bodhi-manda and it ends with his returning from Mount Sumeru to Bodhgaya after his complete enlightenment. Indian and Japanese commentators say that the term ‘Lord’ (bhagavari) is an epithet given to one who conquers the four evils (mara), namely, afflictions (klesa), aggregates (skandha), death (mrtyu) and demigod (devaputra). The term ‘Lord’ in this context indicates the great compassionate (maha-krpo) Vairocana.20 With regard to the abode of the king of the Akanistha gods,21 the Japanese commentator, Ennin (793-864 CE) comments that the Akanistha heaven is not the uppermost heaven (out of the seventeen heavens belonging to) the realm of form (mpa-dhdtu), one of the three lands of existence, but that it is the splendid thought-palace of the great innate thought of enlightenment (maha-bodhi-citta) existing in the heart of Mahavairocana.22

Since the concept of Vairocana has been introduced in Yoga-tantra, the ultimate goal described in the STTS is to attain perfect enlightenment by means of obtaining tire five Wisdoms as the virtues of Vairocana. It is for this reason that in its maturation body {vipaka-Myd) as Bodhisattva Sarvarthasiddhi stayed on the bank of the Nairanjana River, his mental body (manomaya-lcaya) was guided to the Akanistha heaven by the assembled Buddhas of all the ten directions, and after completing the pancha abhisambodhi, he became a Buddha as the Sambhoga-kdya of Mahavairocana, after which he proceeded to the summit of Mt. Sumeru and pronounced the STTS. He then proceeded to the world of men and re-entered his maturation body on the bank of the Nairanjana. The second theory maintained by Anand Garba is that the STTS was pronounced when Sakyamuni was a Bodhisattva of the tenth stage in his last life. It seems that the first theory is the literal interpretation based upon the STTS text itself but the second theory is a philosophical and logical interpretation. (F.D. Lessing and

Alex Wayman (trs.), Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems, pp. 27-29). 20. Danapala's Chinese translation reads ‘Tathagata Mahavairocana’ instead of *maha-Icrpo Vairocana’.

21. STTS describes the abode of the king of the Akanistha gods at the time o f Vairocana’s residing in it in the following words:-

“It was attended, honoured and blessed by all the Tathagatas. It was studded with great jewels and gems, and adorned with hanging bells of various colours, with wind-fluttering silk pennants, wreaths, chowries, garlands, necklaces and moons. It was attended by ninety-nine million Bodhisattvas along with the leading Bodhisattvas, namely, Vajrapani, Avalokitesvara, Akasagarbha, Vajramushti,

Manjusri, Sahabat Otpada-dharma cakraravartin, Gaganaganja and Sarvamarabalapramardin, and it was also attended by Tathagatas as numerous as the grains of sand in the river Ganges. It was so crowded with countless Tathagatas that they resembled sesame seeds on Jambudvipa. In addition to this, there appeared countless and immeasurable Buddha-fields {buddha-kshsetra) from the body of every individual Tathagata, and in these Buddha-fields, the Tathagatas were explaining this very Dharma-doctrine.”

(S. pp. 3-9~4-6, T. p. 219-1-1-7, Cl. p. 207-1-15-26, C2. p. 341-1-14-27). 22. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2223, p. 14-2-9-11.


introductory part, the STTS explains the constituents of the virtues of Vairocana and Mahavairocana. First of all, the virtues of Vairocana 23 are as follows:- “(a) The Lord was endowed 24 with various distinctive kinds of knowledge of the pledges (,samaya)25 and the va/ra-empowerment (yajra-adhisthana) of all the Tathagatas. (b) He was bestowed with the 26consecration27 of the Dharma Sovereignty over the three worlds by means of the gem-diadem of all the Tathagatas.

(c) He was the great yoga-lord of the omniscient knowledge of all the Tathagatas.

(d) He was the accomplished one in the sameness of all mudras 30 of all the Tathagatas and the fulfiller of all wishes of the entire and complete sphere of living beings by means of all possible endeavours.

(e) He was the great compassionate Vairocana 31 perpetually persisting in the three times,32 the Tathagata 33 and the complete Body, Speech and Mind Vajra”3

Regarding the above descriptions of the virtues of Vairocana, Japanese commentators 35 such as Donjaku state that the above five paragraphs refer to the five Wisdoms 36 and to the five Buddhas as the personifications of the virtues of


23. The passages of the STTS which explain the virtues of Vairocana and the names of the chief Bodhisattvas are very similar to the opening section of Chinese Li-qu-jing (Japanese Ri-shu- Icyo) which is regarded as the sixth assembly of the Vajrasekhara sutra, Cf. Ian Astley- Kristensen, The Ri-shu-lcyo, pp. 39-40.

24. Chinese 1 reads: “accomplished”.

25. The Sanskrit term samaya literally means ‘coming together’. In Buddhist tantric understanding, the term samaya becomes a ‘pledge’ of a ‘coming together’ of the divinity with the image that represents him, the sacrificial offering that ‘embodies’ him, or with the yogin or even the faithful worshipper who is one-pointedly intent upon him. (David Snellgrove, Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, pp 165-166).


26. Chinese 2 inserts: “highest”.

27. Tibetan reads: “consecration-power” (dbang bshtr ba mnga).

28. Chinese 2 inserts: “extraordinary”.

29. Chinese 2 reads: “the great lord of union” (sampradayikta).

30. Chinese 2 reads: “all knowledge-mudras”.

31. Chinese 2 omits: “Vairocana”.

32. The Sanskrit reads: “at the time (samaya) of the three time-period”.

33. Chinese 2 omits: “Tathagata”.

34 S. p. 3-2-8, T. pp. 218-3-219-1-1, C l. p. 207-1-9-15, C2. p. 341-1-8-14.

Tibetan reads: “the Tathagata whose complete Body, Speech and Mind were transformed into a Vajra".

35. Concerning the relationship between the five Wisdoms and the five Buddhas in the STTS, the opinions of Japanese commentators, led by Kukai, seem to be influenced by certain relevant texts o f the STTS mostly compiled and translated by Amoghavajra.

36. Tantrdrthdvatara-vyakhydna, a commentary by Padmavajra on Buddhaguhya's Tantrarthdvatdra, gives the following explanation of the five Wisdoms:- “Mirror-like-Wisdom is the higher cognition that appearances are devoid of intrinsic nature, Equality-Wisdom is the higher cognition that makes no distinction between oneself and others, Discriminating-Wisdom is the higher cognition that is devoid of intrinsic nature, Active-Wisdom is that which aims to benefit without differentiating


Vairocana. Paragraph


(a) indicates Mirror-like-Wisdom and the character of Aksobhya who is positioned to the east of Vairocana in the maha-mandala of the Vajradhatu, paragraph

(b) indicates Equality-Wisdom and the character of Ratnasambhava who is positioned to the south of Vairocana, paragraph

(c) indicates Discriminating-Wisdom and the character of Amitabha who is positioned to the west of Vairocana, paragraph (d) indicates Active-Wisdom and the character of Amoghasiddhi who is positioned to the north of Vairocana, and finally paragraph


(e) indicates Pure-Absolute-Wisdom and the character of Vairocana who is positioned in the centre of the maha-mandala of the Vajradhatu,38 Tire fifth Pure- Absolute-Wisdom, different from the other four Wisdoms, is the supreme Wisdom and seems to be attained as the result of an accumulation of the other four Wisdoms. With regard to the relationship between the four Wisdoms and the four Buddhas, Amoghavajra states that the four Buddhas are generated from the four Wisdoms.39 Concerning the above passage, Ananda Garbh 40 states that paragraph

(a) explains the perfect comprehension of the Tathagata-family and the knowledge of pledges, paragraph

(b) explains the perfect comprehension of the Gem-family and the attainment of the consecrations, paragraph

(c) explains the perfect, comprehension of the Lotus-family and the transformation into the great yoga-lord by means of the attainment of the perfection of wisdom, paragraph (d) explains the perfect comprehension of the Action 41-family and the perfection of all other goals. between oneself and others, and Pure-Absolute-Wisdom is the location of the realm of the other four Wisdoms as well as their object.”

(F.D. Lessing and Alex Wayman (trs.), Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems, p. 222, footnote).

37. According to the Mildtyo Jiten (ed. Sawa Ryuken, pp. 220~221), only four Wisdoms are explained in exoteric Buddhist teachings, but in esoteric Buddhist teachings, Pure-Absolute- Wisdom is added as the virtue of Mahavairocana and it is regarded as the ultimate Wisdom including the characteristics of the other four Wisdoms. The Vajradhatu-mandala is also said to be established on the basis of these five Wisdoms. In relation to the theory of consciousness, Pure-Absolute-Wisdom (dharmadhdtusvabhdvajnana) as Mahavairocana is transformed and realised through the ninth pure-consciousness (amalavijhana), Mirror-like- Wisdom (adarsajhdna) as Aksobhya is transformed and realised through the eighth store consciousness (alayavijnana), Equality-Wisdom (samajhna) as Ratnasambhava is transformed and realised through the seventh ego-consciousness (klista-manas), Discriminating-Wisdom (pratyavelcsanajhdna) as Amitabha is transformed and realised through the sixth mental-consciousness (manovijnana), and Active-Wisdom (krtydnusthanajfidna) as Amoghasiddhi is transformed and realised through the five sense consciousnesses.

3S. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, pp. 165-2-28-173-3-8.

Donjaku states that Vairocana abides in the Gate of Universal Dharmadhatu while sitting on the Lion-seat, Aksobhya abides in the Gate of Enlightenment-thought {bodhicitta) while sitting on the Elephant-seat, Ratnasambhava abides in the Gate of Blessed-viitues (punya) while sitting on the Horse-seat, Amitabha abides in the Gate of Wisdom while sitting on the Peacock-seat, and Amoghasiddhi abides in the Gate of Action (virya) while sitting on the Garuda-seat.

(TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, p. 121-1-4-10).

39. Lue-shu-jin-gang-ding-yu-qie-fen-bie-sheng-wei-xiu-zheng-j'a-men, TSD. Vol. 18, No. 870, p.

288-2-21. This text was translated by Amoghavajra.

40 Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 147-3-4-5-3.

41. Ibid., p. 147-4-8. The wordAction’ seems to be missing.


Vairocana in paragraph (e) means the one who becomes completely illuminated by means of the families such as the Tathagata-family and acquires power. The STTS depicts the natures of Mahavairocana as follows:- “(f) Then the Lord 42 Mahavairocana, while perpetually abiding in the sphere of the entire space with his Body, Speech and Mind, became transformed into a Vajra.

(g) Due to his union43 with all the Tathagatas, he was the knowledge-being that enlightened the entire Vajradhatu, and the knowledge-embryo issued from the vq/ra-empowerments as numerous as infinite particles of dust in all regions of space. (h) On account of the infinity of all the Tathagatas, he was the consecration-gem of the great vq/ra-knowledge,44 and the perfectly enlightened one with the completely comprehending knowledge of suchness (tathata) that penetrates the entire space.

(i) On account of the pure self-nature of all the Tathagatas, he was the one with all his dharmas pure by nature,45 and the pinnacle of conduct that converts the entire and complete sphere of living beings through the knowledge that beholds all forms diffused in the entire space

(j) By means of executing the efficacious orders of all the Tathagatas, he was the performer of the incomparable and highest deeds.”

With regard to Vairocana and Mahavairocana, when we consider the above paragraphs (e) and (f), we can see that there is similarity between them in the sense that both of them transcend time. However, they also slightly differ in the sense that Vairocana has spatial limitations because he is considered as having a bodily form, i.e., an Enjoyment-body (sambhoga-kdya) and because he abides in the Akanistha


42. Both Chinese versions insert: “Tathagata”.

43. Tibetan reads: “through the penetration into the sameness”.

44. Tibetan reads: “the great consecration-gem of the great va/ra-knowledge-gem”.

45. Tibetan reads: "the accomplished one with the pure nature of all dharmas”.

46. Tibetan reads: “in all spheres (dhdtu) of space”.

47. S. p. 4-7-16, T. p. 219-1-7-2-5, Cl. p. 207-1-26-2-7, C2. p. 341-2-1-10.

Chinese 1 reads: “the universal and highest knowledge”.


Regarding the above quotations about the nature of Mahavairocana, the translation of Chinese 2 is slightly different from the other versions:-


“Then the Lord Tathagata Mahavairocana, due to his union with all the Tathagatas, universally abided in the sphere of the entire space with his Body, Speech and Mind transformed into a Vajra. On account of the infinity of all the Tathagatas, he became the knowledge-great being that enlightened the entire Vajradhatu. He cultivated the knowledge-embryo issued from the vq/ra-empowerments as numerous as infinite particles of dust in all regions of space. He established the great consecration-gem of the great vq/'ra-knowledge. He was the perfectly enlightened one with the completely embracing knowledge of suchness that penetrates entire space. Since the self-nature of the bodies of all the Tathagatas is pure, the self-nature of all dharmas is pure. By means of executing the efficacious orders of all the Tathagatas, he manifested all his forms diffused in entire space; he became the pinnacle o f all the conducts that subdue completely all the realms of living beings; he completely performed the various incomparable and highest deeds.”


heaven. In contrast, Mahavairocana as Dharma-body is pervasive in the sphere of the entire space and abides in the hearts of all the Tathagatas. Anand Garba maintains that the essence of the five Tathagatas 1 Bodies which became fully enlightened in the abode of Akanistha, becomes Vairocana. On the other hand, Mahavairocana is the one who is endowed with the qualities of the beginningless and endless Dharmadhatu which in turn through the nature (of the five Tathagatas' Bodies) becomes the cause Qietu) of generating the non-dual thought and the virtues (sila) of Vairocana, Vajrasattva and the rest, arisen from that (non-dual) thought.48 However, Sakyamitra49 regards Vairocana as the Body of Appearance (rupa-kaya). On the basis of the STTS text, firstly, he defines the abode of the king of the Akanistha gods as having the characteristic of the perfect equality of cause and effect (nisyanda). Secondly, the aim of Vairocana is to bestow the enjoyment of the Dharma upon the Bodhisattvas generated inside deity’s family. Finally, Vairocana is considered as possessing and generating the splendid essence of absolute pure knowledge as the equality of cause and effect (nisyanda) through the body which has fully matured according to die five consecutive stages of perfect enlightenment (pahca-abhisambodhi). In addition, he defines Mahavairocana in the following way:-

Mahavairocana is endowed with the nature of wisdom, becomes completely delivered from the defilement known as afflictions (klesa), and shows and accomplishes the splendid and pure essence of all the substances.”

The above paragraphs (g), (h), (i) and (j) individually correspond to paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) respectively, in connection with the four Wisdoms.50 Paragraphs (g), (h), (i) and (j) show the characteristics of the four Paramita Bodhisattvas who epitomise the nature of Mahavairocana, and who closely surround Mahavairocana on the maha-mandala of the Vajradhdtu. Amoghavajra maintains that the four Paramita Bodhisattvas are generated from the four Tathagatas' Wisdoms and become the Mothers who generate and raise all the Honoured Ones and Sages of the three times.51 Donjaku also states that the four Buddhas emerge from the four Wisdoms, and the four Buddha Wisdoms issue forth the four Paramitas,52 Paragraph (g) indicates that Vajra-paramita emerges from Mirror-like-Wisdom and is positioned to die east of Mahavairocana, paragraph (h) indicates that Ratnaparamita emerges from Equality-Wisdom and is positioned to the south of Mahavairocana, paragraph (i) indicates that Dharma-paramita emerges from Discriminating-Wisdom and is positioned to the west of Mahavairocana, and


48. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 148-4-5-7.

49. Kosalalamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 193-5-4-8.

50 TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2223, pp. 28-3-24-30-2-8.

51. Jin-gang-ding-yu-qie-san-shi-qi-zun-chu-sheng-yi, TSD. Vol. 18, No. 872, p. 298-1-21-22.

This text was translated by Amoghavajra. 52. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, p. 185-2-25-28.


paragraph (j) indicates that Karma-paramita emerges from Active-Wisdom and is positioned to the north of Mahavairocana. However, Sakyamitra maintains that paragraphs (g), (h), (i) and (j) indicate the essences of the four main Bodhisattvas out of the sixteen Mahabodhisattvas, i.e. Vajrasattva, Vajraratna, Vajradharma and Vajrakarma. Furthermore, all the Tathagatas in this context indicate the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas as explained in the mandala of the Vajradhdtu.5'5


2. Three Samadhis


According to Anandagarbha, the section starting with the words, “Then this Buddha-field (became replete just lilce the husks of sesame seeds) with all the Tathagatas”54 and ending with the words, “the Buddhas became merged into one”,55 provides an exposition of the three samddhis, namely, the initial yoga, the supreme mandala-king, and the supreme action-king. Anandagarbha states that those who possess the pledges and consecrations should follow this expedient.56 The first samadhi called the initial yoga (adiyoga-samddhi) corresponds to the five abhisambodhis in the STTS. The exposition of these five abhisambodhis is a

kind of preparatory stage for visualising the deities. Their detailed description is given only once in the introductory part of the maha-mandala of the Vajradhdtu in tire STTS. The initial yogas of all the other mandalas are essentially based on this method. The second samadhi, called the supreme mandala-king (mandalaparamaraja- samddhi), is the main stage of visualising and blessing the deities. The practitioner has to visualise and summon the deities together with the appropriate mantras and mudras. In the STTS, most of the mantras used for this second samadhi contain the names which indicate the deities to be assembled. The third samadhi called the supreme action-king {karmaparamardja-samddhi) is the last stage of the threefold samadhi. It empowers the deities which have been assembled and blessed.


a. Five Abhisambodhis


As Anandagarbha points out above, the purpose of the STTS is to enable the sddhaka (practitioner) to realise the nature of Vairocana and Mahavairocana. Consequently, the STTS explains the five abhisambodhis which Sakyamuni received and experienced in the Almnistha abode:-


“The Lord Mahabodhicitta Mahabodhisattva Samantabhadra resided in the hearts of all the Tathagatas. As a result, that Buddhafield became replete with all the Tathagatas just like the husks of sesame seeds. Then, all the Tathagatas gathered together in a great


53. Kosalalamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 194-1-4-5-2.

54. at ha sarvatathagatair idam buddhalcsetram (tadyatha tilabimbam iva paripurnam): S. p. 7-

2-3, T. p. 219-4-3-4, Cl.'p. 207-3-9, C2. p. 341-3-19-20.

Tattvalolca reads: “Then this Buddha-field of all the Tathagatas”.

55. buddhd hy ekatvam dgata iti: S. p. 60-9-10, T. p. 228-5-8, C l. p. 216-2-3, C2. p. 351-3-10. 56. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 135-2-5-7.


conclave and approached the place where the Bodhisattva Mahasattva57 Sarvarthasiddhi58 was seated on the spot of enlightenment (bodhi-manda).59 On arrival, they revealed themselves before the Bodhisattva in their sambhoga-kdyas, and said: ‘O noble son, how will you gain the highest and complete enlightenment, while attempting all these difficult tasks without knowing the true nature60 of all the Tathagatas?’61 Then, the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Sarvarthasiddhi, being admonished by all the Tathagatas, abandoned the imperturbable concentration (.dsphanaka-samadhi),62 bowed down before all the Tathagatas and said: £0 Lord Tathagatas, please instruct me about the essence of that nature63 and how I should accomplish it.’

(k) Upon this being said, all the Tathagatas spoke with one voice to the Bodhisattva: ‘O noble son, accomplish it64 through the meditation that discerns your mind and by reciting at will this selfperfected mantra: OM CITTA-PRATIVEDHAM KAROMl

(I penetrate the mind.)’ Then, the Bodhisattva65 said this to all the Tathagatas: ‘O Lord Tathagatas, just as instructed, I perceive in my heart the form of a 66lunar disc.’ All the Tathagatas replied: ‘O noble son, this mind is luminous by nature. When it is acted upon,67 so it becomes, just as a white garment stained with dye.’ (1) Then, once again, in order to augment the knowledge of the naturally luminous mind, all the Tathagatas directed the Bodhisattva68 to raise the thought of enlightenment (bodhi-cittd) with this self-perfected mantra: ‘OM BODHI-CITTAM


57. Chinese 2 omits: “Mahasattva”.

58. Ennin states that the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Sarvarthasiddhi indicates Vajrasattva. (TSD.

Vol. 61, No. 2223, p. 34-1-1-2).

59. Concerning the position of the bodhi-manda, following the opinion of Anandagarbha, bodhimanda is a certain place located in the Akanistha heaven. However, the STTS text reads: “The Buddha Sakyamuni having become completely enlightened, approached his Seat of Enlightenment (bodhi-manda) under the Bodhi-tree from the summit of Mount Sumeru.” (S. p. 556). Therefore, according to the STTS, the bodhi-manda must be located at Buddhagaya where the historical Sakyamuni attained enlightenment.

60. Chinese 2 reads: “the true knowledge and patience”. 61. Chinese 2 inserts: “Therefore, now you should raise the brave mind, and do what you have

62. Sakyamitra states in Kosalalamkara that Siddhartha had difficulties in becoming a Buddha by means of the four dhyanas because the asphanaka-samadhi is a state of total isolation in which the bodily and mental activities are suspended. By entering such a meditation, he became completely isolated and consequently unable to pursue activities for the benefit of other living beings. This was the chief reason why Siddhartha failed in his efforts and was awakened from his meditation. (Tadeusz Skorupski, Saltyamuni's Enlightenment according to the Yoga Tantra, p. 90; Kosalalamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 198-4-5-8).

63. Chinese 2 reads: “the true knowledge and patience”.

64. Chinese 2 reads: “the true patience”.

65. Tibetan adds: “Sarvarthasiddhi”.

66. Chinese 2 inserts: “pure”.

67. Tibetan reads: “As it is cleansed”.

6S. Tibetan reads: “Mahabodhisattva”. to.”


UTPADAYAMI.

(I raise the thought of enlightenment.)’ Then, once again, having raised the thought of enlightenment just as instructed by all the Tathagatas, the Bodhisattva said69: ‘That form, I truly see it as a lunar disc.’70 All the Tathagatas said: ‘The essence of all the Tathagatas has become manifested in you as the Samantabhadra thought of enlightenment. You should duly attain it.

(m) In order to stabilise71 the production of that thought as Samantabhadra of all the Tathagatas, you should envisage a vajraform on the 72lunar disc inside your heart by means of this mantra: OMTISTHA VAJRA, (Abide vajraX)'

(n) The Bodhisattva spoke up73: ‘O Lord Tathagatas, I behold a vajra74 on the 75lunar disc.’ All the Tathagatas replied: ‘Make firm this thought-76vq/ra as Samantabhadra of all the Tathagatas with this mantra: OM VAJRATMAKO ’HAM. (I am of the vajranature.)’ Then all the 77Fa/'ra-elements of the Body, Speech and Mind of all the Tathagatas abiding throughout the whole of space penetrated that being-vq/ra with the empowerment of all the Tathagatas. Next, all the Tathagatas consecrated that Lord Mahabodhisattva78 Sarvarthasiddhi with the vajra-nameconsecration, 79 saying: ‘Vajradhatu, Vajradhatu.’

(o) Then, the Mahabodhisattva80 Vajradhatu said this to all the Tathagatas: ‘0 Lord Tathagatas, I perceive81 myself as the Body82 of all the Tathagatas.’ All the Tathagatas replied: ‘Consequently, O Mahasattva, you should envisage yourself, the being-vajra, as a Buddha-form endowed with all the most excellent forms,83 reciting at will this self-perfected mantra: OM YATHA SARVATATHAGATAS TATHAHAM. (I am just as all the Tathagatas are.)’


69 Chinese 2 adds: “to all the Tathagatas”.

70. Chinese 2 reads: “O Lord Tathagatas, that form of a pure lunar disc, I also see it as a pure lunar disc inside my heart.”

71. Chinese 1 adds: “like a diamond”.

72. Chinese 2 inserts: “pure”.

73. Chinese 2 adds: “all the Tathagatas”.

74. Chinese 2 reads: “a subtle vajra form”.

75. Chinese 2 inserts: “pure”.

76. Chinese 2 inserts: “true”.

77. Chinese 2 inserts: “great”.

7S. Chinese 1 reads: “Bodhisattva Mahasattva”.

79. Tibetan omits: “vajra” and “consecration”.

Chinese 2 reads: “the vajra-great-consecration”.


80. Tibetan omits: “Mahd” and Chinese 1 reads: “Bodhisattva Mahasattva”.

81. Tibetan inserts: “duly”.

82. Tibetan reads: “Dharma-Body” and Chinese 1 omits: “Body”.

83. Chinese 1 reads: “Consequently, O Mahasattva, all the being-va/ras have been endowed with all the most excellent forms, and you should envisage yourself as a Buddha-form. Chinese 2 reads: “O Mahasattva, the being-vq/ra has been endowed with all the forms, and you should envisage all the Buddha-forms.


Upon this being pronounced, the Mahabodhisattva84 Vajradhatu himself became perfectly enlightened as a Tathagata, and bowing down before all the Tathagatas said this: ‘Bless me, O Lord Tathagatas,85 and make firm this state of enlightenment.’ Once he had said this, all the Tathagatas became infused into the beingvajra of the Tathagata Vajradhatu. Then, at that very moment, the Lord Tathagata86 Vajradhatu became completely awakened to the knowledge of the sameness of all the Tathagatas, penetrating into the secret87 pledge of the 88knowledge-m^/ra89 of the vajra90- sameness of all the Tathagatas,91 and becoming pure by nature in the realisation of the knowledge of the sameness of the Dharma of all the Tathagatas,92 and becoming the repository of the naturally luminous knowledge of the complete93 sameness of all the Tathagatas94 and thus he became a Tathagata, an Arhat and a perfectly enlightened Buddha.”


The above quoted passage constitutes the starting point of the main doctrinal exposition in the STTS. The compiler or author of the STTS seems to have gained his ideas and motives from die historic events of Saltyamuni's life as recorded in the Buddhist Scriptures. Therefore, the STTS starts its story from the moment just before Sakyamuni's enlightenment. According to the Buddhist Scriptures, Sakyamuni used the method of controlled breathing as used in the method of the imperturbable concentration (asphanaka-samadhi)?6 However, despite controlled


84. Chinese 1 reads: “Bodhisattva Mahasattva”.

85. Tibetan reads: “all the Tathagatas”.

86. Chinese 2 omits: “Tathagata” and reads: “Mahabodhisattva”.

87. Chinese 1 omits: “secret”.

88. Chinese 2 inserts: “supreme”.

89. Chinese 1 omits: “mudra”,

90. Chinese 1 omits: “vajra”.

91. Tibetan adds: “he penetrated the secret pledge of the knowledge-mwtfr'a o f the sameness of the vayra-jewel-consecration of all the Tathagatas”.

92. Both Chinese versions read: “he realised that the knowledge of the sameness of the Dharma of all the Tathagatas is pure by nature”.

93. Chinese 1 omits: “complete”.

94. Chinese 2 reads: “he accomplished the naturally luminous knowledge of the complete sameness of all the Tathagatas”.

95. S. pp. 7-1-10-6, T. pp. 219-4-2-220-2-5, Cl. pp. 207-3-8-208-1-28, C2. pp. 341-3-18-342- 2-18.


Ennin asserts that the last section of the above quotations contains the five Wisdoms resulting form the five abhisambodhis. He says:-

“The knowledge of the sameness of all the Tathagatas is Mirror-like-Wisdom, the secret pledge of the knowledge-mwcfra of the va/ra-sameness of all the Tathagatas is Equality-Wisdom, the knowledge of the sameness of the Dharma of all the Tathagatas is Discriminating-Wisdom and the naturally luminous knowledge of the complete sameness of all the Tathagatas is Active-Wisdom.”


(TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2223, pp. 36-1-29-37-1-8).

96. Concerning the asphanaka-samadhi, the STTS contains a negative opinion. In contrast, the Recitation-sutra, (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 866, pp. 223-2-22-253-3-10) which has been regarded as the earliest version containing some elements of the STTS, accepts the asphanaka-samadhi


breathing and fasting, he could not attain enlightenment, so he used a new method which had not been previously used by any ascetic.97 Thus, the author of the STTS is suggesting that the five abhisambodhis represent a new method of spiritual exercise which was used and performed by Sakyamuni for achieving enlightenment.

The method of the five abhisambodhis of the STTS is a major contribution to Tantric Buddhism. The five abhisambodhis are the most effective expedient established in Yoga-Tantra Buddhism to attain perfect enlightenment, and the five stages constitute the direct ways of obtaining the five Wisdoms as the virtues of Vairocana. Therefore, paragraphs (k), (1), (m), (n) and (o) correspond to the above paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e) respectively. Donjaku states that the mantras of the five abhisambodhis indicate the samddhis of the five Buddhas.98 Mkhas-grubtje states that the first abhisambodhi, which is paragraph (lc), is called Revelation- Enlightenment resulting from Discrimination (pratyaveksand), the second abhisambodhi, which is paragraph (1), is called Revelation-Enlightenment resulting from the resolve for the highest enlightenment (paramabodhicittotpada), the third abhisambodhi, which is paragraph (m), is called Revelation-Enlightenment resulting from the firm thunderbolt (drdha-vajra), the fourth abhisambodhi, which is paragraph (n), is called Revelation-Enlightenment resulting from thunderbolt as the preparatory ritual before performing the five abhisambodhis. The term asphanakasamadhi is described twice in the Recitation-sutra:-

(i) “For the benefit of converting innumerable living beings, the dhdrani-holdev should perform the asphanaka-samadhi. Then, the method of entering into samadhi is explained. One who wishes to enter into samadhi should not move his body, legs or arms, should close the lips and teeth together, should close the eyes and should think of the Buddha-image. If one wishes to enter into samadhi, one should think: ‘All the Buddhas are diffused in the entire space resembling oily sesame seeds on the ground. The body and mind should be gloriously adorned in this way.”’ (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 866, p. 226-2-7-12).

(ii) “One should enter into contemplation, and stop breathing in and out. At first, depending on dnapana (mindfulness of breathing) yoga, one should direct the mind to (breathing) and cultivate (the mind). Then, one should not move the body, legs or aims. This method is called asphdnalia-samadhi. The practitioner who has been in 0asphanaka-samadhi) for a long time should visualise his body in space and all the Buddhas diffused in the Dharmadhatu, and the mudra of snapping the fingers makes (him) rise up from his seat. The dharani-holder should think about and listen carefully to what all the Buddhas say: cO noble son, you should gain the highest and complete enlightenment quickly. But, how will you endure and attempt this difficult task without knowing the true nature of all the Tathagatas?’ At this time, having heard the words o f all the Buddhas, in accordance with the appropriate rite, he should come out from samadhi, and bind the mudra of rising up from the seat.” (TSD. Vol. 18, No. 866, p. 237-1-8-16).

97. Edward Thomas states: “From the scriptures, we leam that Gotama first sought instruction under two religious teachers, found them unsatisfying, and for six years practised austerities in the company of five disciples. Then, abandoning his fasting and self-tortures, he thought of a new method of religious exercise and won enlightenment.” (Edward Thomas, The Life o f Buddha as Legend and History, p. 62 and see pp. 61-80 for details of Sakyamuni's enlightenment).

9S. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, p. 126-3-5.


composition (yajrcitmaka) and the fifth abhisambodhi, which is paragraph (o), is called Revelation-Enlightenment resulting from equality with all the Tathagatas (sarvatathagata-samata)." Ennin asserts that the first four stages out of the five abhisambodhis constitute ‘the position of cause5 (i.e., progressive stages to Buddhahood) and the final fifth stage constitutes ‘the position of fruition5 (i.e., Buddhahood).100 Anandagarbha regards the above quotations concerning the five abhisambodhis as the first samadhi called the initial yoga.m Concerning the last section of the above quotations, both Ennin and Donjaku assert that the knowledge of the sameness of all the Tathagatas indicates Mirror-like-Wisdom, the secret pledge of the knowledge-mwr/ra of the vq/ra-sameness of all the Tathagatas indicates Equality-Wisdom, the knowledge of the sameness of the Dharma of all the Tathagatas indicates Discriminating-Wisdom, and the naturally luminous knowledge of the complete sameness of all the Tathagatas indicates Active- Wisdom.102


b. Tathagata Vajradhatu


According to the STTS, after Sakyamuni attained perfect enlightenment through the five abhisambodhis taught by all the Tathagatas manifested in their sambhogakayas, he went to the topmost mansion made of vajras, jewels and gems on the summit of Mount Sumeru together with all the Tathagatas. The STTS reads :- “Then, all the Tathagatas, once again, having emerged from the being -vajra of all the Tathagatas,103 performed the great precious gem-consecration of AkaSagarbha. They generated the dharmaknowledge of Avalokitesvara, and having become established in

the universal activity of all the Tathagatas,104 they went to the topmost mansion made of vajras, jewels and gems on the summit of Mount Sumeru. Having entered it, they empowered the Tathagata Vajradhatu105 in the essence of all the Tathagatas,106 and they placed him on the lion-seat of all the Tathagatas facing towards all directions. Then the Tathagatas Aksobhya, Ratnasambhava, LokeSvararaja107 and Amoghasiddhi empowered themselves in the essence of all the Tathagatas, and sat down " . F.D. Lessing and Alex Wayman (trs.), Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems, pp. 29-35.


100 TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2223, p. 12-1-10-11.

101. Tattvdloka, Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 155-1-4-5.

102. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2223, pp. 36-1-29-37-1-8; TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, pp. 208-3-2-209-2- 4.

103. Tibetan adds: “they generated the knowledge of the sameness of all the Tathagatas”.

104. Chinese 2 reads: “from the Dharma-knowledge of Avalokitesvara, they generated the various activities”.

105. Ennin asserts that the Tathagata Vajradhatu indicates Vairocana. (TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2223, p. 37-2-29).

106. Tibetan adds: “they became merged together into an indistinguishable union”.

107. Tibetan and both Chinese versions read: “Avalokitesvararaja”.

facing the four directions, upholding thus the sameness of all the directions on account of the Lord Tathagata Sakyamuni's penetration into the universal sameness.”108 Based upon the above quotation and other descriptions in the STTS, Toganoo Shoun maintains:-


“With regard to the Vajradhatu-mandala, at first, the Buddha (Yairocana) revealed it in tire abode of the king of the Akanistha gods for the sake of the Bodhisattvas belonging to the Tenth Stage {bhumi) such as Vajrapani and Avalokitesvara, and then in order to supplement some key points omitted in that assembly, having descended to the summit of Mount Sumeru, he revealed it once again. The Vajradhatu-mandala (explained in the STTS) describes the assemblage of the Buddha (Vairocana), and its style and structure are almost identical with the mandalas revealed in the Akanistha heaven and on the summit of Mount Sumeru.”

In order to support his view that the mandala revealed on the summit of Mount Sumeru is the reproduction of the mandala revealed in Akanistha heaven, he quotes a relevant passage from the commentary of Sakyamitra;- “This mandala (of the Vajradhatu), which comprises a circle of residents accomplishing the fruition of the Buddha and Bodhisattva Dharma, was revealed in the engaging palace of Akanistha heaven. However, (it was also revealed on the summit of Mount Sumeru) in order that (Vairocana) could help those who did not possess the blessing to be able to enter {Akanistha heaven) but could enter (the summit of Mount Sumeru) instead; once they had entered (the summit of Mount Sumeru) and had ripened their intellectual powers gradually and completely, they obtained the blessing to enter {Akanistha heaven).”

In contrast, Ennin asserts: “Sumeru in this context is not the so-called Mount Sumeru, but the name of the seat of Vairocana, which becomes the victorious seat of the Dharmadhatu. Since this place of the Buddha-seat can be compared to a mountain, it is called the summit of Mount Sumeru.”111 David Snellgrove regards the palace of the king of gods in Almnistha heaven as the place understood to be on the summit of Mount Sumeru.112 Donjaku states that Sakyamuni, having attained complete enlightenment in the Akanistha heaven as (the state of) the fourth dhyana, went to the summit of Mount Sumeru in order to turn the wheel of Dharma.113 Sakyamitra states that Sakyamuni having performed all kinds of activity previously in the abode (of the Icing) of the Akanistha gods, went from Akanistha heaven to


108. S. p. 10-7-18, T. p. 220-2-5-3-3, C l. p. 208-1-28-2-8, C2. p. 342-2-19-28.

109. Toganoo Shoun, Mandara no kenkyu, pp. 195-196.

110 Kosaldlamkdra, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, pp. 228-5-8-229-1-2.

1U. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2223, p. 14-2-19-3-28.

112. David Snellgrove, Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, p. 120.

113. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, p. 209-2-5-3-7.


Sumeru in order to sit on the victorious lion-seat,114 Concerning the last paragraph of the above quotation, he says that a Tathagata who has attained complete enlightenment is endowed with the natures of the four Wisdoms, and the four Wisdoms become the four Buddhas.115


c. Thirty-Seven Deities


The first part of the exposition of Vairocana begins with the explanation of the thirty-seven deities who are generated and manifested through the vctjra-samddhi of Vairocana. In the mandala-ntQ, they are drawn in the mandala, and play a major role for the practitioner, such as providing the supernatural powers and the wisdom of enlightenment. These thirty-seven deities include the five Tathagatas, namely, Vairocana, Aksobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha (or Lokesvararaja) and Amoghasiddhi, die sixteen Mahabodhisattvas116 who are divided into sets of four relating to the Buddha-families,117 the four Paramitas, i.e. Sattvavajri, Ratnavajri, Dharmavajri and Karmavajri, the four Internal Offerings ffiujds), i.e. Vajralasya, Vajramala, Vajragita and Vajranrtya, the four External Offerings, i.e. Vajradhupa, Vajrapuspa, Vajraloka and Vajragandha, and the four Guardians, i.e. Vajrankusa,

Vajrapasa, Vajrasphota and Vajravesa. Among these thirty-seven deities, the four Paramitas and the eight Offerings (four Internal and four External Offerings) are regarded as female deities. The names of the thirty-two deities excluding the five Tathagatas, express the characteristics and functions of the deities. Out of twentyeight mandalas in the STTS, the descriptions of the thirty-two deities appear only in this section that deals with the maha-mandala of the Vajradhatu. The characteristics of these thirty-two deities are explained in the STTS. (1) Four Mahabodhisattvas of the Vajra Family:-

Vajrasattva is ‘Great Thought of Enlightenment {mahabodhicittdy, Vajraraja is ‘Pledge of Attracting all the Tathagatas (sarvatathagatakarsanasamayay, Vajraraga is ‘Knowledge of Delighting all the Tathagatas {sarvatathagata-


114 Kosalalamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 201-3-6-7.

115. Ibid., p. 201-5-3-5.

116. David Snellgrove states that the sixteen Mahabodhisattvas are presented as aspects of Buddhahood, all ultimately arising from Vairocana's mental concentration (samadhi) in its various aspects, as symbolised by sixteen primary Bodhisattvas and they are all conceived of as manifestations of the one Bodhisattva, variously named as Samantabhadra, Vajrapani and Vajradhara. (David Snellgrove, Sarva-Tathagata-Tattva-Sangraha, Introduction, p. 25).


117. The first group surrounding Aksobhya in the mahd-mandala of the Vajradhatu is Vajrasattva, Vajraraja, Vajraraga and Vajrasadhu; the second group surrounding Ratnasambhava is Vajraratna, Vajratejas, Vajraketu and Vajrahasa; the third group surrounding Amitabha is Vajradharma, Vajratlksna, Vajrahetu and Vajrabhasa; the fourth group surrounding Amoghasiddhi is Vajrakarma, Vajraraksa, Vajrayaksa and Vajrasandhi, Ennin asserts: “The reason that the STTS starts with explaining the samadhis of the four Bodhisattvas surrounding Aksobhya in the east of Vairocana is that the Dharma of all Buddhas at first shines in the east like the Sun rises from the east.” (TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2223, p. 52-1-19-24).


anuraganajnanay and Vajrasadhu is ‘Great Joy (mahdtustty. These are ‘Great Pledge Beings of all the Tathagatas (sarvatathagatamahasamayasattvasy 3 18


(2) Four Mahabodhisattvas of the Ratna Family:- Vajraratna is ‘Great Consecration {mahabhiseka)1, Vajratejas is ‘Fathom Circle of Splendour (vyamaprabhamandala)\ Vajralcetu is ‘Goal of Great Beings119 (jmahasattvdrthay and Vajrahasa is ‘Great Rapture120 (mahdharsa) ’. These are ‘Beings of the Great Consecration of all the Tathagatas (sarvatathagatamahabhisekasattvasy.


(3) Four Mahabodhisattvas of the Dharma Family:-

Vajradharma is ‘Knowledge of Fo/ra-Essence (vajradharmatdjhanay ,122 Vajratlksna is ‘Knowledge of Wisdom of all the Tathagatas (,sarvatathagataprajhdjhdna) V 23 Vajrahetu is ‘Knowledge of Revolving the Great Wheel124 (mahdcakrapravartanajhanay and Vajrabhasa is ‘Knowledge of Non-Diffusion of Speech of all the Tathagatas {sarvatathdgatavdlprapahcavinivartanajhdna)5. These are ‘Great Knowledge Beings of all the Tathagatas (sarvatathagatamahdjndnasattvas)


(4) Four Mahabodhisattvas of the Karma Family:-

Vajrakarma is ‘Activity of Extensive Rites of Worshipping all the Tathagatas (sarvatathagatapujavidhivistarakarmay, Vajraraksa is ‘Strong Armour of Great Heroism126 (mahdviryadrdhakavaca)’, Vajrayaksa is ‘Great Expediency of all the Tathagatas (sarvatathagatamahopayay and Vajrasandhi is ‘Knowledge of 127all the Mudrdsm {sarvamudrdjhand)\ These are ‘Beings of the Great Action of all the Tathagatas {sarvatathdgatamahdkarmasattvasy .m


(5) Four Paramita Bodhisattvas:-


Sattvavajri is ‘Knowledge Pledge of all the Tathagatas (.sarvatathagatajnanasamayay, Ratnavajri is ‘Great Consecration {mahdbhisekd)% Dharmavajri is ‘Vajra Dharmahood (vajradharmatdy and Karmavajri is ‘All Worship (sarvapujay. These are ‘Paramitas of all the Tathagatas {sarvatathagataparam itdp\m ^

118. S. p. 19-1-3, T. p. 222-1-2-3, C l. p. 209-3-13-15, C2. p. 344-2-8-9.

119. Both Chinese versions read: “the Great Goal for Living Beings”.

120. Chinese 1 reads: “the Great Laughter” and Chinese 2 reads: “the Ko/m-Great Laughter”.

121. S. p. 26-10-11, T. p. 223-3-3, C l. p. 211-1-7-8, C2. p, 345-3-14-15.

122 Chinese 1 reads: “the Knowledge-Essence of Vajra-Dharma”, and Chinese 2 reads: “the Knowledge of Vajra-Great Essence”.

123. Chinese 2 omits.

124. Tibetan adds: “of the Dharma

125. S. p. 34-9-11, T. p. 224-5-4-5, C l. p. 212-1-28-2-1, C2. p. 347-2-10-12.

126. Chinese 1 adds: “all the Tathagatas”.

127. Tibetan and Chinese 1 insert: “Binding”.

l2S. Chinese 1 adds: “all the Tathagatas”.

129. S. p. 42-17-19, T. p. 226-2-8-3-1, C l. p. 213-3-12-14, C2. p. 348-3-24-26. 130 S. p. 46-17-18, T. p. 227-1-2-3, C l. p. 214-2-6-7, C2. p. 349-3-4-5.


(6) Eight Goddesses of Offering:-


Vajralasya is ‘Pledge of the Highest Pleasure and Satisfaction of all the Tathagatas {sarvatathdgatdnuttarasukhasaumanasyasamayd)’, Vajramala is ‘Garland of all the Tathagatas (sarvatathagatamala)’, Vajragita is ‘Melody of all the Tathagatas (sarvatathagatagdthdy and Vajranrtya is ‘Highest Performance of Worship131 of all die Tathagatas {sarvatathdgatdnuttarapujakarmakari)\ These are ‘Secret Offerings of all the Tathagatas (sarvatathdgataguhyapujds) ’.

Vajradhupa is ‘Entrance of Knowledge of all the Tathagatas (sarvatathagatajnandvesay, Vajrapuspa is ‘Accumulation133 of Qualities of Great Enlightenment (mahabodhyangasamcaydy, Vajraloka is 'Dharma134 Lamp of all the Tathagatas {sarvatathdgatadharmalokay and Vajragandha is ‘Scent of Moral Conduct, Concentration, Wisdom, Emancipation and Vision of the Knowledge of Emancipation {sttasamddhiprajhavimuktivimulctijhdnadarsanagandhdy. These are ‘Female Servants of all the Tathagatas {sarvatathdgatdjndkdryas) ’.


(7) Four Guardians of the Mandala Gates


Vajrankusa, VajrapaSa, Vajrasphota and Vajravesa are ‘Attracting, Entering, Binding and Subjugating 136all the Tathagatas (sarvatathagatasamdkarsana, pravesa, bandha, vasikaranay respectively. These are ‘Beings who Execute the Orders of all the Tathagatas {sarvatathdgatajhakarasy ,

With regard to the essences of the thirty-seven deities, Sakyamitra explains:- “The Lord Vairocana is endowed with the nature of the Dharmadhatu and becomes the supreme teacher of the lords of the mandala. He induces Samantabhadra and the five Tathagatas such as Aksobhya, consecrates (them) by means of die mudra, the activity of generating sattvas, the samadhi and die power of empowerment, and makes (them) join in the activities.

The Lord Aksobhya is endowed with the nature of Mirror-like- Wisdom and generates mudras and sattvas. The Lord Ratnasambhava is endowed with the nature of Equality-Wisdom and generates {mudras and sattvas). The Lord Amitabha is endowed with the nature of Discriminating-Wisdom and generates {mudras and sattvas). The Lord Amoghasiddhi is endowed with the nature of Active-Wisdom and generates {mudras and sattvas). These (Tathagatas) become induced and are ordered to release mudras by the Lord Vairocana, they are then endowed with the task of generating sattvas. Accordingly, the essences of the five


13 h Chinese 2 omits: “Worship”.

132. S. p. 50-15-17, T. p. 227-3-7-8, C l. p. 214-3-25-27, C2. p. 350-1-24-26.

133. Both Chinese versions read: “Pledge”, instead of “Accumulation”.

134. Chinese 1 omits: “Dharma”.

135. S. p. 54-16-18, T. p. 228-1-6-7, C l. p. 215-2-18-20, C2. p. 350-3-21-23.

136. Both Chinese versions insert: “the Pledge o f ’.

137. S. p. 59-1-2, T. p. 228-4-6, C l. p. 216-1-10-11, C2. p. 351-2-15-17.


Tathagatas become established and placed into the mandala perfectly by the Buddha who consists of the five Dharmas. The first Sattva, that is, the Lord Vajrasattva, is the essence of the thought of enlightenment. Having generated the thought of enlightenment, one should assemble living beings. Therefore, the second Sattva is the essence of the four things of the assemblage and becomes the means of assembling living beings. Having generated the thought of enlightenment and then assembled living beings, one should gratify those living beings. Therefore, the third Sattva becomes the means of gratifying living beings and is the essence of the passion which makes living beings mature and

liberated. One arouses passion in living beings, and after that, one should delight one's spiritual friends in order to make one's mind completely mature which is the Bodhisattva-6/zwmz. Therefore, the fourth Sattva is the essence of making living beings rejoice. These four (Sattvas) are the pledges of those who enter the method of the mantra-pmcticQ concealed by this Mahayana (= the STTS), Therefore, they are called the Pledge-sattvas. There is no other way of becoming a bodhisattva other than by adhering to them. He who says that one should rely on spiritual friends in order to make one's mind completely mature, after having delighted (one's spiritual friends), receives the consecration from those spiritual friends. Therefore, the fifth Consecration-Sattva is the essence of the wish-granting-gem (cintamani). Having attained the

consecration, one will hear and seize the equality of the disposition of mind. Therefore, the sixth Sattva becomes the place of the splendid wisdom of hearing and thinking, and becomes the place of the mandala of brightness. After hearing, one should accomplish the perfections (pdramitcif) such as giving. On account of that, the seventh Sattva is the essence of the perfection of giving (dana) because one accurately performs in accordance with what is heard. After performing, one will generate gratification and one rejoices hilly in the dharmas, because of the pure vision which is acquired as the result of performing in accordance with the dharma that is heard. Therefore, the eighth Sattva is the essence of gratifying and rejoicing. Since these four (Sattvas) are illustrated by means of the consecration, they are known as the Sattvas of the consecration.

After Hie mind is gratified in die dharma, the body becomes purified, and after the body is purified, happiness is felt, and after happiness is felt, thought arrives at one pointedness. Therefore, the ninth Sattva is endowed with the sign of samadhi. By means of the one-pointed thought, one will perceive with pure vision. Therefore, the tendi Sattva is the essence of wisdom and knowledge. The devotee, who abides in thought which has been transformed through analysing the dharmas with wisdom, and


who then distinguishes (them) completely with knowledge, should transform die mandala. Therefore, the eleventh Sattva is the essence of transformation, or the essence of the knowledge obtained after samadhi. Having arisen from samadhi, one explains the things that have been perceived or one thoroughly examines what exists in one's thoughts. Therefore, the twelfth Sattva is the essence of speech. Since these (four Sattvas) originate from knowledge, they are called the Knowledge-Sattva. In this way, the devotee, who has gone through the door of the secret mantra, remains in the pledge, is consecrated and completes yoga. When being enacted, these performances are uninterrupted.

Next, therefore, the Action-Sattvas are explained. Action involves the signs of worshipping the Buddhas and the signs to profit living beings. Therefore, the thirteenth Sattva is the sign of Activity-Sattva. In performing the activity, one can become hindered and misled. Therefore, since one should protect oneself from the (hindrances), the fourteenth Sattva is the essence of diligence and affection. Since one should terrify the (hindrances), the fifteenth Sattva is the essence of the means of possessing the form to divert the (hindrances). There is no other way to be able to accomplish all these actions except by assembling Body, Speech and Mind Vajra of these (Sattvas) into one. Therefore, the sixteenth Sattva is the secret essence of body, speech and mind. Then, in order to seal the knowledge of each (Tathagata) family with a mudra, the four A/Wra-Masters (i.e. Sattvavajri, Ratnavajri, Dharmavajri and Karmavajri) should transform each of the four mudras abiding in each quarter. The four Secret- Offerings, namely, Vajralasya, (Vajramala, Vajragita and

Vajranrtya) are Pleasure in the Thought of Enlightenment, Garland of all the Tathagatas, Melody of all the Tathagatas and Drama of all the Tathagatas. Since these become the highest, they are placed as the form having the nature of the Great Goddess of the family. The four (External Offerings), namely, Vajradhupa, (Vajrapuspa, Vajraloka and Vajragandha) are Very Purifying, the Flower of the Qualities of Enlightenment, the Lamp of Knowledge and the Scent of Moral Conduct. The four Guardians (i.e. Vajrankusa, Vajrapasa, Vajrasphota and Vajravesa) are Heart, Affection toward Living Beings, Exertion of Teaching and Perfection of Wisdom.”138


d. Vajra-Samadhi


According to the STTS, the thirty-seven knowledges are regarded as the thirtyseven deities manifested through the vajra-samadhi. Donjaku maintains that these 138. Kosalalamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 228-2-5^5-8.


thirty-seven deities possess the five Wisdoms.139 He also maintains that this section of the STTS explains the samadhis and mantras of only thirty-two deities excluding the five Buddhas because the samadhis and mantras of the five Buddhas have already been demonstrated as the five samadhis and mantras of the five abhisambodhis.i40 Anandagarbha regards the samadhi of attracting the thirty-two deities as the second samadhi called the supreme mandala-king.141 In the context of Mahayana Buddhism, we can understand these thirty-seven deities as referring to the thirty-seven Bodhipalcsika dharmas.142 These Bodhipaksika dharmas contain practices and principles to reach enlightenment in Mahayana Buddhism. Through samadhi in tantric ritual, the STTS seems to transform the Mahayana dharmas into personified deities.

The STTS in this section, except for the five Tathagatas, describes in detail all the other thirty-two deities manifested through the Vajra-Samddhi of Vairocana. For example, the Lord Vairocana enters into samadhi, and then he brings from his heart the hr day a of all the Tathagatas. The thirty-two hr day as in the STTS indicate the names of the thirty-two deities and there are different names of the samadhi in accordance with the deities to be summoned. The samadhi called Being- Empowerment- Vajra is performed for attracting the deities of the first group (Vajrasattva, Vajraraja, Vajraraga and Vajrasadhu); the samadhi called Gem- Empowerment- Vajra is for attracting the deities of the second group (Vajraratna, Vajratejas, Vajraketu and Vajrahasa); the samadhi called D/zama-Empowerment- Vajra is for attracting the deities of the third group (Vajradharma, Vajratiksna, Vajrahetu and Vajrabhasa); the samadhi called Action-Empowerment- Vajra is for attracting the deities of the fourth group (Vajrakarma, Vajraralcsa, Vajrayaksa and Vajrasandhi); the samadhi called fayra-Empowerment is for the four Paramitas; the samadhi called Vajra is for the eight Goddesses of Offering; and the samadhi called Being- Vajra is for the four Guardians. The STTS gives a good example of the methods used to attract one of the thirty-two deities in the case of Vajrasattva “Then, immediately upon becoming completely enlightened, the Lord Tathagata Vairocana assumed the Samantabhadra-essence of all the Tathagatas,143 and became consecrated with the great precious gem-consecration generated from the space of all the

139. TSD. Vol. 61, N o. 2225, p. 121-1-24-26.

14°. Ibid., p. 212-1-19-23.

141. Tattvdlolca, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 179-4-2-3.

142. For details o f the Bodhipaksilca dharmas, see Tadeusz Skorupski, The Practices Conducive to Enlightenment, pp. 1-13; Har Dayal, The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sans b i t Literature, pp. 80-164.

143. Chinese 1 reads: “Then, immediately, the Lord Tathagata Vairocana became completely enlightened the Samantabhadra-essence o f all the Tathagatas.” Chinese 2 reads: “Then, immediately, the Lord Tathagata Mahavairocana became completely enlightened by means of the Samantabhadra-essence o f all the Tathagatas.”


Tathagatas. He acquired the highest144 perfection as the Dharmaknowledge of all the Tathagatas (as) Avalokitesvara. He gained the highest, all efficacious and captivating dispensation of the universal and invincible activities of all the Tathagatas.145 Having thus become self-empowered with the essence of all the Tathagatas, he entered the samadhi called the Vajra that empowers the Being arisen from the pledge of the146 Mahabodhisattva Samantabhadra of all the Tathagatas.147 He brought forth from his heart this hr day a of all the Tathagatas called the Perfect Comprehension of the Mahayana of all the Tathagatas:- ‘ VAJRASATTVA’.


As soon as it was issued from the hearts of all die Tathagatas, this very (hrdaya), as the Lord148 Samantabhadra, became transformed and emerged as lunar discs. Having purified the great thoughts of enlightenment of all living beings, they became established in all the quarters of all the Tathagatas.

Then, from those lunar discs there emerged the knowledge-vq/ras1 of all the Tathagatas, and they penetrated into the heart of the Lord Tathagata Vairocana.150 Due to the Vajrasattva -samadhi having the nature of Samantabhadra151 and of steadfastness, and through 144 Chinese 1 omits: “highest”.

145. Chinese 1 reads: “he gained the all efficacious and all pervasive dispensation o f the universal activities o f all the Tathagatas, completed performance and completed the joy o f the mind”. Chinese 2 reads: “he completed the performance and joy o f the mind in the all efficacious and uninterrupted dispensation o f the universal activities o f all the Tathagatas”. According to Ennin, this section refers to the four Wisdoms. (TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2223, pp.

38-1-7-39-3-10.)

146. Tibetan adds: “so called”.


147. Both Chinese versions read: “He entered the Pledge o f the Mahabodhisattva Samantabhadra o f all the Tathagatas, and generated the Vajra-Samadhi o f the Being-Empowerment.” This difference between the Sanskrit or Tibetan version and both Chinese versions is not because two Indian translators, namely, Amoghavajra and Danapala, translated the Sanskrit original differently based upon the textual differences, but because the Japanese editors of Taisho Shinshu Daizoltyo Edition o f the Chinese Buddhist Canon edited these Chinese versions only linguistically without comparing them with the Sanskrit or Tibetan version. Traditionally, since the classical Chinese texts did not use the commas and full stops in the sentences or paragraphs, modem scholars can edit and translate the same sentence differently in some cases. Regarding the above sentence, the Japanese editors regarded the Chinese word ‘ch u -sh en g which literally means ‘to generate’ and is used as the equivalent o f the Sanskrit word '’sambhava’ in this context, not as a participle but as a verb, and divided one connected sentence into two separate ones. Linguistically and grammatically, their editorial work is correct. However, in Chinese the above sentence without a comma, confirms that the Indian translators literally translated it according to the word order o f the Sanskrit original. This kind o f mistake happens continuously in both Chinese versions. One interesting point is that the Sanskrit word 1 sambhavaAmoghavajra, differing from Danapala, translates into Chinese as a verb in some pages, but in other pages as a participle even if there is no difference in Sanskrit.


148. Chinese 2 adds: “Mahabodhisattva”.

149. Chinese 1 reads: “all the Buddhas”.

150. Chinese 2 reads: “Mahavairocana”.

15 Tibetan omits: “the nature of Samantabhadra”.


the empowerment of all the Tathagatas, they became merged into one, and pervaded the entire sphere of space with a ray beam decorated with five crests. Having become visible as the Vajraform152 created153 by the Body, Speech and Mind Vajra of all the Tathagatas,154 they emerged from the heart(s) of all the Tathagatas, and became located on the hand155 (of the Lord).

Then, from that vajra there emerged beams of multi-coloured and vq/Ta-shaped rays,157 which with brightness penetrated all the universes. From the tips of these vq/ra-shaped rays there emerged the bodily forms of the Tathagatas as numerous and infinite as die dust particles of all the universes. On account of their perfect enlightenment to the intuitive wisdom that perceives the sameness of all the Tathagatas, and that comprises the entire Dharmadhdtu, encompassing the whole of the space-sphere,158 and prevailing like ocean-clouds over all die universes, they generated the great thoughts of enlightenment of all the Tathagatas, They accomplished all kinds of practices of Samantabhadra, delighted die families159 of all the Tathagatas, approached the seat of the great enlightenment, vanquished all die Maras, and attained the 160great enlightenment161 of the sameness of all the Tathagatas. They set in motion the wheel of the Dharma,162 liberated the entire and complete sphere of living beings, acted for the benefit and welfare of all, accomplished the highest attainment of 1 “ knowledge and intuitive wisdom of all the Tathagatas, and displayed all the other miraculous activities of all the Tathagatas. Due to Vajrasattva's samadhi having the nature of Samantabhadra and of steadfastness, they then became merged into one and assumed the body of the Mahabodhisattva Samantabhadra. Then, he became established in the heart of the Lord Vairocana, and recited this joyful utterance


152 Tibetan reads: “ Vajradhatu”.

153. Tibetan reads: “resembling”.

154. Chinese 1 reads: “Having generated the vq/ra-form from the Body, Speech and Mind Vajra o f all the Tathagatas”.

155 Tibetan reads: “both hands”. The Sanskrit term for ‘on the hand’ in this context is tpanau\ that is the locative singular form o f lp a n i\ but the Tibetan text read it as the dual. This happens continuously.

156. Both Chinese versions add: “o f the Buddha”.

15?. Tibetan reads: “rays resembling that vajra”. Chinese 1 reads: “Then from that vajra there emerged vq/ra-shaped various colours”.

158. Chinese 1 omits: “sphere”.

159. Both Chinese versions omit: “families”.

16°. Chinese 2 inserts: “highest”.

16 f Chinese 2 inserts: “fruit”.

162 Tibetan: “excellent Dharma”. 163. Chinese 2 inserts: “pledge”.


‘Bravo! I 164am the self-existent Samantabhadra, the steadfast being. Though without a body due to steadfastness, I assume a being's165 body.

Then, the body of the Mahabodhisattva Samantabhadra emerged from the Lord's heart, and resting on the lunar disc in front of all the Tathagatas, he solicited for instructions. Then, having entered the samadhi called the Pledge- Vajra166 of the Knowledge167 of all the Tathagatas,168 the Lord conferred upon this Mahabodhisattva169 Samantabhadra the consecration with the gem-crown and coloured cloth as the body of all the Buddhas for setting in motion the wheel of all the Tathagatas, and he placed into his hands the success-vq/ra of all the Tathagatas. He did this in order to realise the goals that range from170 all the Tathagatas' moral conduct, samadhi, wisdom, emancipation, vision of the knowledge of emancipation, turning the wheel of the Dharma, pursuing activities for the benefit of living beings, great skilful means, powers, heroism, the pledge of great knowledge,171 liberation of the entire sphere of living beings, bestowing sovereignty on all, experiencing complete pleasure and

satisfaction,172 and that conclude with the knowledge of the sameness of all the Tathagatas, the highest intuitive wisdom and the highest attainment of the complete comprehension of the Mahayana. Next, all the Tathagatas consecrated him with the vq/'ra-name-consecration, saying; ‘Vajrapani Vajrapani’. Then, with the vajra-pride, the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Vajrapani waved that vajra with his left hand173 and shook it at his heart (with his right hand), and then holding it in a boastful manner,174 he recited this joyful utterance:-


164. Chinese 2 adds: “the stainless”.

165. Chinese 2 reads: “Vajrasattva”, instead o f “being”.

166. Chinese 2 reads: “the Vajra-Samadhi”.

167. Tibetan reads: “the Pledge- Vajra o f the Samadhi and Knowledge”.

168. Chinese 1 reads: “the Knowledge-Pledge o f all the Tathagatas called the Vajra-Samadhi

169. Tibetan reads: “Bodhisattva Mahasattva”.

170. Both Chinese versions insert: “receiving for use”.

171. Chinese 2 reads: “generating the pledge o f great knowledge from the skilful means o f great knowledge and the power o f great vigour”.

172. Chinese 2 reads: “letting the sovereign o f all gain happiness and sensual enjoyment”.

173. According to Sakyamitra, Vajrasattva hits his side with his left hand o f forming the vajrafist. {Kosalalamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p.205-2-5~8). Anandagarbha comments that Vajrasattva holds a bell with his left hand o f forming the va/ra-fist, and places it on his left waist. (Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 157-4-5~6).

174. This phrase is missing in Sanskrit.

Chinese 1 reads: “During the time o f consecration, the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Vajrapani waved the vajra, m oving his left (hand) and making rhythmic movements with his right (hand), and then he placed that vajra at his heart, keeping the energy in progress (that had been generated by his actions).” Chinese 2 reads: “At this time, the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Vajrapani looking arrogant, waved that vajra with the right hand, and placed (it) at his heart, keeping the energy in progress (that had been generated by his actions).”


‘This is the highest success-vq/ra of all the Buddhas.


The vajra placed in my hand and I abide in the vajra”’

Among the thirty-two deities, Vajrasattva, who is the tantric transformation of the Bodhisattva, is considered as the most important Mahabodhisattva. The relationship between Vairocana and Vajrasattva can be understood as the fundamental substance to the phenomenal function. Kukai asserts that in order to realise perfect enlightenment, all living beings need to start with Vajrasattva's empowerment, so Vajrasattva is called ‘the Thought of Enlightenment of all the Tathagatas5 and all the thirty-seven deities are generated from this particular Bodhisattva.176 Donjaku also maintains that Vajrasattva is the cause of Vairocana, and hence Vajrasattva is called the Thought of Enlightenment of all the Tathagatas for this reason as well.177 Part one of the Sanskrit STTS emphasises Vajrasattva who is the starting point of enlightenment because this part focuses on enlightenment and propounds the tantric methods such as the five abhisambodhis.


e. Supreme Action-King Having introduced and exp

lained the thirty-seven deities, the STTS proceeds to explain the method of empowering the assembly of all the Tathagatas, which is regarded as the third samadhi, and which Anandagarbha calls the supreme actionking. 178 The 'STTS reads:-

“Then having drawn the sign for the snapping of the m vajra~ fingers for empowering180 the assembly of all the Tathagatas,181 the Lord182 pronounced this hrdayam for empowering the assembly of all the Tathagatas :-

  • VAJRASAMAJA5.

Then, in an instant, the Tathagatas were induced by the sign of the fingers of all the Tathagatas being snapped. They, who prevail like the ocean-clouds over all the universes and who are equal in number to the infinite dust particles of all the universes, gathered together in a conclave with the mandalas of the retinue of Bodhisattvas. They then went to the topmost mansion of the Lord,185 made of vajras, jewels and gems where the Lord


175. S. pp. 11-13, T. pp. 220-3-3-221-1-4, C l. p. 208-2-9-3-24, C2. pp. 342-2-29-343-1-20.

176. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2221, p. 5-1-26-29.

177. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, p. 159-1-4-6.

17S. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 180-3-7.

179. Chinese 2 omits: "vajra”.

18°. Chinese 1 omits: “empowering”.

18 f In this context, the hand gesture for empowering the assembly o f all the Tathagatas is that while holding the two vo/'ra-fists, one makes two hooks with the two forefingers, and binds a vajra in both hands. (Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 179-4-7—8).

182. Chinese 2 adds: “Tathagata Mahavairocana”.

183. Tibetan omits: 11 hr day a”.

184. Chinese 2 omits: “all the Tathagatas”.

185. Tibetan and both Chinese versions omit: “Lord”.


186Vairocana187 was abiding. On approaching, they pronounced this (mantra):-


OM SARVA-TATHAGATA-PADA-VANDANAN KAROML


make a salutation to the feet of all the Tathagatas.)7 Having made a salutation to the feet188 of all the Tathagatas by reciting at will this self-perfected mantra, they recited this joyful utterance:-

Ah! This is the excellent activity of the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra. Due to this, the Tathagata is luminous in the middle of the wheel189 of the Tathagatas.7

Then having pronounced this, all the Tathagatas, who had assembled from the ten directions of all the universes, entered the heart of the Lord190 Vairocana191 through the empowerment of all the Tathagatas together with the mandalas of the retinue of the Bodhisattvas. From these hearts of all the Tathagatas, there emerged the mandalas of the retinue of their own Bodhisattvas, and they formed a mandala on every side of the topmost mansion of the Lord,192 made of vajras, jewels and gems. Having entered and positioned (themselves), they recited this joyful utterance:- ‘Ah! This is indeed the beginningless powerful193 birth of all the Buddhas. Due to this, the Buddhas, numerous as all the atoms, became merged into one.57,


3. Extensive Rites o f Entering All the Mandalas


According to Anandagarbha, the section of the tantra starting with the words, “Then all the Lords Tathagatas”195 and ending with the words, “The sound HE should be uttered for the one whose name is bestowed77,196 explains the activities of the master and the extensive rite of entering all the mandalas.


a. One Hundred and Eight Invocations


After the preliminary activities such as the three samadhis have been performed, the final action prior to the mandala-ritual is the invocation-ceremony. In this context, it consists in reciting the names of one hundred and eight deities to invoke their


186 Tibetan and both Chinese versions insert: “Tathagata”.

187 Chinese 2 reads: “Mahavairocana”.

188. Chinese 1 omits: “feet”.

189. Both Chinese versions insert: “mandala”.

19°. Chinese 1 omits: “Lord” and inserts: “Buddha”.

191. Chinese 2 reads: “Tathagata Mahavairocana”.

192. Chinese 1 adds: “Buddha Vairocana”.

193. Tibetan and both Chinese versions read: “great” instead of “powerful”.

194 S. pp. 59-3-60-10, T. p. 228-4-6-5-8, C l. p. 216-1-12-2-3, C2. p. 351-2-18-3-10.

195. atha bhagavantah sarvatathdgatdh: S. p. 60-11, T. p. 228-5-8, C l. p. 216-2-4, C2. p. 351- 3-11.

196. yasyayan nama kuryat tasya he-sabdah prayolctavya iti: S. p. 72-16, T. p. 230-4-8, C l. p. 219-1-14, C2. p. 354-2-26.

197. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, pp. 135-2-7-8.


manifestation. According to the STTS, before the Lord explains the main mandalas, all the Tathagatas gather together in a conclave and invoke the Lord with one hundred and eight names. Thus, the invocation-ceremony of reciting the one hundred and eight names is introduced before every main mandala is explained. The invocation-ceremony with one hundred and eight names appears in the STTS six times: part one, pp. 60-62 (ch. 1); part two, pp. 154-156 (ch. 6); part three, pp. 315-317 (ch. 15); part four, pp. 383-385 (ch. 19); part five, pp. 549-551 and pp. 559-561 (ch. 26-b). Each part of the STTS contains a different set of deity-names. These one hundred and eight tantric deity-names can be interpreted as corresponding to one hundred and eight Buddhist sufferings taught by the Buddha Sakyamuni, and the practitioner can eliminate the one hundred and eight sufferings by means of reciting the same number of deity-names.

Concerning the names of one hundred and eight deities listed in die Sanskrit STTS pages 60-62, there is a difference of opinion between Sakyamitra and Anandagarbha. Sakyamitra maintains that the number of one hundred and eight names in this context means only an approximately counted example. Therefore, an exact total of the names described in the STTS is not 108 but exactly 112. These one hundred and twelve names are divided into sixteen groups, and the sixteen groups represent the characteristics of the sixteen Mahabodhisattvas. Each group starts with the name of one of the sixteen Mahabodhisattvas. In addition, each group consists of seven names, which symbolise the distinguishing characteristics of each Mahabodhisattva.198 However, Anandagarbha199 explains that the names listed in the STTS are one hundred and eight in number. He makes some adjustments in the four cases by merging two separate names into one, for example, Pramodyaraja and Vajragrya as Pramodyaraja-vajragrya,200 Akasagarbha and Vajradhya as Akasagarbha-vajradhya,201 Suviryagrya and Duryodhana as Suviryagryaduryodhana, 202 and Vajramusti and Agrasamaya as Yajramusti-agrasamaya.


b. Structure o f the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala


The Vajradhatu Mahdmandala is regarded as the principal mandala throughout the whole of the STTS because all the other mandalas explained in the STTS are 19S. Concerning the meanings o f the seven names that each group contains, Sakyamitra comments: the first is a characteristic established by means o f the mantra; the second is a characteristic established by means o f the mudra; the third is a common characteristic established by means o f all the Tathagatas; the fourth is a characteristic transformed into another by means o f activity; the fifth is a characteristic transformed by means o f the mahamudra; the sixth is a characteristic transformed by means o f the name-consecration; the seventh is a characteristic transformed by means o f acting for the welfare o f living beings.


CKosaldlamkdra, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 230-1-7-2-1).

199. Tattvaloka , TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, pp. 180-5-3-182-2-5.

200. Ibid., p. 181-2-1.

201. Ibid., p. 181-2-6.

202 Ibid., p. 182-1-5.

203. Ibid., p. 182-2-4.


derived from it. The mahd-mandala which constitutes the supreme maha-mudra focuses on the Body of Vairocana. According to Sakyamitra, the term * Vajradhatumandala’ originates in the mandala being manifested by the Bodhisattva Vajradhatu.204 The Vajradhatu Mahdmandala is explained by the Lord Vajradhara. The method of constructing the mandala is described in the STTS:- “Now, I will explain the supreme Mahdmandala (of the Tathagata-family).205 It resembles the Vajradhatu, so it is called ‘Vajradhatu (Ka/ra-sphere)’.

According to the rule, one should sit in the centre of the mandala, and contemplate and empower die maha-mudra of the Mahasattva. Having been engaged in the mudra, one should rise (from the mudra) and gaze at every direction. Then, one should walk around with pride, pronouncing; ‘Vajrasattva’.

The mandala should be measured by learned men in accordance with (their) power using a new, well-made, well-measured and beautiful thread. (The mandala) has its four comers embellished with four gates and four arched doorways, joined together by four lines and adorned with silk pennants, wreaths and garlands. The external mandala should be drawn, inlaid with vajras and gems in every part of each comer and between the gates and doors. When the internal castle, symbolised by the wheel, is entered, it is surrounded by the vajra-line and adorned with eight pillars. The boundary of the vu/ra-pillars is decorated with five lunar discs.

One should position an image of the Buddha (Vairocana) in the centre of the central mandala. In the centre of the discs on all die sides of the Buddha, the four chief Pledges (referring to the four Paramitas) should be drawn in correct order. After one approaches with the vayra-impulse, all the four Buddhas, i.e. Aksobhya and the others, should be positioned in the four mandalas.

The mandala of Aksobhya should be duly arranged with Vajradhara and the others.206 The mandala of Ratnasambhava is filled with Vajragarbha and the others.207 The mandala of 204 Kosaldlamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 253-5-1. Toganoo Shoun asserts that since Vajradhatu is another name o f the Tathagata Mahavairocana and since, according to the STTS, the Tathagata Mahavairocana is called the Tathagata Vajradhatu who consists o f the elements (dhatu) o f knowledge, solid and unbreakable like a diamond (vajra), the Vajradhatu-mandala is the mandala revealed by the Tathagata Vajradhatu. (Toganoo Shoun, Mandara no kenlzyu, p. 196).

205. Tibetan reads: “vajra-mandala” instead o f “mahd-mandala”.

206. The mandala o f Aksobhya includes Vajradhara (or Vajrasattva), Vajrakarsa (or Vajraraja),

Vajradhanu (or Vajraraga) and Vajraharsa (or Vajrasadhu).

207. The mandala o f Ratnasambhava includes Vajragarbha (or Vajraratna), Vajraprabha (or Vajratejas), Vajrayasti (or Vajraketu) and Vajrapriti (or Vajrahasa).


Amitayus is purified with Vajranetra and the others.208 The mandala of Amoghasiddhi should be drawn with Vajravisva and the others.

The (four) Phyra-goddesses should be drawn in the comers of the (central) circle. The (four) Female Offerings of the Buddha should be drawn in the comers of the external mandala. The four Doorguardians should be positioned in the centre of all the gates. The Mahasattvas should be placed in the (four) directions of the external mandala.”

The above passage from the STTS gives only the basic positions of the thirty-seven deities in the mandala, without their details such as postures, body-colours and symbols. The detailed descriptions paraphrased below of the thirty-seven deities positioned in the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala are taken from Anandagarbha's commentary.

(1) Vairocana: His body is white. He holds a five-pronged vajra in the mudra of supreme enlightenment. He sits cross-legged on a lion-seat which is positioned on top of a lotus and a lunar-disc. He wears upper and lower garments made of cotton endowed with the brightness of the sun. He is endowed with the consecration of the gem-diadem and silk-omaments. His first face out of four looks to the east.


(2) Aksobhya: His body is blue. He sits vo/ra-cross-legged on a lotus and a moon resting on a elephant-seat. He forms the mudra of earth-touching and also the mudra of vajra. He is endowed with the sun-brightness-disc, and with the consecration of die gem-diadem and silk-omaments. His face is turned towards Vairocana.


(3) Ratnasambhava: His body is yellow. He sits va/'ra-cross-legged on a lotus and a moon resting on a horse-seat. He forms the mudra of supreme giving and also the mudra of vajra-gem. He is endowed with the sun-brightness-disc, and with the consecration of the gem-diadem and silk-omaments. His face is turned towards Vairocana.


(4) Amitabha: His body is red. He sits vayra-cross-legged on a lotus and a moon resting on a peacock-seat. He forms the mudra of supreme samadhi and also the mudra of vajra-lotus. He is endowed with the sun-brightness-disc, and with the consecration of the gem-diadem and silk-omaments. His face is turned towards Vairocana.


(5) Amoghasiddhi: His body is green. He sits va/ra-cross-legged on a lotus and a moon resting on a Garuda-seat. He forms the mudra of fearlessness and also the mudra of universal-vq/ra (yisva-vajra). He is endowed with the sun-brightness- 208. The mandala o f Amitayus includes Vajranetra (or Vajradharma), Vajrabuddhi (or Vajratiksna), Vajramanda (or Vajrahetu) and Vajravaca (or Vajrabhasa).

209. The mandala o f Amoghasiddhi includes Vajravisva (or Vajrakarma), Vajramitra (or Vajraraksa), Vajracanda (or Vajrayaksa) and Vajramusti (or Vajrasandhi). 210. S. pp. 63 -5 -64-10, T. p. 229-2-8-4-1, C l. pp. 216-3-24-217-1-22, C2. p. 352-2-11-3-12.


disc, and with the consecration of the gem-diadem and silk-omaments. His face is turned towards Vairocana. In addition to the above descriptions of the five Tathagatas, Anandagarbha further explains:-

“One should draw and position these five Tathagatas while reciting the hrdaya called the Vajradhatu which is common to the five Tathagatas. One should induce the five Tathagatas visualised in space to descend into die mandala and to merge into one with the forms of the five Tathagatas drawn inside the mandala. Thus, while reciting the hr day as from Sattvavajri up to Vajravesa, one should draw and position the deities from Sattvavajri up to Vajravesa, and one should induce the forms of the thirty-two deities visualised in space to descend into the mandala and to merge into one with the forms of the thirty-two deities drawn inside the mandala

(6) Sattvavajri: She holds a red five-pronged vajra, and sits on a lotus and moon seat.

(7) Ratnavajri: She holds a five-pronged vajra attached with the top of the wishgranting- gem, and sits on a lotus and moon seat.

(8) Dharmavajri: She holds a five-pronged vajra at the entrance to the repository of a whitish-red sixteen-petalled lotus with eight petals turn downwards and eight petals turn upwards. She sits on a lotus and moon seat.

(9) Karmavajri: She holds a crossed-vayra made of five colours and twelve prongs, i.e. its centre is white, its fore-part is blue, its right part is yellow, its back part is red and its left part is like emerald. She sits on a lotus and moon seat. Regarding the seats of the Bodhisattvas, Anandagarbha comments that the Bodhisattvas from Vajrasattva up to the Bhadrakalpa Bodhisattvas sit on the sattvaseats above lotuses and moons because it is said that the leading Chiefs, such as Vajrasattva, should sit on the half-vo/ra-seats, and be differentiated in different ways.”

(10) Vajrasattva: His body is white. His left hand holds a bell with the vajra-fist positioned next to his body with the vay'ra-pride, while his right hand holds a first five-pronged vajra with his middle finger placed in the khatvdnga-mudrd positioned next to his heart.

(11) Vajraraja: His body is the colour of gold. He sits while assembling all the Tathagatas by means of the vcz/ra-hook.

(12) Vajraraga: His body is red. He performs the ritual of piercing all the Tathagatas with a bow and an arrow.

(13) Vajrasadhu: His body is emerald in colour. He sits while delighting all the Tathagatas by producing ‘the sadhu-sounds’ as well as making the vajra-fist with both his hands.


(14) Vajraratna: His body is yellow. He sits with the vajra-pride and as his distinguished characteristic, he holds with the vajra-fist of his left hand a gemstudded- bell at his forehead and with the vajra-fi st of his right hand he holds a fivepronged vajra together with the wish-granting-gem.

(15) Vajratejas: His body is the colour of the sun. In his right hand he holds the disc of the vajra-sun and illuminates the Tathagatas, and he touches the seat with his left hand.

(16) Vajraketu: His body is the colour of die sky. He holds the banner of the wishgranting- gem in his right hand, while touching the seat with his left hand.

(17) Vajrahasa: His body is white like a tortoise-shell and lotus root. In his right hand he holds an object which is certainly connected with the smile of the Tathagatas — it has two rows of teeth and a vajra at the top. He touches the seat with his left hand.

(18) Vajradharma: His body is reddish white. In his left hand, he holds a vajralotus against his ribs and he opens its petals at his heart with his right hand. (19) Vajratiksna: His body is blue and pure like the sky. In his left hand he holds a book of Prajnapdramitd at the heart and a sword in his right. He sits confidently in the posture of striking all the Tathagatas.

(20) Vajrahetu: His body is the colour of gold. With his right hand he turns an eight-spolced wheel with his middle finger, and he touches the seat with his left hand.

(21) Vajrabhasa: His body is the colour of copper. He speaks to the Tathagatas while holding the vajra-tongue in his right hand, and he touches the seat with his left hand.

(22) Vajrakarma: His face is white. His waist and both his hands are light-blue. From below his face to his waist, he is pale red. His thighs are light yellow, and from his calves to his feet, he is white. His left hand holds the imiversal-vayra-bell with the vajra-fist and the vajra-pride, and by means of praise, the middle-fmger of his right hand holds the universal-va/>*a over his heart.

(23) Vajraraksa: His body is the colour of gold. His hands hold the va/ra-cuirass, and he sits giving an impression of armouring all the Tathagatas.

(24) Vajrayaksa: His body is black and he has a large belly. He sits and grins while holding with his vo/'ra-fists the ends of the tusks protruding from his mouth.

(25) Vajrasandhi: His body is yellow. He sits while inserting and pressing a vajra into the middle of his pledge (6,amaya)-formed-fists.

(26) Vajralasya: Her body is white. She holds two five-pronged vajras with the vajra-fists. Having proudly displayed them with the vcy'm-contempt, she points both vajras slightly towards the left. (27) Vajramala: Her body is yellow. She consecrates the Tathagatas with a garland of gems. (28) Vajragita: Her body is pale red. She plucks a vind.


(29) Vajranrtya: Her body is of the same colour as Vajrakarma's body. She holds a three-pronged vajra while making it dance with both her hands.

(30) Vajradhupa: Her body is white. She satisfies the Tathagatas with the vajraincense- vessel.

(31) Vajrapuspa: Her body is yellow. She holds a vq/Wz-flower-vessel in her left hand, and she scatters particles of flowers with her right hand.

(32) Vajraloka: Her body is pale red. She holds the wick of a lamp and worships the Tathagatas delighted by the lamp's brightness.

(33) Vajragandha: Her body is variegated just like the bodies of Vajranrtya and Vajrakarma. She holds the dharma-shell of scent in her left hand, and worships the Tathagatas with a scent-cloud held in her right hand.

(34) Vajrankusa; His body is white. He attracts the Tathagatas with the vq/ra-hook.

(35) Vajrapasa: His body is yellow. He induces the Tathagatas to enter the mandala with the vajra-noose.

(36) Vajrasphota: His body is pale red. He binds the Tathagatas with the vajrachain.

(37) Vajravesa: His body is variegated. He subjugates the Tathagatas. He holds the vq/'ra-bell in his right hand while touching the seat with his left hand.


Anandagarbha concludes the description of the deities:-

"All the Tathagatas are endowed with a state of tranquillity and the postures of tranquil vision. They smile and are adorned with ornaments. The eyes of Vajrasattva and the others are wide open with supreme joy. They (Vajrasattva and the other Bodhisattvas) are endowed with a state of grace and smile. They are consecrated with the diadems and silk scarves of the five Buddhas, and adorned with all kinds of ornaments.”

In addition to the thirty-seven deities, the Mahasattvas are placed towards the four directions of the external mandala. In this context, the Mahasattvas refer to the Bodhisattvas of the Bhadrakalpa.212 As in the sixth part of the introduction, Amoghavajra states that there are the sixteen Bhadrakalpa Mahabodhisattvas213

211. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, pp. 185-3-8-186-3-4. This long passage is modified based upon Anandagarbha's commentary, and literally translated from Tibetan into Japanese by Toganoo Sh5un. (Toganoo Shoun, Mandara no Jcenlcyu, pp. 231-240).

212. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, pp. 185-3-7-8.

Toganoo Shoun (.Mandara no Icenltyu, p. 209) argues that the number o f Nirmanabuddhas manifested by the five Buddhas who are residing in the abode o f the king o f the Akanistha gods should be counted as three thousands in total which represent the past, the present and the future. However, only the present exists in the Pure Land o f Vairocana, so the Buddhas o f the Bhadrakalpa refer to one thousand Buddhas. In this context, the number ‘one thousand’ sym bolises countless and immeasurable Nirmanabuddhas. These one thousand Buddhas o f the Bhadrakalpa can be simplified as the sixteen principal Bodhisattvas such as Maitreya.

213. According to Sarvadurgatiparisodhana Tantra (Tadeusz Skorupski, pp. 9 -1 0 ), the names o f the sixteen Bhadrakalpa Mahabodhisattvas are:-


positioned towards the four directions (of the external mandala). Concerning these Bhadrakalpa Mahabodhisattvas, Anandagarbha comments :-

Maitreya and the others in the east hold vajras like Vajrasattva. Those in the south hold vczyra-gems like Vajraratna, those in the west hold va/ra-lotuses like Vajradharma, and those in the north hold crossed-vfl/ras like Vajrakarma. Their particular distinction is that they are possessed of the consecration with gem-diadems.”

When Anandagarbha's detailed explanation and the brief description of the STTS are compared with the existing three types of the mandala which have been dealt with in the introduction, some differences are apparent. According to the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala of the Gobushinkan,215 i.e. each of the five Tathagatas out of the thirty-seven deities is seated on seven animals, i.e. Vairocana is seated on seven yellow lions, Aksobhya on seven blue elephants, Ratnasambhava on seven red horses, Amitabha on seven light green peacocks and Amoghasiddhi on seven- redyellow Garudas, and each of the other thirty-two deities is seated on a lotus placed on an animal. In addition, Vairocana and the thirty-two deities all wear gemdiadems except for the four Tathagatas, i.e. Aksobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha and Amoghasiddhi. However, each of the thirty-seven deities drawn in the Perfected Body Assembly of the Nine Assemblies Mandala216 is seated on a lotus. This mandala also contains the external kh/Va-families, i.e., the twenty Hindu deities drawn in the external mandala, which appear not in the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala but in the Trilokavijaya Mahdmandala of the Sanskrit STTS (ch. 6).

In the eastern chapel of Chachapuri Monastery Vairocana sits in the centre of a Vajradhdtu-mahamandala, encircled in the four directions by the four Tathagatas, each of whom are encircled in turn by four Mahabodhisattvas. The four comers are occupied by the four Paramitas. The second enclosure consists of the sixteen Bhadrakalpa Mahabodhisattvas, and the third enclosure consists of the one thousand Bhadrakalpa buddhas. In the four outermost comers are the four Internal Offerings, and within each of the four gates the four Guardians. However, the four External Offerings are omitted in this mandala. At Alchi Monastery, Vairocana sits in the centre of a Vajradhdtu-mahamandala, encircled by the four Tathagatas in the four directions, and by the four Paramitas in the four comers. The next circle contains the sixteen Mahabodhisattvas. The four comers outside of the circle are Maitreya, AmoghadarSin, Sarvapayajaha, Sarvasokatamonirghatanamati, Gandhahasti, Suramgama, Gaganaganja, Jnanaketu, Amrtaprabha, Candraprabha, Bhadrapala, Jaliniprabha, Vajragarbha, Aksayamati, Pratibhanakuta and Samantabhadra. Detailed information about these deities is also given in this text (pp. 29~31).


214 Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, pp. 186-3-4-6.

215. TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 2, pp. 75-93; Lokesh Chandra, A Ninth Century Scroll o f the Vajradhatu Mandala, pp. 54-127; Toganoo Shoun, Kongocholtyo no Kenlcyu, Toganoo Shoun Zenshu, Extra Vol. Ill, pp. 153-227. 216. TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 1, pp. 893-907; Lokesh Chandra, Sarva- Tathdgata-Tattva-Sahgraha, Introduction, p. 29; Adrian Snodgrass, The Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas in Shingon Buddhism, p. 577.


occupied by the four Internal Offerings. In the outer perimeter, there are the four Guardians in the four directions, the four External Offerings in the four comers, and the sixteen Bhadrakalpa Mahabodhisattvas.217 According to the Vajradhdtumahamandala of The Ngor Collection,2iS Vairocana has four faces pointing towards the four directions, and the four Paramitas are drawn not as their bodily images but as their four symbols, i.e. vajra, gem, lotus and crossed vajra. In addition, each of the four Guardians consists of a pair, and the four pairs of Guardians are drawn in the four inner gates and the four outer gates.


c. Entry into the Mandala

c-L Master's Rite


According to the ritual of entering the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala as described in the STTS, it is essential for the vajra-master to enter himself into the mandala just before guiding his pupil to enter it. The vq/ra-master's activity in the mandala involves sitting in the centre of the mandala and visualising as well as assembling all the deities drawn in the mandala by means of pronouncing the appropriate mantras, binding the appropriate mudras and finally controlling all the deities. The ritual of the vq/ra-master's entry into the maha-mandala is taught in the STTS in the following way:-

‘‘Having made, according to the rite, the mudra (gesture) of the chief Samaya (-Being), the vq/ra-master enters (the mandala), and takes possession of (divine knowledge) by means of the mudra of (Vajra-) Sphota. Now this is the hr day a of taking possession of all: lA IT.

By making this demand, he is empowered, (consecrated and worshipped). Having achieved this, he should pronoimce his (consecrated) name, and then he should direct (the deities) with the vajra. Having made the {mudra of) the Sattva Vajrankusa, the vq/ra-master should assemble all the Buddhas by repeatedly snapping his fingers. At the same moment, all the Buddhas and those who appertain to all the mandalas together with Vajrasattva enter the assembly in the mandala. Then while meditating on the maha-mudra of Vajrasattva,219 he should pronounce once the supreme one hundred and eight names. Then, having been gratified by the assembly, the Tathagatas become steadfast. The self-perfected Vajrasattva stands close by in friendship. Then, having performed the rite with (Vajra-) Ahkusa, (Vajrapasa, Vajrasphota and Vajravesa-mudras) at all the gates, the vq/ramaster should lead the Samayas with the mudras of the highest

217. The World o f Tibetan Buddhism, photographs by Fujita Hiroki and supervision by Council o f Religious Affairs o f His Holiness the Dalai Lama, pp. 213~214.

218. bSod nams rgya mtsho: Tibetan Mandalas (The Ngor Collection), Vol. I & II, Kodansha Ltd., Kyoto, Japan, 1983.

219. Only the Sanskrit reads: “Vajradhara”.


mahd-karma. As with the mudras of the chief Samayas, so with the mudras of Sattvavajri, (Ratnavajri, Dharmavajri and Karmavajri), he should attain the status of Mahasattva, pronouncing; 'JAH HUM VAMHOH. Then, the Buddhas and the other deities as well as all the Mahasattvas are summoned, drawn in, bound and brought under his control. Then, having satisfied these eminent beings with the secret Offerings, he should command them, (saying); ‘You should act for the benefit of all living beings and for their complete attainments.’”

According to the above explanation, the vq/ra-master begins this ritual by binding the mudra of the chief Samaya. Sakyamitra states that the chief Samaya in this context indicates Sattvavajri, and the mudra of Sattvavajri is made by stretching out the two middle fingers of the va/ra-bond.221 Anandagarbha identifies ‘the mudra of the chief Samaya’ as ‘the samaya-mudra of Vajrasattva’, because he states that while reciting: ‘Vajrasattva’ and clasping a garland of flowers with the samayamudra of Vajrasattva, one should approach the mandala with the vq/ra-impulse (yajra-vega).222 ‘Meditating on the maha-mudra of Vajrasattva’ means that one conceives of oneself as Vajrasattva. Concerning the four syllabled seed-mantras, i.e., JAH HUM VAMHOH, the STTS states that this is the hrdaya of summoning, drawing in, binding and subduing the Mahasattvas.223 The secret Offerings in this context refer to the eight Offerings (Pujds), i.e. Vajralasya, Vajramala, Vajraglta, Vajranrtya, Vajradhupa, Vajrapuspa, Vajraloka and Vajragandha.


c-2. Pupil's Rite


In this section the STTS224 provides a long description of the rite of the pupil's entry into the mandala. The first stage involves the pupil making four separate salutations to the four families, i.e. to Vajra-, Ratna-, Dharma- and Jftzrma-families. He forms the vajra-anjali and at the same time pronounces their appropriate mantras. “Now, from Hie beginning (the pupil) should make the four respectful salutations to all the Tathagatas in such manner:-

220 S. pp. 64-11-65-15, T. p. 229-4-1-8, C l. p. 217-1-23-2-14, C2. pp. 352-3-13-353-1-3.

221. Kosalalamkdra, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 233-4-3-7.

Concerning the va/ra-bond, the STTS explains: “The palms o f the hands (anjali) are held firmly, and all the fingers are bound together. This is called the vajra-anjali. As it is well bound, it is the va/ra-bond. A ll samaya-mudras are generated from this va/ra-bond.” (S. p.


8 3-2 -4 , T. p. 23 1-5-5-6, C l. p. 220-3-24-26, C2. p. 356-3-2-4).

222. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 186-3-8.

223. S. p. 80-11-12, T. p. 231-3-8, C l. p. 220-2-10-11, C2. p. 356-1-4-5.

David Snellgrove explains: “The four Door Guardians represent the four stages of introducing the divinities into the mandala, which are effected by the mantra: JAH HUM VAM HOH. The mantra JAH indicates Vajrankusa who summons the divinities, HUM indicates VajrapaSa who draws them in, VAM indicates Vajrasphota who binds them, and HOH indicates Vajravesa who completes the pervasion o f the mandala by wisdom.” (David Snellgrove, Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, pp. 222-223).

224. S. pp. 67-7-72-16, T. p. 230-1-3-4-8, C l. pp. 217-3-17-219-1-14, C2. pp. 353-2-2-354-2- 26.


He should prostrate himself (on the ground) with his whole body, stretching out the vajra-anjali and (pronouncing) this mantra


'OM SARVATATHAGATA PUJOPASTHANAYATMANAM NIRYATAYAMI SARVATATHAGATA VAJRASATTVAADHITISTHASVA MAM.

(I dedicate myself to the worship of and to die attendance on all the Tathagatas. O Vajrasattva of all the Tathagatas, empower me!)’

Then, having stood up and placed the vajra-anjali over his heart, he should prostrate himself (on the ground) with his forehead, (pronouncing) this mantra:-


'OM SARVATATHAGATA PUJABHISEKAYATMANAM NIRYATAYAMI SARVATATHAGATA VAJRARA TNA-ABHISINCA


MAM. (I dedicate myself to the worship and to the consecration of all die Tathagatas. O Vajraratna of all the Tathagatas, consecrate me!)’

Then, having stood up as before and placed the vajra-anjali on his head, he should prostrate himself (on the ground) with his face, (pronouncing) this mantra


'OM SARVATATHAGATA PUJAPRAVARTANAYATMANAM NIRYATAYAMI SARVATATHAGATA VAJRADHARMAPRAVARTAYA


MAM.

(I dedicate myself to the worship of all the Tathagatas and to set <the Wheel of the Dharma> in motion. O Vajradharma of all the Tathagatas, set it in motion for me!)’ Then, having stood up as before, and having lowered the vajraanjali from his head and placed it over his heart, he should prostrate himself (on the ground) with his forehead, (pronouncing) this mantra


OM SARVATATHAGATA PUJAKARMANE ATMANAM NIRYATAYAMI SARVATATHAGATA VAJRAKARMA KURU MAM.

(I dedicate myself to the worship of all the Tathagatas and to action. O Vajrakarma of all the Tathagatas, act for me!)”’ These four consecutive salutations refer to the means of gathering the accumulation of merit. The first salutation is made towards the eastern quarter (the mandala of Aksobhya) in order to receive the empowerment to gain the complete purification of the thought of enlightenment and the steadfastness of the pledge. The worship of all the Tathagatas means the generating of the thought of enlightenment of both means (updya) and wisdom (prajna). During this salutation, the pupil meditates upon Vajrasattva while conceiving that a five-pronged vajra enters the lunar disc in his heart. The second salutation is made towards the southern quarter (the mandala of Ratnasambhava) in order to be consecrated. During this salutation, the pupil meditates upon Vajraratna while conceiving that a vajra-gem enters the lunar disc in his forehead. The third salutation is made towards the western quarter (the mandala of Amitabha) in order to set in motion the wheel of the Dharma. During this salutation, the pupil meditates upon Vajradharma while conceiving that a vq/ra-lotus


enters the lunar disc in his throat. The final salutation is made towards the northern quarter (the mandala of Amoghasiddhi) in order to pursue actions such as worshipping. During this salutation, the pupil meditates upon Vajrakarma while conceiving that a crossed vajra enters the lunar disc in his crown.225 Donjaku226 regards the above four salutations as the means of inducing the manifestation of the four Wisdoms, i.e. Mirror-like-Wisdom, Equality-Wisdom, Discriminating- Wisdom and Active-Wisdom respectively.

The second stage involves the pupil covering the face and clasping a garland. Since the red colour symbolises the Tathagata-family, the pupil wears a red upper garment and covers his face with a red bandage. Then he binds the appropriate mudrds and at the same time pronounces the appropriate mantras. “Then, (the pupil) who wears a red upper garment and whose face is covered with a red bandage should form the mudrd of Sattvavajri while (pronouncing) this hrdaya:-

‘SAMAYAS TVAM. (You are the pledge.)’ Then, after he has clasped a garland with his two middle fingers, (the vq/ra-master) should guide him to enter (the mandala) while (pronouncing) this hrdaya:-


‘S A M A Y A H U M '


This section deals with the preliminary activities for entering the family of all the Tathagatas, which indicates the family of the five Tathagatas. The mudrd of Sattvavajri is introduced at this stage on the principle that all the Tathagatas by nature are generated from Sattvavajri and the other three Paramita Bodhisattvas. In connection with the yoga, David Snellgrove interprets the first mantra, ‘SAMAYAS TVAM" as ‘You are now the union of your own human body and the supramundane element of Buddhahood.’227 The second mantra, ‘SAMAYA H U M is interpreted as the means for taking possession of the (five) Wisdom of all the Tathagatas.


The third stage involves the pupil to enter the mandala and take the vows with the vow-hr day as. “Then, when (the pupil) enters (the mandala), (the vq/ra-master) should say: ‘Now, you have entered the family229 of all the

225. Kosalalamkdra, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 236-1-7-2-4; Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 190-1-6-4-1.

According to the Kosalalamkdra, the above four salutations are made facing the west, the north, the east and the south respectively instead o f facing the east, the south, the west and the north. It can be understood that the four salutations are made facing the west on the mandala o f Aksobhya, facing the north on the mandala o f Ratnasambhava, facing the east on the mandala o f Amitabha and facing the south on the mandala o f Amoghasiddhi. In contrast, Sarvadurgatiparisodhana Tantra (Tadeusz Skorupski, p. 14) and Tattvaloka both support the above explanation.

226. TSD, Vol. 61, No. 2225, pp. 323-2-24-325-1-4.

227. David Snellgrove, Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, p. 220.

228. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 190-4-7-8.

229. Chinese 2 reads: “mandala”, instead o f “family”.


Tathagatas, I shall generate within you the vq/ra-knowledge,230 and you will obtain the attainment of all the Tathagatas through this knowledge as well as all the other attainments. But231 you should not tell anyone who has not seen the (Vajradhatu) Mahamandcila, otherwise your pledge will fail.’

Then, the vq/ra-m aster himself, having made the mudrd of Sattvavajri from the forehead down towards the mouth,232 and having placed it on the head of the vajra-pupil, should say:- ‘This is your pledge-vq/ra 233 If you divulge it to anyone, it will split your head.’

Then, (the vq/ra-master) blesses some water with the samayamudra (while pronouncing) the vow-hrdaya only once, and then he should induce his pupil to drink it Now this is the vowhrdaya:- ‘Now, Vajrasattva himself abides in your heart. If you speak of this precept, you will be destroyed immediately.’234 233‘ VAJRODAKA THAH. (Fq/ra-water!)’


Then, (the vq/ra-master) should say to his pupil ‘From now on, I am your Vajrapani. If I say to you, ‘Do this’, it should be done. And you should not despise me, otherwise you will die without avoiding misfortune and you will fall into hell.’ Having spoken thus, (the vq/ra-master) orders (his pupil) to say:- ‘May all the Tathagatas empower (me)! May Vajrasattva enter me!”’

Tantric rituals emphasise the making of a vow in the rite of initiation. In this case, according to the above rite, when the pupil enters the mandala and is consecrated, some vows are given to him by his master. Sakyamitra states that the vajraknowledge in this context indicates Vajravesa (Kq/ra-Enchantment),237 who is one of the four Guardians and completes the pervasion of the mandala by wisdom. Anandagarbha regards the vq/ra-knowledge as the imperishable knowledge which is endowed with the nature of the bhumis

In the fourth stage, the pupil receives the empowerment. By means of this empowerment, the pupil gains the supernatural knowledge (abhijnd). “Then, the vq/ra-master, having hastened to form the mudrd of Sattvavajri, should say this:-

23°. Tibetan omits: “vajra”.

23 k Tibetan inserts: “when such knowledge is generated”.

232. Chinese 2 omits: “from the forehead down towards the mouth”. Chinese 1 reads: “turning back”. Tibetan reads: “showing it towards the inside o f the mouth and outside”.

233. Tibetan reads: “your vo/ra-pledge”.

234. Both Chinese versions transliterate this verse without translating it.

235. Tibetan inserts: “OM”.

236. Only Chinese 2 transliterates this verse without translating it.

237. Kosalalam kdra, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 236-3-1.

238. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 190-4-8-5-1.


‘This pledge~vq/ra239 is recalled as Vajrasattva. May the highest va/ra-kno wledge enter you this very day.’


VAJRAVESA AH


Then, having closed his fist in anger, (the vq/ra-master) should burst open the mudrd of Sattvavajri (of his pupil), and then enunciate at will the Mahdydndbhisamaya (intuitive comprehension of the Mahayana) with the va/ra-sound.242 Then it enters (the pupil). As soon as it enters, the divine knowledge is generated (within him).243 Through this knowledge (the pupil) is aware of others' thoughts. He knows all the activities of the past, future and present. His heart becomes steadfast in the instructions of all the Tathagatas, all sufferings disappear and all fears244 cease. He is inviolable among all living beings. All the Tathagatas empower (him) and all attainments are present in such a (pupil). Unprecedented pleasures, which consist of spontaneous acts of joy, happiness and satisfaction, are generated. Through these pleasures, the samadhis are accomplished by some people, the dhdranis are accomplished by others, all wishes are fulfilled for some and even the reality of all the Tathagatas is made real for others. Therefore, having made the mudrd (of Sattvavajri), (the pupil) should release it over his heart245 by (pronouncing) this hr day a


‘TISTHA VAJRA DRDHO ME BHAVA, 5A&VATO ME BHAVA, bHRDAYAM ME \DHITISTHA, SARVA-SIDDHIM CA ME PRAYACCHA HUM, HA HA HA HA HOH.

(Vajra abide! Make me steadfast! Make me perpetual! Empower my heart! Bestow all attainments upon me!)”’

In this rite, ‘closing the fist in anger (krodhamustif means the gesture of making a hook with the forefinger of the left hand.246 By means of this hook, the mudrd of Sattvavajri is pulled and opened. Anandagarbha247 states that there are two different views concerning the term 'Mahdydndbhisamaya’. According to the first view, it is regarded as indicating the mantra: ‘VAJRASATTVA AH AH AH.’, which should be

239. Tibetan reads: “va/ra-pledge”.

240. Both Chinese versions transliterate this verse without translating it.

241. Tibetan inserts: “OM”.

242. Tibetan reads: “he should recite the words o f the Mahdydndbhisamaya at w ill”. Chinese 1 reads: “he should recite the one-hundred-letter mantra o f the Mahdydndbhisamaya with the vajra-sound at w ill”.

243. According to Anandagarbha, when the Lord Vajrasattva enters (the pupil) and pervades him, the excellent knowledge such as the five supernatural knowledges w ill be generated within him. (Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 191-3-1-3).

244 Chinese 1 reads: “misfortunes”.

245. Chinese 1 reads: “(The vay'ra-master) having bound this mudrd, releases it over the pupil's heart.” Chinese 2 reads: “(The vq/ra-master) having bound this mudrd, places it over his heart and releases it for the pupil.”

246. Kosalalamkdra, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 236-4-2-3. 247. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 191-2-8-3-1.


recited one hundred times with the vq/ra-sound. According to the second view which is supported by Sakyamitra and Amoghavajra,248 it refers to the hrdaya consisting of one hundred letters, which makes human beings steadfast. Donjaku249 adds that *Mahdydndbhisamaya’ refers to the one-hundred-letter vidyd of the Vajra-family, mid. Mahdydndbhisamaya is another name of Vajrasattva. Sakyamitra and Donjaku250 both state that ‘vq/ra-sound’ means soundless.

In the fifth stage, the pupil throws the garland into the mandala in order to choose his deity and to gain the power of that deity.

“Then (the pupil) should throw his garland into the mahdmandala while (pronouncing) this hrdaya:-


‘PRATICCHA VAJRA HOH. (Accept, O VajraXy


Then, the spot where it falls down indicates the area in which (the pupil) will be successful.251 Then, having seized that garland, (the vq/ra-master) should bind it round the head of his (pupil) while (pronouncing) this hrdaya:-


'OM PRATIGRHNA TVAM IMAM SATTVAM MAHABALAH.


(You should seize this being. O Mighty One!)’

It is by means of that bond that (the pupil) becomes accepted by that Mahasattva, and becomes rapidly successful.”

By means of throwing the garland, the pupil's deity is chosen and indicated by the spot of the mandala where the garland falls down.253 Then the pupil is empowered by means of binding round his head the garland which symbolises his chosen deity. Next the pupil's face-cover is removed and he beholds the mandala in order to gain the supernatural ‘vq/ra-eyes’.

“Then, (the vq/ra-master) should remove the face-covering (of his pupil). When (the pupil) is thus accepted, he (pronounces) this hr day a:-


OM VAJRASATTVAH SVAYAM TE 'DYA CAKSUDGHATANA TAT PARAH UDGHATAYATI SARVAKSO VAJRACAKSUR ANUTTARAM.

(Today Vajrasattva himself is eagerly engaged in opening your eyes. One who casts his eyes everywhere opens the highest Kq/ra-eyes.)’


    • 'HE VAJRA PASTA. (He-vajra, see!)’


Then, (the vq/ra-master) should show the Mahdmandala (to his pupil) in the appropriate order. As soon as (the pupil) sees the maha-mandala, he is empowered by all the Tathagatas, and


248. Kosalalamkdra, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 236-4-4; TSD. Vol. 18, No. 865, p. 218-2-7-8.

249. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, p. 327-1-24-26.

250 Kosalalamkdra, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 236-4-4; TSD. Vol. 61, N o. 2225, p. 327-1- 2 3 -2 4 .

25b Both Chinese versions read: “Then where the garland falls down, there (the pupil) w ill be successful in the deity.”

252. Only Chinese 2 transliterates this verse without translating it. 253. TSD. Vol. 61, No. 2225, p. 328-2-28-3-1. 254. Chinese 1 inserts: “then one recites the seeing-mantra”.


Vajrasattva remains in his heart. He sees extraordinary occurrences and miraculous activities like the manifestations of the distinctive and exceedingly splendid mandala, etc. Due to (the pupil) being empowered by all the Tathagatas, sometimes the Lord Mahavajradhara also manifests himself in his bodily form or die (other) Tathagatas. Henceforth, all wishes, all thoughts, all pleasing activities, all attainments and even the essence of Vajradhara or the essence of the Tathagatas become accomplished.”

According to Sakyamitra, the mahd-mandala should be shown to the pupil in the order which starts with Vajranlcusa and ends with Vairocana.255 The Sanskrit term for ‘extraordinary occurrences’ is ‘prdtihdrya\ The final stage consists of three consecrations, namely, water-consecration, vayra-consecration and vayra-name-consecration.256 “Then, having shown the mahd-mandala (to tire pupil), (the vajramaster) should consecrate (his pupil) with perfiimed-water, which comes from the vq/ra-empowered vase, while (pronouncing) this hr day a:-


257 ‘VAJRABHISINCA. (O Vajra, consecrate!)’


Then, having bound the garland with one particular mudrd, and having placed a (pupil's) appropriate emblem onto (the pupil's) hand, (the vq/ra-master) should say the following ‘Now, you have been conferred upon you the vq/ra-consecration by the Buddhas. This is your Buddha essence. Seize the vajra for the purpose of complete attainment!’


'OM VAJRADHIPATI TVAM ABHISINCAMI TISTHA VAJRA SAMAYAS TVAM.

(I consecrate you as a Fq/ra-commander. Abide, O Vajra! You are the pledge!)’ Then, (the vq/ra-master) should confer upon (his pupil) the vajraname- consecration while (pronouncing) this hrdaya:-

OM VAJRASATTVA TVAM ABHISINCAMI VAJRANlMABHISEKATAHHE VAJRA NAMA.

(O Vajrasattva, I confer upon you the Fq/ra-name-consecration with the name of Hevajra.


The sound ‘HE’ should be uttered for the one whose name is bestowed.”


255. Kosalalamkdra, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 236-5-5-6. 256. Advayavajra, one o f the eighty-four Great Adepts, states: "There is the Jar (or Vase) Consecration, which is characterised as six jar-consecrations, for example, those o f water, crown, vajra, bell, name and master. The water-consecration corresponds to the Mirror-like- Wisdom o f Aksobhya, the crown-consecration to the Equality-Wisdom o f Ratnasambhava, the vq/ra-consecration to the Discriminating-Wisdom o f Amitabha, the royal-consecration to the Active-W isdom o f Amoghasiddhi, the name-consecration to the Pure-Absolute-Wisdom o f Vairocana and the master-consecration to Vajrasattva. (David Snellgrove, Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, p. 229).

252 Tibetan inserts: 25 8. Only Chinese 1 transliterates this verse without translating it.


The reason for guiding the pupil into the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala is, in a narrow sense, as Toganoo Shoun points out, to open the pupil's ‘heart's-eyes’ called the vajra-Qyes, which enable the pupil to see the real Buddha world,259 In a broad sense, as the STTS explains, it is to enable the pupil to accomplish the special goals such as the liberation of the entire and complete sphere of living beings, to work for the benefit and welfare of all and to realise the highest attainment (of enlightenment).


4. Mudra Rites


The tantric rituals in the STTS basically start with samddhi, proceed through to mandala and end with mudrd. The mudrd,261 in a broad sense, can be interpreted as the symbolic aspect of sealing a tantric ritual. However, in a narrow sense, it refers to the four mudras, namely, mahd-mudra, samaya-mudrd, dharma-mudrd and karma-mudrd. By means of these mudras, the sddhaka can rapidly attain his goals.


a. Function o f the Four Mudras

The metaphysical meaning of the four mudras and their implications relating to the mandala can be summarised in the following way. The maha-mudrd refers to the body of deity and is manifested as the bodily images of deities in the mandala', the samaya-mudrd refers to the mind of deity and is manifested as the attributes of deities in the mandala', the dharma-mudrd refers to the speech of deity and is manifested as the seed-syllables (bija) of deities in the mandala or as a fivepronged- vajra which symbolises the knowledge and in the centre of which each deity sits cross-legged and holds its own attribute at the heart; and the karmamudrd refers to the conduct of a deity and is manifested as the female images of deities in the mandala which symbolise the activities of worshipping. These four mudras can be also defined as referring to particular types of tantric practices. The karma-mudra refers to different activities on the experimental level; the dharmamudrd refers to becoming aware of the Absolute itself; the samaya-mudrd refers to the unity of the divine and the mimdane; and the mahd-mudra is identified with the Great Bliss.262 Together with the mudras, the pupil should perform the evocationritual (sadhana), which means using visualisation to realise his own deity, in order to gain the power of his own deity and to be able to use that power to benefit living beings.


b. Mudra-Knowledge o f the Four Attainments

259. Toganoo Sh5un, Mandara no kenlzyu, pp. 256-262.

26°. S. p. 6 6 -3 -5 , T. p. 229-5-1-2, C l. p. 217-2-26-27, C2. p. 353-1-8-10.

261. Dale Saunders defines the mudrd as the three categories, i.e. (1) seal or the mark made by a seal, (2) manner o f holding the fingers, (3) counterpart (salcti) of a god. (E. Dale Saunders, Mudrd', A Study o f Symbolic Gestures in Japanese Buddhist Sculpture, p. 7). 262. Tadeusz Skorupski, Sarvadurgatiparisodhana Tantra, p. 112.


According to Anandagarbha, in the case of those who have already obtained the pledge and the consecration in the mandala, the master should explain the knowledge of whatever attainments are wished for.263 Thus, the section of the Sanskrit STTS (pages 73-76), which follows after the section of the mandala-rite, describes the various methods of the samadhi for gaining the four categorised attainments. After pupils enter the mandala and are consecrated, as a result of the mandala-rite, they can be divided into two groups, namely, those who have seen something in the mandala and those who have not seen anything in it. For the first group, the mwJra-knowledge is taught to gain the four kinds of attainments (,siddhis), namely, the mwc/ra-knowledge of generating the attainment of wishes (arthasiddhi), the mudm-luiowledge of generating the attainment of supernatural vo/ra-powers (vajrarddhisiddhi), the rawt/ra-lcnowledge of generating the attainment of the supernatural powers of Vajravidyadhara (yajravidyadharasiddhi), and the /iwc&fz-knowledge of generating the supreme attainment of all the Tathagatas (sarvatathdgatottamasiddhi). The second group of pupils who are on the level {bhumi) of the transcendental world, can attain the highest perfect enlightenment by degrees.264 The STTS describes the four categorised attainments in the following way:-

b-1. The Attainment o f Wishes (.Arthasiddhi) “One should visualise an image of a vajra stored in the treasure in the heart. While visualising it, one sees the treasure troves stored in the ground.

Having drawn an image of a vajra, one should visualise it in the sky. If one sees where it may fall, one can locate a treasure there. A wise man should visualise an image of a vajra on his tongue. It exists in reality through his words: ‘Here it is.’ One should visualise an image of a vajra in one's whole body. (If one sees) where it has entered and may fall, one can locate a treasure there.”

In this context, the attainment of wishes refer to gaining precious stones such as gold. According to Sakyamitra, when the sddhaka consecrates himself by means of the above methods, he joins in the meditation of a whole day during one month or up to four months and worships (his deity) by offering articles of scent, flowers and perfume, etc.266 Since the above rite of yoga is performed by means of meditating upon the means {updya) such as the vajra, it is called the knowledge of the mudrd. The various methods of gaining treasures are explained in part four of


263. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, pp. 135-2-8-3-3.

264. Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 237-2-3-4.

265. S. p. 7 3 -7 -14 , T. p. 230-5-2-4, C l. p. 219-1-19-26, C2. p. 354-3-5-12. 266. Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 237-2-6-8.


the STTS which deals with the Gem-family because the Gem-family specialises in the gaining of wealth.

b-2. The Attainment o f Supernatural Vajra-powers (Vajrarddhisiddhi) “When one enters die state of the vajra-possession (vajrdvesa), one should concentrate on water267 as reflecting an image of a vajra. If one is successful quickly, one can walk on the surface of water.

When one enters the state of the (vajra-) possession in like manner, whatever form one visualises as oneself, that itself becomes even a form of the Buddha.

When one enters the state of the (vajra-) possession in like manner, one should visualise oneself as being equal to the space. As long as one wishes, one can enter a state of invisibility. While being in a state of the vq/ra-possession, one should visualise oneself as a vajra. As long as one ascends to a position, one can fly in the space.”

In terms of the mudras, this rite is regarded as the mahd-mudra. In this context, the vq/ra-possession means that one meditates on the subtle-vq/ra and makes it steadfast.269 In the statement, “one should visualise oneself as a vajra”, a vajra indicates Vajrasattva.270 The various methods of attaining the supernatural powers are explained in part three of the STTS which deals with the Lotus-family because the Lotus-family focuses on the supernatural powers.

b-3. The Attainment o f Vajravidyddhara (Vajravidyddharasiddhi) “Having drawn an image of the moon (in the mind), one should ascend to the summit of the sky. Visualising a vajra in the hand, one can possess the power of Vajravidyadhara. Having ascended to an image of the moon (in the mind), one should visualise a vajra-gem. As long as one wishes oneself as pure, one can fly instantly.

One should ascend to an image of the moon (in the mind). Visualising a vq/ra-lotus existed in the hand, one can be given by Vajranetra the position of Vajravidyadhara. Sitting on the centre of a lunar disc, one should visualise an actionvajra. From possessing the universal vajra, one can quickly possess the power of the universal formula.”271 The term ‘Vajravidyadhara’ means the holder of the formula which is exhibited by means of the vajra or which accomplishes the vajra-mudra. The mudrd of Vajravidyadhara consists of the four mudras, i.e. mahd-mudra, samaya-mudrd, 267. Chinese 2 reads: “va/ra-water”.


268. S. p. 74-2~9, T. p. 230-5-5-8, CL p. 219-2-1-8, C2. p. 354-3-19-26.

269 Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 237-3-8.

270 Ibid., p. 23 7-4-7-8. 271. S. p. 7 5 -3 -1 0 , T. p. 231-1-1-3, C l. p. 219-2-12-19, C2. p. 355-1-5-12.


dharma-mudrd and. karma-mudra212 According to Anandagarbha, having performed the deity -yoga (which is united with the chosen deity in samadhi), the sddhaka should visualise as himself the four Mahabodhisattvas abiding in the lunar discs, namely, Vajrasattva, Vajraratna, Vajradharma and Vajrakarma respectively, while reciting the relevant hrdayas, i.e.

VAJRADHARA, RATNADHARA, DHARMADHARA and KARMADHARA.


b-4. The Supreme Attainment o f All the Tathagatas (Sarvatathdgatottamasiddhi) “Having entered the entire vajra-samadhi274 in the spheres of space, as long as one wishes oneself as a vajra, one can fly instantly.

Joining in the entire pure samadhi,215 one attains the supreme five supernatural knowledges, and becomes quickly accomplished in knowledge.

Recollecting ‘Entire space consists of Vajrasattva.’, if one makes the recollection steadfast, one can become oneself as Vajradhara instantly.

Having released the entire Buddha-image in the spheres of the sky, one will attain the Buddha-essence in the samddhis of all the Buddhas.”

In this context, ‘All the Tathagatas’ means the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.277 The term ‘entire vajra-samddhV means the samadhi of meditating on the entire vajra which symbolises the Bodhisattva Mahasattva exhibited by means of a crossedvajra containing twenty tops.278 The five supernatural knowledges (abhijhd) consist of

(1) divine eyes (divyacalssus),

(2) divine ears (divyasrotra),

(3) mind reading (paracittajhdna),

(4) recollection of the previous existence (purvanivdsanusmrti) and

(5) miraculous powers (.rddhi).279 According to Sakyamitra,280 the above four sentences correspond to four attainments related to the four families, i.e. Karma-, Dharma-, Ratna- and Tathagata-families respectively. The above rite reflects a method, by which the sddhaka gradually


272. Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 237-5-1~3.

273. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 197-1-5-3-1.

274. Chinese 2 reads: “universal vajra-samadhi”.

275. Chinese 2 reads: “samadhi o f purifying the beings”. Tibetan reads: “samadhi o f purifying all actions.”

276. S. p. 7 6 -3 -1 0 , T. p. 231-1-4-7, C l. p. 219-2-23-3-1, C2. p. 3 55-1-20-27.

211. Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 238-1-8,

27S. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 197-3-2-3.

279. Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 238-2-7-8.

In addition, there is the sixth supernatural knowledge called knowledge o f the destruction of the passions (asravalcsayajnana). (For details about six kinds o f supernatural knowledges, see Ulrich Pagel, The Bodhisattvapitaka, pp. 216-240; Har Dayal, The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sanslcrit Literature, pp. 110-134).

280. Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 238-2-1-3-7. .


reaches from the attainment of the lower level to the highest level, that is, the attainment of Buddhahood.

In conclusion, the samadhi-rites for attaining the above four types of supernatural powers are introduced here in order to develop the intrinsic ability of the sddhaka and in order to encourage him to achieve the ultimate goal, that is, complete enlightenment.


c. Secret Rite


According to the STTS,m the secret rite in this section consists in three activities, i.e. taking vows, binding the secret mudras and performing a secret sadhana. Firstly, taking vows is essential particularly in the secret rites because all the secret rites described in the STTS involve sexual practices which are regarded as heterodox. At this stage, the pupil receives a vow-hrdaya2n and takes vows. Secondly, the rite of binding the secret mudras is performed in the state of generating the v^/ra-possession283 through samadhi, and it consists of four movements of hand gestures:

(1) clapping gently the hands forming the vajraanjali,

(2) clapping gently the hands forming the vajra-bond,

(3) stretching out the hands forming the vajra-bond and clapping equally the tips of the two forefingers,


(4) placing equally all the fingers and releasing the vajra-bond. Finally, the rite of performing a secret evocation (guhya-sddhana) is described in the following way:- “One should enter the orifice (bhaga) of a female or a male body. Having entered it completely with the mind, (one should imagine that) one embraces its entire body equally.”

According to Anandagarbha, these four hand gestures are also used for the evocation rite together with the four relevant mantras,285 This yoga-rite is one of the rapid ways of attaining Buddhahood, and is suitable especially for those who have a passionate nature.286 Since this secret method requires a perfect union in samadhi between the sddhaka and his deity, it is expressed symbolically as the sexual union between the sddhaka and the female deity.

2S1. S. pp. 7 7-78-8, T. p. 231-1-7-2-5, C l. pp. 219-3-5-220-1-8, C2. p. 355-2-6-28.


OM VAJRASATTVAH SVAYAM TE 'DYA HRDAYE SAMAVASTHITAH, N1RBHIDYA TA TKSANAM YA YAD YADIBR UYADIDAN NA YAM


This vow -hrdaya has already appeared in the third step o f the previous pupil's mandala-rite, However, in the previous, it has been regarded not as a mantra but as a verse.

283. Concerning “generating the vayra-possession”, Sakyamitra states that it means “performing the yoga o f Vajrasattva”. (.Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 238-4-6). Anandagarbha regards it as a kind o f secret yoga, which refers to the union with a female deity such as Sattvavajri. (Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 198-1-3-5).

284 S. p. 7 8 -2 -3 , T. p. 231-2-4-5, C l. p. 220-1-5-6, C2. p. 355-2-22-23.

285. According to Anandagarbha (Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 198-3-6-5-3), the four mantras are VAJRA VARA HOH, VAJRA VE^A AH, VAJRAHANA HUM and VAJRAHARA HAM respectively. The Sanskrit STTS (S. p. 78-5-8) slight differently reads: "VAJRAVASA, VAJRA VISA, VAJRAHANA and VAJRAHARA”.

286 Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 198-1-2. 85


d. Rites of the Four Mudras


The STTS287 explains the preliminary rites of binding the four m udras of the thirtyseven deities of die Vajradhatu Mahdmandala. In addition, each mudrd section includes a common method of accomplishing the mudras of the deities and the benefits acquired as the result. When examined carefully, diere is no major difference between the benefit of the mahd-mudra of a deity and the benefits of the other three mudras. The benefits of the four mudras of Vajrasattva are an example:- “One can accomplish (the status of) Vajrasattva by binding the mudrd of Sattva (which indicates the maha-mudra of Vajrasattva ),”

“If one forms (the hand gesture of) Sattvavajri, one can become identical to Vajradhara.”

“If one says: ‘SAMAYAS TVAM (which is the dharma-mudrd of Vajrasattva), one can become the ruler of all mudras.”291 “Having made firmly the vajra-pride (which indicates the karmamudrd of Vajrasattva ), one can gain die pleasure of Vajrasattva.”

According to the commentary of Anandagarbha on this four mudras section: “The desired attainments and other matters are to be achieved by the sddhaka through generating deity-yoga by means of the self-blessing and so forth, together with the benefits so that the sddhaka should also generate cheerfulness (Tibetan spro ba).”294 Since the pupil's own deity is chosen after the mandata-ritual, it is enough for the pupil to practise only the four mudras of his chosen deity, and not all those belonging to the other thirty-six deities. The pupil identifies with his deity as the result of performing the rites of the four mudras of his deity. However, these four mudras are efficacious only for those who have already obtained the pledge and the consecration in the mandala because, according to the STTS,295 they are meaningless and ineffective without seeing the mahd-mandala.


d-1. Mahdrnudrd Rite


The mahd-mudra representing the body of deity can be defined as visualising the image of the deity in samadhi. Thus, the evocation-ritual (sadhana), which guides the sddhaka to visualise the image of his deity effectively, is essential to this maha-

287. S. pp. 7 8 -9 -9 1 , T. pp. 231-2-5-232-5-8, C l. pp. 220-1-9-222-2-18, C2. pp. 355-3-1-358-1-

288. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 203-3-6-7.

289. S. p. 81-13, T. p. 231-4-4, C l. p. 220-2-24, C2. p. 356-1-19.

290 S. p. 85-6, T. p. 232-2-1, C l. p. 221-2-2-3, C2. p. 357-1-10.

291. S. p. 87-4, T. p. 232-2-8-3-1, C l. p. 221-2-27, C2. p. 357-2-7.

292 Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 248-4-2-3.

293. S. p. 90-15, T. p. 232-5-2, C l. p. 222-1-25-26, C2. p. 358-1-8.

294. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 135-3-3-4. 295. S. p. 78-12-14, T. p. 231-2-6-7, C l. p. 220-1-11-12, C2. p. 355-3-3-4.


mudrd rite. The method of evoking all the five Tathagatas begins with the five abhisambodhis

“Beginning with examining thought, one should meditate upon Vajrasurya {Vajra-sun). While (uttering) ‘ Vajradhatu'1, one should transform oneself into an image of the Buddha.”

The phrase “beginning with examining thought” refers to “the five abhisambodhis” . 297 Thus, the means of the five abhisambodhis, the sddhaka, at first, should recognise the nature of the five Tathagatas. Then, he should bind the karma-mudrd of Vajrasurya (alias Vajratejas) and visualise a luminous circle which is called the sun-mandala. Concentrating on it, he should diffuse its brightness up to the space-realm.298 Finally, he should visualise the five Tathagatas1 bodily images as himself while reciting the mantra “VAJRADHATU’ which is regarded as a common mantra to all the five Tathagatas. According to Anandagarbha, before the sddhaka visualises the five Tathagatas' bodies, he should form the hand gestures {samaya-mudrd) of the five Tathagatas.299 As the result of the above rite, the sddhaka can attain knowledge, longevity, power, youth, omnipresence, and even Buddhahood.

The method of evoking Vajrasattva, which is originally entitled “Mahamudra- Bond of Evoking Vajrasattva” (Vajrasattva-sddhana-mahdmudra-bandha) focuses on the visualisation of the image of Vajrasattva who holds a bell in his left hand and a vajra in his right hand,301 and realising the union with Vajrasattva:- “While waving the vajra of pride, one should generate the vajrapride (in one's mind). Then by means of the body, speech and mind vajra, one should transform oneself into Vajrasattva.”

Sakyamitra regards the term “vq/ra-pride (’vajra-garva)” as referring to die mahamudra of Vajrasattva. He adds that “the vajra of pride” means “placing with pride die vajra-f\st of the left hand on the side of body and holding a five-pronged vajra in the right hand”.303 Slightly differing from Sakyamitra's view, Anandagarbha describes the left hand of Vajrasattva holding a bell with the vny'ra-fist.304 In terms of the body, speech and mind vajra, the body-vajra means abiding in the realm of Vajrasattva by imitating the (Vajra-) Sattva's posture of sitting cross-legged; the speech-vo/m means pronouncing VAJRASATTVA, while visualising a white five296.


S. p. 79-2-3, T. p. 231-2-8-3-1, Cl. p. 220-1-15-16, C2. p. 355-3-8-9. 297. Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 239-4-3-4; Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 199-4-7-5-4.

298. Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 239-4-4-6.

2" . Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, pp. 199-5-8-200-1-2.

300 S. p. 79-4-5, T. p. 231-3-1-2, Cl. p. 220-1-17-18, C2. p. 355-3-10-11.

30f Cf. the previous two sections including some descriptions about the image of Vajrasattva. ( Vajra-Samddhi and Structure of the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala).

302 S. p. 79-9-10, T. p. 231-3-2-3, C l. p. 220-1-21-22, C2. p. 355-3-13-14.

303. Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 239-5-4—7.

304. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 200-1-6-7.


pronged vajra on the tongue from the letter HUM; the mind-vajra means meditating upon Vajrasattva.305 By means of the body, speech and mind vajra, the sddhaka realises the nature of Vajrasattva. According to the STTS,306 the images of all the other deities from Vajraraja up to Vajravesa holding their symbols can also be visualised by means of using the method of the body, speech and mind vajra. Having empowered himself with one of the above rites corresponding to his deity, the sddhaka performs the following rite in order to perfect the maha-mudra of his deity:-

“(a) Having generated (in samadhi) die state of vay'ra-possession (vajra-avesa)301 and having bound the mahd-mudra in conformity with die rite, one should visualise the Mahasattva (Vajrasattva) in front of oneself. Having seen this as Jnanasattva, one should visualise it in one's body. Having summoned, drawn in, bound and subdued it, one can be successful.

In this case, these are the hrdayas

VAJRASATTVA, AHd '

This is the hrdaya of the vq/ra-possession.

VAJRASATTVA, DR&YAV

This is the hrdaya of recollecting die Mahasattva.

UAH HUM VAM HOH. ’

This is the hrdaya of summoning, drawing in, binding and subduing the Mahasattva,

(b) Having proclaimed: 'SAMAYAS TVAM.\ one should enter the lunar (disc) behind, (which is drawn in one's mind). Then one should visualise oneself as (Vajra-) Sattva, while saying: lSAMAYAS TVAM, AHAM. (You are the pledge, I [am you].)’.

(c) One should visualise oneself as the mudrd of any (Maha-) Sattva, and should accomplish the perfecting of all the mudras through vq/ra-recitation.

(d) Furthermore, the superior evocation (is accomplished), if one can lead all the Buddhas into (one's) body by means of the efficacy (sadhu) of mind while reciting: UAH HUM VAM HOH.5”308 This rite is explained as focusing 011 Vajrasattva out of the thirty-seven deities, because the mahd-mudras of the other deities can be accomplished through realising the nature of Vajrasattva.309 The rite is defined as referring to deityyoga,


310 by which the sddhaka attains complete union with Jnanasattva.311

305. Ibid., p. 200-2-2-3.

306. S. p. 79-13-14, T. p. 231-3-4, Cl. p. 220-1-25-26, C2. p. 355-3-17-18.

307. According to Anandagarbha, the way of generating the status of vq/ra-possession is that the sddhaka binds the (samaya-) mudrd of Vajravesa while pronouncing: ‘VAJRAVESA’, and then he leads a vajra into his heart while reciting: 'AH \ (Tattvalolca, TTP. Vol. 71, No.

3333, p. 201-3-8-4-1).

308. S. pp. 80-2-81-6, T. p. 231-3-6-4-2, C l. p. 220-2-3-17, C2. pp. 355-3-24-356-1-12.

309. Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 241-2-3-5.

310 Ibid., p. 240-4-5.


Paragraph (a) describes the process of cognition of the sddhaka in connection with the objects. The sddhaka begins with visualising ‘a five-pronged vajra inside the moon’ which symbolises the lack of essence in dharmas, and recognises Vajrasattva as himself generated from the vajra. Then he realises Jnanasattva abiding in the nature of Vajrasattva, and leads it into his body. Paragraph (b) explains the way of making steadfast the union between the sddhaka and Jnanasattva as Vajrasattva. The mantra: ‘SAMAYAS TVAM. together with the samaya-mudrd helps the sddhaka to generate the mandala in his mind. In this mandala which is drawn in the mind, he transforms the actual deity known as Jnanasattva into the symbol of the deity known as Samayasattva.312 Then he realises Vajrasattva abiding in the mandala as himself. Paragraph (c) denotes the method of perfecting the mahd-mudras of the other deities ranging from Vajraraja up to Vajravesa. The way of perfecting the maha-mudra of Vajraraja, for example, begins with the sddhaka meditating upon a vq/ra-hook which symbolises Vajraraja, and recognising Vajrasattva as himself generated from the vajra-hook. Then he realises Vajraraja as himself in the nature of Vajrasattva, and leads him into his body. Paragraph (d) refers to the way of perfecting the mahd-mudras of all the five Tathagatas. The purpose of this mahdmudrd rite in brief is that by means of visualising the image of deity, one is identified with the deity, and eventually attains enlightenment with the support of the deity.


d-2, Samayamudra Rite


The samaya-mudrd representing the mind of the deity is manifested as forming the hand gesture. Thus, in the samaya-mudrd rite, the sddhaka forms a peculiar hand gesture which symbolises his deity's mind. According to the STTS,313 all the hand gestures described in the samaya-mudrd rite begin with forming the vq/ra-bond (vajra-bandha). This vq/ra-bond is defined as the well bound vajra-anjali. The way of forming the vajra-anjali is that the palms of the hands (anjali) are held firmly, and all the fingers are boimd together.

The methods of binding the samaya-mudrds of the five Tathagatas out of the thirty-seven deities are quoted from the STTSil4 as examples:-

“(1) Vairocana: Making firmly (the mudrd of) Sattvavajri315 (which is formed by) raising the middle fingers (of the vajrabond) like a sprout symbolises (the mudrd of the first Buddha).


(2) Aksobhya: Drawing together the middle fingers (of the vajrabond) inward symbolises (the mudrd of) the second Buddha.316 311. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 201-3-7-8.

312 Concerning the relationship between Jnanasattva and Samayasattva, see David Snellgrove, Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, p. 131 & p. 222.

313. S. p. 83-2-4, T. p. 231-5-5-6, Cl. p. 220-3-24-26, C2. p. 356-3-2-4.

314. S. p. 83-6-9, T. p. 231-5-6-7, C l. pp. 220-3-28-221-1-2, C2. p. 356-3-6-9.

315. Only Tibetan reads: “vcyra-bond”, instead of “Sattvavajri”.

316. Chinese 2 adds: “Aksobhya”.


(3) Ratnasambhava: (Making a form of) a jewel with the middle fingers and the thumbs317 (of the vajra-bond) symbolises (the mudrd of the third Buddha).

(4) Amitabha: Shrinking together the middle lingers (of the vajrabond) like a lotus symbolises (the mudrd of the fourth Buddha).

(5) Amoghasiddhi: Bending the forefingers (of the vo/ra-bond) in like manner symbolises the mudrd of the fifth Buddha.”3

The STTS319 outlines a common way of perfecting these five samaya-mudrds and the other thirty-two samaya-mudras

“One places the (samaya-) mudrd of one's (deity) at (one's) heart while joining in the vajra-samadhi of (Vajra-) Sattva.”

From this description it is significant that the activity of binding the samaya-mudrd is a meaningless hand gesture, unless accompanied by concentration upon an object such as a vajra or the moon. In the light of the commentaries,321 if the sddhaka binds and places the samaya-mudrd of his deity at his heart while joining together a five-pronged vajra and the moon visualised in his heart, he will be successfLil. As the result of this rite, the sddhaka is identical to his deity and so gains the power of the deity.


d-3. Dharmamudra Rite


The dharma-mudra representing the speech of the deity focuses on sound and is displayed as a form of mantra. Thus, all the dharma-mudrds are generated from the tongue. This section of the STTS322 contains information about the dharmamudrds, which are manifested as mantras and refer to the thirty-three deities excluding four Paramitas.323 For example, the dharma-mudrd common to all the five Tathagatas is manifested as the mantra ‘ VAJRAJNANAMj which gathers all the five Tathagatas to make steadfast the Vajradhatu?

According to the STTS, the means of perfecting the dharma-mudrds of the thirty-seven deities is by meditating on a vajra on the tongue.326 Thus, the dharma-

317. Tibetan omits: “thumbs”.

318. According to Anandagarbha, the samaya-mudrds described in (3), (4) and (5) correspond to

Ratnasambhava and Ratnavajri, Amitabha and Dharmavajrf, and Amoghasiddhi and Karmavajri respectively. (Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 204-3-5—4-3).


319. S. p. 85-2, T. p. 232-1-7-8, C l. p. 221-1-27-28, C2. p. 357-1-6.

320. Tibetan reads: “Vajrasattva-samadhi

321. Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 245-1-5-7; Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 205-4-7-5-3.

322. S. pp. 87-88, T. p. 232-2-8-3-8, C l. p. 221-2-24-3-23, C2. p. 357-2-4-3-5.

323. The STTS in this section omits the dharma-mudrds of four Paramitas (i.e. Sattvavajri, Ratnavajri, Dharmavajri and Karmavajri) because their names are identical to their dharmamudrds. {Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 207-3-8).

324. Sanskrit and Chinese 2 do not regard this VAJRAJNANAM as a mantra.

325. Sakyamitra interprets the term Vajradhatu as the Vajradhdtu-mandala. {Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 246-1-6-7). However, Anandagarbha regards it as the Body, Speech and Mind Vajra of all the Tathagatas. {Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 206-4-7-8).

326 S. p. 88-12, T. p. 232-3-7, Cl. p. 221-3-23,C2. p. 357-3-5.


mudrd rite consists of two activities, namely, reciting the appropriate mantra and meditating on a vajra on the tongue. For example, the method of accomplishing the dharma-mudrd of all the five Tathagatas is when the sddhaka thinks himself as pure by nature and meditates on a white five-pronged vajra on his tongue while reciting the mantra VAJRAJNANAM, then his body, speech and mind become a vajra,327


d-4. Karmamudra Rite


The karma-mudra representing the conduct of the deity, in a narrow sense, is defined as imitating the posture and especially the hand gesture of the deity. Both the samaya-mudrd and the karma-mudra are displayed as a form of hand gesture, the difference being that the latter consists in the hand gestures made by the thirtyseven deities, which appear in the mandala. In addition, all the hand gestures of the samaya-mudrds are generated from the vq/ra-bond (yajra-bandha), but all the hand gestures of the karma-mudras are generated from the two separated vq/ra-fists (vajra-musti). According to the STTS on the preliminary activity of the karmamudras, having made a va/ra-fist firmly, one should divide it into two while performing the yoga (of his deity). From making the two vajra-mudrds (which refer to the two separated vajra-fists made by the hands), die binding (of all the karma-mudras) begins.328 The karma-mudras of the five Tathagatas are as follows in the STT&™\-

“(1) Vairocana: The vayra-(fore) finger of the left hand is raised and seized by the right (vn/'ra-fist). This hand gesture called supreme enlightenment bestows die enlightenment of the Buddha.


(2) Aksobhya: The hand gesture of Aksobhya is known as earthtouching (which is made by sitting cross-legged, placing the left vajra-fist on the hip, stretching out the right vajra-fist towards the right knee and touching the earth a little with the fingertips330).


(3) Ratnasambhava: The hand gesture of Ratnasambhava is known as wish-granting (which is made by sitting cross-legged, placing the left vajra-fist on the hip, and forming a gesture of giving by stretching out all the fingertips of the right vayra-fist331).


(4) Amitabha: The hand gesture of Amitayus (alias Amitabha) is known as supreme samadhi (which is made by sitting crosslegged, placing the two vajra-fists on the hip, joining together the


327. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 206-4-8-5-1.

328. S. p. 89-2-3, T. p. 232-3-8-4-1, C l. p. 221-3-24-26, C2. p. 357-3-7-8.

329. S. p. 89-4-7, T. p. 232-4-1-2, Cl. pp. 221-3-26-222-1-1, C2. p. 357-3-9-12.

330 Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 247-2-7-8; Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 207-4-8-5-1.

331. Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 247-2-8-3-2; Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 207-5-2-3.


fingernails of the two bent forefingers, and meeting each tip of the two thumbs downwards with each of the two forefingers332), (5) Amoghasiddhi: The hand gesture of Amoghasiddhi is known as granting fearlessness (which is made by sitting cross-legged, placing tire left vajra-fist on the hip, and forming a gesture of granting fearlessness by stretching out all the fingertips of the right vnyra-fist333).”

The means of perfecting the karma-mudras of the thirty-seven deities is by meditating on a crossed vajra in the heart.334 While meditating on a crossed vajra in his heart, the sddhaka forms the karma-mudra of his deity to gain the power of his deity.

In conclusion, even though the STTS arranges and explains the four mudras in the sequence: mahd-, samaya-, dharma- and karma-mudras, Anandagarbha rearranges them as the following: samaya-, dharma-, karma- and mahd-mudras, and asserts that the sddhaka accomplishes with the samaya-mudrd, arranges with the dharma-mudrd, attends to marvellous action with the karma-mudra, and stabilises in the manner of consecration with the mahd-mudra?35 In addition, to summarise the origins of each of the four mudras: while the original cause (Tibetan gzhi) of the four mudras is the mahd-mudra, the original causes of the mahdmudras, the samaya-mudrds, the dharma-mudrds, and the karma-mudras are the mind, the vajra-bond whose origin is the vajra-anjali, the tongue, and the separated vayra-fists whose origin is the vajra-fist of the samaya-mudrd respectively.336


d-5. Rite o f Discharging the Four Mudras


According to the commentary by Anandagarbha337: “When the mind becomes tired of recitations and meditation, during each interval between meditational sessions, the sddhaka should perform the rite of discharging each of the mudras of his deity, and ask his deity to leave. Next there follows the section which explains a relevant rite, starting with the words, ‘Now comes an extensive rite of liberation common to all the mudrds'33% and ending with the words, ‘This has been said by the Lord

332 Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 247-3-3-4.

Anandagarbha explains that this hand gesture is formed by stretching out all the fingers of the two va/'ra-lists, and making the tips of the (two) thumbs meet each other like holding an alms-bowl. (Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 207-5-4).

333. Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 247-3-4-5; Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 207-5-5-6.

334. S. p. 90-8, T. p. 232-4-7-8, C l. p. 222-1-18-19, C2. p. 358-1-1.

335. F.D. Lessing and Alex Wayman (trs.), Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems, pp. 235-237.

336. Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 251-3-2-6.

337 Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 135-4-5-7.

33S. atha satvamudrdnam sdmanyo moksavidhivistaro bhavati: S. p. 96-1, T. p. 233-2-4-5, C l. p. 223-1-5-6, C2. p. 358-3-22.


Samantabhadra’”339 The method of discharging the mudrd which is common to all the four mudras is explained in the STTS

“(a) At first, one should discharge (each of all) the mudras from where it has been generated with the hrdaya: ‘ VAJRA MUET.340


(b) Then, one should consecrate (all the mudras) by placing the mudrd of Ratnavajri341 arisen from (one's) heart at the consecration-region of one's (body). After that, one should make the armour, on which the garland is tied, with the two forefingers together with the following hrdaya (and put the armour on all the mudras):-

OM 342RATNA-VAJRABHISIMCA. (Ratnavajra, consecrate!)’

‘SARVA-MUDRA ME DRDHI-KURU VARA-KAVACENA VAM.

(Make steadfast all the mudras to me with the encircling armour!)’ (c) Then, when one discharges the armour on which the garland is tied, by making the palms equal, one should satisfy343 (all the mudras) with the hrdaya'. ‘

VAJRA TUSYA HOHT

Those whose mudras are discharged, bound and satisfied with this rite will obtain the vq/Az-essence, and become identified with Vajrasattva.

Reciting: ‘Vajrasattvah’ once gives the joy that is wished for. As soon as one recites it, one is successfril, as Vajrapani has said.”345 Paragraph (a) explains that each mudrd is discharged at its own particular region between the heart and the crown of the head, where it is generated. In the case of Vairocana, for instance, while reciting: ‘ VAJRADHATU, the sddhaka binds the samaya-mudrd of Vairocana at the crown of his head which is considered the abode of Vairocana. Then, while reciting: * VAJRA M UH\ he discharges it at his crown, and meditates on discharging all the mudras of Vairocana.346 Paragraph (b) deals with the methods of consecrating and making steadfast all the mudras. Concerning the method of the consecration, Anandagarbha347 explains that the sddhaka binds the samaya-mudrd of Akasagarbha at his heart, and places it between his eyebrows. Then, if he consecrates all the mudras with the hrdaya: iVAJRARATNA-ABHISINCA\ all the mudras are consecrated by the gem-diadem of

339, aha bhagavan samantabhadrah: S. p. 97-3, T. p. 233-2-8-3-1, C l. p. 223-1-20, C2. p. 359- 1- 12.

34°. According to Sakyamitra, the hrdaya: ‘ VAJRA MUTT is used only for the Tathagata-family and the Fb/Va-families. For the Padma-family, the hrdaya: ‘PADMA MUTT, and for the itaftia-family, the hrdaya: ‘RATNA MUIR are used. (Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 251-3-8-4-1).

341. Both Chinese versions read: “mudrd o f Vajraratna”.

3 4 2 . Tibetan and both Chinese versions read: “VAJRA-RATNA”, instead of “RATNA- VAJRA’.

343. Chinese 2 reads: “makes the vajra-satisfaction”.

344. Chinese 2 reads: “if one discharges the consecration-bond with this mudrd and vidya, and makes (the mudrd of) satisfaction”. Chinese 1 regards “rite” as “vidya".

345. S. pp. 96-2-97-2, T. p. 233-2-5-8, C l. p. 223-1-7-19, C2. pp. 358-3-23-359-1-11.

346 Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 210-4-3-8.

347. Ibid., p. 210-4-8-5-2.


all the Tathagatas. The means of making steadfast all the mudras is for the sddhaka to make the mudras of the armour and the garland with his two forefingers, and then putting and tying them onto his deity in samadhi. Paragraph (c) explains the final activity of this rite, that is, the means of satisfying the deity, which is invoked by the sddhaka, by drawing the palms together. As the result of this rite, the body, speech and mind of the sddhaka becomes a vajra, and he becomes identical to Vajrasattva.


5. Conclusion


Before proceeding to the next chapter, it is important to note drat this chapter contains not only a unique rite, namely, the five abhisambodhis, but also the various basic and essential methods of tantra, which are closely related to the rituals described in the other chapters. This is one of the reasons that Amoghavajra gives priority to only this part of the STTS and translates it from the Sanskrit' into Chinese.

Some distinguishing features drawn from die exposition of the five abhisambodhis indicate a new way of attaining enlightenment. The rite of the five abhisambodhis consists of the five stages which correspond to the five Wisdoms and the five Tathagatas representing the five families. From die point of view of religious practices, this rite introduces a more developed form of yoga involving visualisations and recitations than die traditional yoga consisting of controlled breathing and simple concentration. The method of visualising the object, either the vajra or the moon, is the preliminary and essential practice for deity -yoga. The Vajradhatu Mahdmandala constitutes the foundation and structure for all twenty-seven mandalas described in the STTS. The exposition of die Vajradhatu Mahdmandala begins with the thirty-seven deities manifested by the vajra-samadhi of Sakyamuni as Vairocana on the summit of Mount Sumeru. These thirty-seven deities symbolise the thirty-seven knowledges. The significance of the mandalarites such as constructing and entering the mandala is, in a broad sense, to show not only the externally manifested Universal-Buddha-World but also the internally existing individual-Buddha-nature. In a narrow sense, the mandala-rites are considered a means by which the pupil is initiated and by which his deity is chosen. The mudrd-rites of the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala contain all kinds of tantricmediodological elements which are adopted by die other mandalas. In terms of the mudrd-knowledge and the four mudras, the /m/d/fi-knowledge is die means of developing the innate supernatural faculties of the sddhaka, and the four mudras are the means of generating the deity-yogu, by which the sddhaka invokes his deity and gains the deity's power. The ultimate purpose of both the mwdWz-knowledge and the four mudras is to reach enlightenment by training the body and mind of the sadhaka.


Finally, the rites described in the section of the mwJm-knowledge of the four attainments are composed in four sets of four verses ending with four corresponding mantras. These mantras which comprise of a few key words summarising the relevant rites serve two functions, namely, empowering the rite and helping the sddhaka to memorise the rite.


Chapter 2. Vajraguhya Vajramandala


Since most basic and essential ritual methods are introduced and explained in the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala as the key mandala, the expositions of the five other mandalas of the Vajradhatu are relatively brief. The exposition of Vajraguhya Vajramandala (or Vajraguhya Mahavajramandala)348 begins with the second samadhi called the supreme mandala-king, because the first and third samddhis in the STTS appear only once in the samadhi-section of the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala. This second samadhi in this chapter enumerates the names of the five Tathagatas, the sixteen Mahabodhisattvas, and so forth. The five Tathagatas, for instance, are manifested in the form of vidyd, i.e. Vajradhatvisvari, Vajravajrinl, Ratnavajrinl, Dharmavajrini and Kamiavajrim, and correspond to the five Tathagatas, namely, Vairocana, Aksobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha and Amoghasiddhi respectively. According to Amoghavajra, this mandala contains thirty-seven deities, all of whom abide in the fonn of Paramita (Bodhisattvas).350 The Vajraguhya Vajramandala like the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala has the same number of deities but they are female and have different appearances. The thirtyseven female deities of this mandala are the consorts of the thirty-seven deities of the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala. The images of these female deities are shown in the Vajradhatu Guhyadharanlmandala of the Gobushinkan,351 which contains the


female images of thirty-four deities in total, i.e., Vairocana (though Vajradhatvisvari is the counterpart of Vairocana) and the thirty-three female deities excluding the four Internal Offerings described in the Sanskrit STTS. Each of the female deities drawn in this mandala sits on a lotus and holds her own symbol. In addition, one of the four Vajradhatu Mahdmandala352 at Alchi Monastery also consists of all the 34S. S. chapter 2. pp. 100-115, T. pp. 233-4-3-235-1-8, C2. pp. 359-2-20-362-3-3. 349. The sixteen Mahabodhisattvas in this mandala are divided into four family groups, i.e. Vajradhdranis, Ratnadhdranis, Dharmadhdranls and Sarvadharanis (or perhaps Kami ad ha ran is). Vajradhdranis include (1) Samantabhadra, (2) Tathagatankusi, (3) Ratiraga, (4) Sadhumati. Ratnadhdranis. include (5) Ratnottama, (6) Ratnolka, (7) Dhvajagrakeyura, (8) Hasavati. Dharmadhdranls include (9) Vajrambuja, (10) Adharani, (11) Sarvacakra, (12) Sahasravarta. Sarvadharanis include (13) Siddhottara, (14) Sarvaraksa, (15) Tejahpratyaharini, (16) Dharanimudra.


In addition, there are enumerated the names of the four Paramitas, i.e. Guhyasattvavajri, ’1 T Guhyaratnavajri, Guhyadharmavajri and Guhyakarmavajri, and the four Internal Offerings, ' ( ( , i.e. Vajraguhyaratipujasamaya (Vajralasya), Vajraguhyabhisekapujasamaya (Vajramala), Vajraguhyagitapujasamaya (Vajragita) and Vajraguhyanrtyapujasamaya (Vajranrtya). Though ^ ^ the mandala described in this chapter contains thirty-seven deities like the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala, the STTS does not provide the names of the four External Offerings and the c L,c' % ^ four Guardians.


350. OEAVS, TSD. Vol. 18, No. 869, p. 284-3-24-25.

351. TSD. Tu-xiang-ba (Iconographic Section), Vol. 2, pp. 93-110; Lokesh Chandra, A Ninth Century Scroll o f the Vajradhatu Mandala, pp. 128-195; Toganoo Shoun, Kongochdlcyo no Kenkyu, Toganoo Shoun Zenshu, Extra Vol. Ill, pp. 229-297.

352. The World o f Tibetan Buddhism, photographs by Fujita Hiroki and supervision by Council of Religious Affairs of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, p. 214.


deities having a female appearance, though it cannot be definitely assumed that this mandala is exactly the same as the Vajraguhya Vajramandala. Though the mandala explained in this chapter of the Sanskrit STTS is known as Vajraguhya Vajramandala (or Vajraguhya Mahavajramandala),353 Amoghavajra and Anandagarbha name this mandala, which constitutes the supreme samayamudrd354 and focuses on the Mind of Vairocana, Dhdranlmandala (of the Vajradhatu).355 The thirty-seven female deities manifested by the samadhi, who symbolise the minds of the deities of the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala, are shown as symbols in the Vajraguhya Vajramandala of the STTS and in the Samaya Assembly of the Nine Assemblies Mandala.

The section of the mudrd-rites of the Vajraguhya Vajramandala includes the methods of attaining the four goals, which are entitled mwr/rd-knowledge, i.e. subjugation, attraction, destruction and pacification. The sddhaka attains these four goals by means of his body, vision, speech and mind. The means of binding the four mudras are briefly explained in this chapter. Significantly the maha-mudrds referring to the images of the deities are replaced in the Vajraguhya Vajramandala by those referring to the hand gestures, because this mandala represents the supreme samaya-mudrd and comprises the symbols instead of the images of the deities. The means of discharging the four mudras are almost the same as the previous ones described in the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala.


1. Structural Analysis o f Chapter 2


(1) The first section of chapter 2 of the STTS starting with the words, “Then the Lord”357 and ending with the words, “They are positioned in the four comers of the lunar disc”,358 provides an exposition of the second samadhi called the supreme mandala-king of the Vajraguhya Vajramandala.


(2) The next section starting with the words, “Then Vajrapani once again announced this Great Vajramandala called Vajraguhya (Kq/ra-secret)”359 and

353. Sakyamitra defines the term vajra-guhya as the instruction of the attainment of the secret purposes, and the term mahavajramandala indicates the mandala of the Lord Vajrasattva. (Kosalalamlcara, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 255-3-7-8). Regarding the term vajra-guhya, Anandagarbha adds that the vajra refers to what is originated from the mind of the indubitable Jnanasattva, and it is called the guhya because of being endowed with the nature of dhdranl. (Tattvaloka, Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 213-5-8).

354. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 136-1-2-3.

355. Alex Wayman argues that the word idharanV o f the dharani-mandala means ‘memory1, i.e., retention in the Mind. (F.D. Lessing and Alex Wayman (trs.), Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems, p. 225, footnote).

356. TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 1, pp. 908-922; Adrian Snodgrass, The Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas in Shingon Buddhism, p. 645.

357. atha bhagavdm: S. p. 100-2, T. p. 233-4-3, C2. p. 359-2-21.

35S. cakramandalakonacatustaye sthapyaly. S. p. 104-19, T. p. 234-1-8, C2. p. 360-3-8. 359. atha vajrapanih punar api idam vajraguhyan ndma mahdvajramandalam abhasat: S. p. 105-1-2, T. p. 234-1-8, C2. p. 360-3-17-18.


ending with the words, “One should teach the knowledge of the va/rfz-secretmudrd”, 360 explains the mandala-rites of the Vajraguhya Vajramandala.

(3) The next section starting with the words, “Thus, at first, one should teach the knowledge of the vuyra-secret-body-mwbra”361 and ending with die words, ‘ ‘ VAJRA - G UHYA -SAMA YA HAM”,362 explains the murira-knowledge for the four attainments, i.e. subjugation, attraction, destruction and pacification. This section also explains the secret-mudrd rite.

(4) The next section starting with the words, “Then, one should teach the binding of the mahd-mudras of the Thyra-secret”363 and ending with the words, “Whatever is the supreme pledge should be divided into two in exactly the same way”,364 briefly describes the rite of binding the four mudras of the Vajraguhya Vajramandala.


(5) The next section starting with the words, “Then, I will explain the way of perfecting these (four mudras)”365 and ending with the words, “They should not abandon their own husbands”,366 explains a common method of perfecting all the four mudras of the Vajraguhya Vajramandala.


(6) The next section starting with the words, “Then, there are the actions such as the binding of all these mudras and others”367 and ending with the words, “OM GUHYA-SAMAYA-TALA SAH”,36H explains the rite of discharging the four mudras of the Vajraguhya Vajramandala . (7) The final section, “While reciting: ‘VAJRASATTVA’ at will, if one performs in this pledge {-mandala) all the activities (explained in this) mandala, one can become a supreme doer of all attainments.”,369 includes a summary and concise description for accomplishing all the mudrd-rites of the Vajraguhya Vajramandala


2. Samadhi of the Vajraguhya Vajramandala


360. vajraguhyamudrdjnanam silcsayet: S. p. 107-8, T. p. 234-3-2, C2. p. 361-1-24. 36k tatra prathaman tavad vajragiihyakdyamudrdjndnam silcsayet: S. p. 107-9-10, T. p. 234-3- 2, C2. p. 361-1-25.

362. S. p. 111-14, T. p. 234-5-3, C2. p. 362-1-13.

363. tato vajraguhyamahdmudrabandham silcsayet: S. p. 112-1, T. p. 234-5-3, C2. p. 362-1-14. Sanskrit omits: “mahd”.

364 ydvadyah samayagryo vai dvidhilcrtya tathaiva ca: S. p. 113-5, T. p. 235-1-1, C2. p. 362-2- 8 .

365. athdsam sddhanam valcsye: S. p. 113-6, T. p. 235-1-1-2, C2. p. 362-2-9.

366. ma tyajeyuh patin nijam iti: S. p. 113-11-12, T. p. 235-1-3, C2. p. 362-2-14.

Tibetan and Tattvaloka both read: “They should abandon their eternal husbands.” 367. athdsam sarvamudranam bandhaditi karmani bhavanti: S. p. 113-13, T. p. 235-l-3~4, C2. p. 362-2-15.

368. S. p. 114-12, T. p. 235-1-7, C2. p. 362-3-1.

369. vajrasattvo rucir jdptah sarvamandalakarmasu, prayolctavyo 'tra samaye sarvasiddhikarah param iti: S. p. 114-13~ 15, T. p. 235-1-7-8, C2. p. 362-3-2-3. 370 j i ie above divisions and analyses of the Sanskrit STTS are reconstructed on the basis of Anandagarbha's commentary focusing on the textual sequence and the ritual procedure. Cf. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 136-1-2-3-5.


The main purpose of the second samadhi called the supreme mandala-king is to evoke all the deities, particularly the thirty-seven deities, for the mandala rites. Thus, the second samadhi constitutes the doctrinal basis of the mandala because each mandala described in the STTS is constructed on the basis of its second samadhi. Thus, the mandala is defined as the manifested form of the second samadhi. The following characteristics relating to the Vajraguhya Vajramandala can be examined on the basis of information provided by the samddhi-section of this mandala?11


(1) The STTS reads>


“The Lord Vajrapani entered the samadhi called c Vajra Generated from All the Vajradhdranl-Samayas372 of All the Tathagatas’. In this samadhi, he conceived and emitted the Goddesses of the Samaya-mudrd of the Vajradhdrani from the hearts of all the Tathagatas and he also brought forth the knowledges of the Vajradhdrani of all the Tathagatas and of all the Buddhas in all the universes.”

Evidently the term dharani-mandala, which is employed by Amoghavajra and Anandagarbha, originates from this quotation and this mandala consists of the female deities who exist in the mandala in symbolic forms.

(2) The STTS reads “The Lord transformed himself into the symbols of the Samayamudrds of all the Tathagatas.” Thus, this mandala consists not of images but of die distinguishing symbols (svacihna) of the deities, for instance, stupa, five-pronged vajra, gem, lotus and crossed vajra.

(3) The STTS reads “The Lord rested on the lunar discs in conformity with entering the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala of all the Tathagatas.” Once again it is clear from this quotation that the positions of the symbols are exactly the same as the positions of the deities in the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala, because the symbols of the thirty-seven deities replace their images in the Vajraguhya Mahavajramandala, These characteristics are implemented in the construction of this mandala.


3. Mandala Rites


The major function of all the mandala-rites described in the STTS is to provide the sddhaka with the pledge and the consecration. In terms of the relationship between 371. S. p. 100, T. p. 233-4-3-7, C2. p. 359-2-21-3-1.

372. Concerning the meaning of the samayas (pledges) in this context, Sakyamitra asserts that they are the hrdayas, mudras and mandalas. {Kosalalamkdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 253-5-

7). However, Anandagarbha asserts that they are the Bodies of the Dharam-GoddessQS. {Tattvaloka, Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 212-3-7).


the mandala-rite and the mudrd-rite, they are inseparable from each other, and the former is a kind of preliminary activity for accomplishing the latter.


a. Structure o f the Vajraguhya Vajramandala This mandala symbolises the original vow of the deities of the Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala represented in their samaya-forms. These samaya-forms are represented either by objects or symbols characteristic of each deity, or by their ordinary attributes. This mandala also corresponds almost exactly to the Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala in its general disposition and placement.373 “The supreme Vajramandala (of the Tathagata-family) has the basic design of the Vajradhdtu (Mahdmandala) and is called ‘ Vajraguhya (Kq/ra-secret)’. The whole mandala should be designed in conformity with the (Vajradhdtu) Mahdmandala. One should draw the (five) Buddha-mudrds in the centres of every mandala. A stupa (caitya), well placed on the seat (paryahka), is called Vajradhdtvlsvarl (Queen of the Vajradhdtu).

A vajra above a vajra on the seat is named Vajracintd (Vajrathought), A vajra-gem on the seat is named Svabhiseka (Selfconsecration), A vq/>a-lotus on the seat is named Ayudha (Longlife- holder). An action-vq/ra (or crossed vajra) on the seat is named Sarvavajra (Uni vers al-vq/ra). These (vajras) are drawn above the lotuses and placed inside the luminous mandalas. On the seats (of die eastern quarter), one should draw (1) a vajra, (2) two375 erect hooks, (3) a vajra reposing upon a vajra, and (4) two forms of the sadhidcdra (literally good-makers). (On the seats of the southern quarter), one should draw (5) a fiery gem, (6) a mn-mudrd, (7) a banner whose top is surrounded by flames, and (8) a set of teeth between two vajras.376 (On the seats of the western quarter), one should draw (9) a lotus in the centre of the vajra, (10) a sword surrounded by flames, (11) a vajra-wheel having a vq/ra-spoke,377 and (12) a tongue emitting blazing rays of light. (On the seats of the northern quarter), one should draw (13) a vajra in every direction, (14) a pair of cuirasses, (15) a vq/ra-tusk, and (16) a fist -mudrd consisting of two hands. One should draw Sattvavajri and the others in accordance widi the {Vajra-) Dhatu (Mahd-) mandala.37S One should draw the characteristic mudrds in the mandala of Vajralasya and the others. One should also draw the distinguishing symbols on the outer parts following the appropriate order. One should draw the

373. Lokesh Chandra, Sarva-Tathagata-Tattva-Sangraha, Introduction, p. 36.

374. Tibetan reads: “Vajrasattva”. Chinese 2 reads: “ Vajra of the Vajra-family”.

375. Chinese 2 omits: “two” and inserts: “vajra".

376. Chinese 2 reads: “Vajrahasa”, instead of “between two vajras”.

377. Chinese 2 reads: “a vq/ra-great-fire-wheel”.

378. Chinese 2 reads: <<‘mahd-mandala”-


distinguishing symbols of Maitreya and the others, in the way one likes”

The first segment of this quotation shows that die basic design such as measurement and lines are based upon die construction-method of the mahdmandala of the Vajradhdtu. The difference is that the deities' symbols replace their images in this mandala. The term £ Vajramandala* is defined as the mandala comprising the symbols signified by a vajra.™ The second segment describes the five symbols and names drawn on the seats of the five Tathagatas. The phrase 'a vajra above a vajra' denotes die symbol of Aksobhya, which is the image of a vertical five-pronged vajra standing on a horizontal five-pronged vajra.™ The third segment describes the symbols of the sixteen Mahabodhisattvas, which correspond to the sixteen symbols of the Mahabodhisattvas from Vajrasattva to Vajrasandhi. The phrase ‘two forms of the sddhukara’ refers to the symbol of Vajrasadhu,

which is the image of the two hands whose wrists bear a vajra?'?'2 The final segment does not actually provide concrete information about die symbols of the odier deities. Concerning the four symbols of the four Paramitas, a five-pronged vajra is drawn for Sattvavajri; a five-pronged vajra attached to the top of a wishgranting- gem is drawn for Ratnavajri; a five-pronged vajra at the entrance to the repositoiy of a sixteen-petalled lotus is drawn for Dharmavajri; a crossed-vq/ra made of twelve prongs is drawn for Karmavajri. Anandagarbha adds: “A vajra with five prongs at both ends is drawn for Lasya; the garland of Mahavajraratna is drawn for Mala; a vajra-vind is drawn for Gita; the hand gesture of two hands, drawn up to the wrist and holding a three-pronged vajra, is drawn for Nrtya. An incense-vessel is drawn for Dhupa; a vase filled with the vq/rn-flowers is drawn for Puspa; the wick of Vajraloka is drawn for Aloka; the conch of Vajragandha is drawn for Gandha. The hook of Vajrankusa is drawn for Vajrankusa; a vajranoose is drawn for Pasa; a vq/ra-chain is drawn for Sphota; a vajra-bell is drawn for Vajravesa. In addition, four vajras are drawn for four Bhadrakalpa Mahabodhisattvas in the east; four vajra-gems are drawn for those in the south; four vo/'ra-lotuses are drawn for those in the west; and four crossed-vqy'raj are drawn for those in the north.”

The Samaya Assembly of the Nine Assemblies Mandala™ displays not only the symbols of the thirty-seven deities and the sixteen Bhadrakalpa Mahabodhisattvas,


379. S. pp. 105-106, T. p. 234-1-8-2-7, C2. pp. 360-3-11-361-1-15.

3S0. Tattvdloka, Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 214-1-4.

38 f Adrian Snodgrass explains the horizontal five-pronged vajra as symbolising innate Bodhicitta; the sets o f five prongs at either end represent the identity of the five Knowledges in beings and in the five Buddhas. The vertical five-pronged vajra symbolises the quickening of the Bodhicitta in beings. (The Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas in Shingon Buddhism; pp. 651-652).

382. Tattvdloka, Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 214-3-3.

3S3. Ibid., p. 214-4-1-5-2.

384. TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 1, pp. 908-922.


but also the symbols of the twenty Hindu deities positioned in the external mandala, which appear not in this Vajraguhya Vajramandala.


b. Entry into the Mandala


The rite of entering this mandala is a simplified version of the ritual of entering the Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala as is evident from the following:- “At first, the vq/ra-master binds the mudrd of Sattvavajri by himself, and enters (the mandala). Upon entering it, he should turn to the right.385 After presenting the mudrd to the Lord Vajrapani, he should duly release it over his heart.386 Having correctly performed the actions at the four gates with the karmamudrdsm of Vajrankusa and the others (Vajrapasa, Vajrasphota

and Vajravesa), he should step forward. Having done this, he should induce (his) pupil388 to enter (the mandala) following the method of entering the Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala. Once (his pupil) has entered, he should give (his pupil) a vq/ra-emblem (vajra-cihna) of the secret attainment which has been concealed inside (his) fist.389 Then, he should teach (his pupil) the mudrdknowledge of the Vajraguhya (Vajramandala).”

According to Salcyamitra, the master himself should enter the mandala before his pupil enters because some people are forgetful and may transgress the pledge. Furthermore, this should be done in order to establish the mudrds perfectly at the tune of invoking but not seeing the deity, in order to be captivated completely by the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas when accomplishing the mandala and in order to be approved by the Lord.391 In the light of the commentaries of Sakyamitra and Anandagarbha, the rite is simplified and summarised in order to avoid repetitions because die most details have already been described in the section on the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala. The main procedure of the rite conforms to the rite of the Vajradhatu Mahdmandala.


4. Mudra Rites


a. Mudrd-Knowledge o f the Four Attainments


As already mentioned, the main purpose of the mwrira-lcnowledge of the Vajraguhya

explained in this chapter is to achieve the four attainments, i.e. subjugation

385. Tibetan reads: “turn round once”.


386. Chinese 2 reads: “reciting the self-hrdaya”,

387. Tibetan omits: “karma-mudrds”.

388. Tibetan reads: “vq/ra-pupils”.

389. Chinese 2 reads: “Having released the fist (of his pupil) in accordance with the rite, he should give the vq/ra-sign of secret attainment (to his pupil).”

390. S. p. 107-2-8, T. p. 234-2-7-3-2, C2. p. 361-1-17-24.

391. Kosaldlamkara, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 256-1-3—5.

392. Vajra-guhya in this context indicates the Vajraguhya Vajramandala. (Tattvdloka, Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 215-2-8).


(vasikarana), attraction (akcirsana), destruction (<abhicdraka) and pacification (,sdntika), which are closely related to the four Aoma rites. In order to gain these attainments four kinds of mudrds are performed in this mandala, including the body, vision, speech and mind mudrds of the Vajraguhya Vajramandala with each mudrd consisting of four kinds of rites. In this context, the term mudrd refers to an additional aid to gain the desired attainments. Out of the following four kinds of mudrds, the methods of making the four body-mudrds and the four vision-mudrds are illustrated in the Vajradhdtu Guhyadhdrammandala of the Gobushinkan ,393 a-1. Body-Mudra o f the Vajra-Secret (Vajraguhyakayamudrd)

“One makes one's hands and feet like the posture of salutation {ahjali) (sitting) in the centre of a lunar disc. Then if one visualises a vajra whilst (imagining) the mouth is gaping,394 one can gratify even Vajrini.

If one visualises a vajra on one's head whilst bending one of one's arms like a hook and making a sharp noise (like snapping fingers) by the other one's hand,395 one can summon even Afikusl.396 One makes the gesture of shooting an arrow. Then if one (imagines) that one gapes at (one's female deity) and pierces (her) heart (with an arrow), one can gratify even Rativajra herself with passion (mdra).

If one encircles one's heart by crossing one's both arms and (imagines putting the armour on) oneself by means of the vajraarmour398 (of Vajraraksa), one can protect even the Buddha himself.”

This first segment describes the means of subduing or gratifying the sddhaka's chosen deity, who is manifested as a goddess and drawn as a symbol hi the mandala, by imitating and visualising the posture and image of Vajrasattva who sits cross-legged, holding together the palms of his hands over the crown of his head, and gaping at his consort Vajrinl. The way of attracting or invoking a goddess explained in the second segment is achieved by means of the sddhaka's imitating

393, TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 2, pp. 107-108; Lokesh Chandra, A Ninth Century Scroll o f the Vajradhdtu Mandala, pp. 185-189; Toganoo Shoun, Kongocholsyo no Kenlcyu, Toganoo Shoun Zenshu, Extra Vol. Ill, pp. 287-291.


394 Chinese 2 reads: “if one visualises a vajra in the centre of a pure lunar circle while making one's hands, feet, fingers and face tremble intensively”. 3 95. According to Anandagarbha, the sddhaka bends his left arm like a hook and makes a sharp noise of snapping fingers with his right hand. (Tattvdloka, Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 215-4- 7-8). However, Sakyamitra states that the sddhaka bends his right arm like a hook and calls the name of the deity (Vajrankusa) while snapping the fingers of his left hand. (Kosaldlamkara, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 256-4-3-5).

396. Chinese 2 reads: “If one bends one's arms like the posture of holding a hook and visualises a vajra on one’s head while making a noise with clapping one's hands, then while visualising Vajrankusa one attracts (one's female deity).”

397. Chinese 2 translates the Sanskrit words ‘mara-yogena’ as ‘as if killing all evils’. 398. Chinese 2 reads the Sanskrit words ‘vajra-varma’ as ‘vajj-a-dharma’. 3" . S. p. 107-11-18, T. p. 234-3-2-5, C2. p. 361-1-26-2-4.


and visualising the posture and image of Vajraraja (alias Vajrankusa) who bends his arm like a hook and calls his consort Ahkusi by means of snapping his lingers. The way of destruction (abhicdraka) explained in the third segment is achieved by means of the sddhaka,'s imitating and visualising the posture and image of Vajraraga who gapes at his consort Rativajra and pierces her heart with an arrow. The way of pacification or protection explained in the final segment is achieved by means of the sddhaka' 5 imitating and visualising the posture and image of Vajraraksa (alias Vajrakavaca) who encircles his heart by crossing his arms. These four rituals are called ‘secret5 because in this mandala the sddhaka visualises himself as one of the four deities, i.e. Vajrasattva, Vajraraja, Vajraraga and Vajraraksa corresponding to the four attainments and then in samddhi unites with his chosen female deity chosen.

a-2. Vision-Mudra o f the Vajra-Secret (Vajraguhyadrstimudra)


“If one beholds any female (deity) with one's widely open eyes, (which is known as) ‘vryra-vision’ (vajra-drsp) generating the extreme joy of passion, one can subdue her perpetually. One can attract all living beings by blinking one's eyes and pulling the eyelashes to and fro, which is known as ‘flaming-vision’ {dipta-drsti).

If one concentrates on ‘wrathfiil-vision’ (krodha-drsti) which refers to closing the eyes as soon as there is an extreme frown and wrinkles, one can destroy even the three worlds. One can eliminate evil beings such as Jvara and Graha by holding one's eyes without blinking like a rock on Mount Meru, which is known as ‘friendliness-vision’ (maitri-drsti)Jm

These four rituals focus on the eyes' movements which are made by the sddhaka in samddhi. When the sddhaka visualises and beholds his chosen female deity in this mandala, he uses one of the four types of eye movements in order to unite with his female deity and to gain her power.

a-3. Speech-Mudrd o f the Vajra-Secret (Vajraguhyavdhmudra) “If one recites distinctly the wzyra-word (vajra-vac)\ ‘HOH HOH HOH H O H , one can gratify all living beings as soon as the word is revealed.

If one recites distinctly the wrathful-word (Izrodha-vdc)401: ‘ JJAH JJAH JJAH JJA H , one can attract all living beings like Vajradhara.

If one concentrates on (reciting) distinctly the sound-word (sabdavdc)

402: i HUM HUM HUM HUM*, one can kill all living

beings403 like falling rocks on Mount Meru.

400 S. p. 108-7-14, T. p. 234-3-6-8, C2. p. 361-2-11-18.

40 f Chinese 2 reads: “sound-word”.

402. Chinese 2 reads: “wrathful-word”.


If one recites distinctly the subtle-word (,suksma-vdc): ‘HAM HAM HAM HAM , one can protect this whole world and even the Victor having the va/ra-nature.”

These four rituals focus on the four seed-syllables {blja), i.e. HOH, JJAH, HUM and HAM, as the means of gaining the four attainments. Three of the four mantras are borrowed from the four syllabled seed-mantras explained in the Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala, i.e. JAH HUM VAM HOH, whose functions are summoning,

drawing in, binding and subduing the Mahasattvas respectively. A seed-syllable ‘HAM added in this ritual has the function of protection. Each of these four seedsyllables, which is pronounced four times, is an additional aid in the deity-yoga. a-4. Mind-Mudrd o f the Vajra-Secret (Vajraguhyacittamudrd)

“If one visualises oneself as Vajrapani who is endowed with all the most excellent forms, one can subdue all the Buddhas. If one visualises oneself as Vajragarbha who is endowed with all the most excellent forms, one can attract Vajrapani.

If one visualises oneself as Vajranetra405 who is endowed with all the most excellent forms, one can destroy all the dharmas,406

If one visualises oneself as Vajravisva who is endowed with all the most excellent forms, one can protect the Universal Vajra.”407 These four segments explain the four attainments by means of meditating on the four representative Mahabodhisattvas, i.e. Vajrasattva, Vajraratna, Vajradharma and Vajrakaima respectively, as if in this mandala each bears the same thirty-two major marks and eighty minor marks as the Buddha Sakyamuni. The word ‘destroying’ from the outside of the tantra signifies ‘gaining the attainments (siddhi)’


b. Secret Rite


The fifth land of mudrd rite included in the section of the mudra-knowledgQ is the meditation on the four Paramitas, i.e. Sattvavajri, Ratnavajri, Dharmavajri and Karmavajri respectively. The sddhaka meditates on these four Paramitas while beholding them with the four types of eye movements as previously described. This rite is called the (secret-) mudrd of the Vajra-secret (Vajraguhyamudrd):- “If one meditates on Sattvavajri in one's heart, and beholds her with the va/ra-vision, one can take possession of the whole world.

If one meditates on Ratnavajri in one's heart, and beholds her with the flaming-vision, one can subdue all.

403. Chinese 2 reads: “all evil beings”.

404 S, p. 109-7-14, T. p. 234-4-1-3, C2. p. 361-2-25-3-4.

405. Tibetan reads: “Dharmanetra”.

406. Tibetan reads: “one can gather all the dharmas”, Chinese 2 reads: “one can destroy evil beings with all the dharmas".

407. S. p. 110-2-9, T. p. 234-4-4-7, C2. p. 361-3-11-18.

408. Tattvdloka, Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 217-4-2-3.


If one meditates on Dharmavajri in one's heart, and beholds her with the wrathful-vision, one can destroy the whole world. If one meditates on Karmavajri in one's heart, and beholds her with the friendliness-vision, one can protect this whole world.”409 In this rite, the sddhaka in his samddhi unites the four representative Mahabodhisattvas visualised as himself with the corresponding four Paramitas. Through this perfect union between partners, the sddhaka gains the four attainments.


c. Mahdmudra o f the Vajraguhya Vajramandala


The STTS describes briefly the methods of binding the four mudrds of the deities of the Vajraguhya Vajramandala, This section includes only of the mahd-mudras of the five Tathagatas and the sixteen Mahabodhisattvas described as the female deities in this mandala, because the mahd-mudras of the four Paramitas correspond respectively to those of the four Tathagatas excluding Yairocana, and the mahdmudras of the eight Offerings and the four Guardians are the same as their samayamudrds of the Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala. The binding of the mahd-mudras in this mandala consists not in visualising the images of the thirty-seven deities, but in making the hand gestures referring to the deities, because the STTS in this section defines the vajra-ahjali as the cause of generating all the mahd-mudrds of the Vajraguhya Vajramandala. Therefore, the mahd-mudras referring to the five Tathagatas are enumerated as (1) joining together both thumbs, bending both forefingers, and uniting the joints of both middle fingers, (2) making a vajra with both middle fingers, (3) making a gem with both middle fingers, (4) making a lotus with both middle fingers, ring fingers and little fingers, (5) stretching out all the fingers. Each of these five hand gestures begins with forming a vajra-ahjali.


5. Conclusion


The Vajraguhya Vajramandala which constitutes the supreme samaya-mudra represents the Mind of Vairocana, which is revealed by the thirty-seven female deities who are manifested through the samddhi of Vajrasattva or Vajrapani and are replaced by their symbols in the constructed mandala. These thirty-seven female deities, who symbolise the minds of the thirty-seven deities of the Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala and the Buddha's infinite love, generate the love or passion inside the sddhaka}s mind, the power by which the sddhaka gains the four attainments, i.e. subjugation, attraction, destruction and pacification.

409 S. p. 111-2-9, T. p. 234-4-8-5-2, C2. p. 362-1-1-8.

410 S. pp. 112-113-5, T. pp. 234-5-3-235-1-1, C2. p. 362-1-14-2-8.


Chapter 3. Vajrajnana Dharmamandala


Chapter 3 of the STTS411 explains the significance of assembling the Vajrajnana Dharmamandala (or Vajrasuksma Jhanamandala) which constitutes the supreme dharma-mudrd and focuses on the Speech of Vairocana. Anandagarbha and Sakyamitra name this mandala, which also contains the main thirty-seven deities, Dharmamandala (of the Vajradhdtu). A common characteristic of the names of die sixteen Mahabodhisattvas412 manifested through the second samddhi of the Vajrajnana Dharmamandala is that each of the sixteen Mahabodhisattvas is given the name of a ‘Knowledge-Symbol’ (jhanamudrah). Since their names are compounds and masculine in form, the word ‘Symbol’ occurs at the end of each as mudrah and not in the typically feminine form as mudra

According to Amoghavajra, the specific characteristic of this mandala, which he names Suksma (SubtlQ)-vajra-mandala, is that each of the thirty-seven deities is drawn in the centre of a vajra, and has its own samddhi-mudra.w Since the rites of entering this mandala are performed on the basis of those of die Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala, the STTS chapter mentions only the following difference:- “Having executed an extensive rite of entering (this mandala) in conformity with the (Vajradhdtu) Mahdmandala, (the master) should place a knowledge-emblem (jnana-cihna)415 into both hands (of his pupil).”

The section of the m«rin:7-knowledge of the Vajrajnana Dharmamandala is devoted to the various skills exercised in meditation. According to Amoghavajra,417 this section explains the suksma-vajra-samadhi of the sddhaka in practising the four dhydnas, four brahma-vihdras (perfect-states) and three vimoksa-mukhas 41!. S. chapter 3. pp. 116-129, T. pp. 235-1-8-236-4-8, C2. pp. 362-3-4-365-2-2. 412. The sixteen Mahabodhisattvas in this mandala are divided into four-family groups, i.e. Sarvatathdgata-mahdvajra-samadhis, Sarvatathdgata-ratna-samddhis, Sarvatathagatadharma- samddhis and Sarvatathagata-karma-samadhis. Sarvatathagata-mahavajrasamadhis include

(1) Vajrasattva-jnana-mudrah,

(2) Sarvatathagata-samajadhisthana-jnanamudrah,

(3) Sarvatathagatanuragana-jnana-mudrah,

(4) Mahatusti-jnana-mudrah.Sarvatathdgata-ratna-samddhis include

(5) Sarvatathagata-vajrabhiseka-jnana-mudrah,

(6) Mahaprabhamandalavyuha-jnana-mudrah, (7) Sarvatathagatasaparipurana-jnana-mudrah,

(8) Sarvatathagata-mahahasa-jnana-mudrah, Sarvatathagata-dharma-samadhis include

(9) Sarvadharma-samata-jnana-mudrah, (10) Sarvatathagata-prajna-jnana-mudrah,

(11) MahacakrapraveSa- jnana-mudrah,

(12) Sarvatathagata-dharmavagnihprapanca-jnana-mudrah. Sai'vatathdgata-karma-samadhis include

(13) Sarvatathagata-visvakarma-jnana-mudrah,

(14) Duryodhana-virya-jnana-mudrah,

(15) Sarvamara-mandala-vidhvamsana-jnana-mudrah,

(16) Sarvatathagata-bandha-jnana-mudrah.


413. David Snellgrove, Sarva-Tathagata-Tattva-Sahgraha, Introduction, p. 36.

414 OEAVS, TSD. Vol. 18, No. 869, pp. 284-3-27-285-1-1.

415. Tibetan reads: "jndna-nnidrd". Chinese 2 reads: “mahd-jndna-cihna”. Anandagarbha and Sakyamitra both regard a knowledge-emblem as the vajra-suksma as small as a barleycorn. (Tattvdloka, Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 224-3-3; Kosaldlamkara, Vol. 70,

No. 3326, p. 262-3-2).

416. S. p. 123-2-3, T. p. 236-1-7, C2. p. 364-1-15-16. 417. OEAVS, TSD. Vol. 18, No. 869, p. 285-1-2-4.


(emancipation-entrances). As a result of these practices in meditation, the mind endures, the mind becomes gently harmonious, and the mind is liberated.


1. Structural Analysis of Chapter 3


(1) The first section of chapter 3 of the STTS starting with the words, “Then the Lord once again entered the samddhi called Mandala-Empowerment of the Pledge of the Knowledg§-Mudrd of the Subtle- Vajra of All the Tathagatas”418 and ending with the words, “They entered the samadhis of their own hearts, and remained there”,419 provides an exposition of the second samddhi called the supreme mandala-king of the Vajrajnana Dharmamandala.

(2) The next section starting with the words, “Then, Vajrapani once again enunciated this Vajrasuksma Jhanamandala for the purpose of accomplishing the samddhi, the knowledge and the supernatural knowledge of all the Tathagatas”420 and ending with the words, “(The master) should place the sign of knowledge into both hands (of his pupil)”,421 explains the mandala-rites of the Vajrajnana Dharmamandala.

(3) The next section starting with the words, “(The master) should teach the knowledge of the mahd-mudrd which makes one's own mind endure”422 and ending with the words, “One can accomplish the universal action”,423 explains the mw^ra-knowledge consisting of the meditative practices, which are common to the Abhidharma and Mahayana Buddhism, i.e. the four dhyanas, four brahmavihdras, four drupyasamdpattis and three vimoksamukhas. This section also contains a secret rite known as the secret mwf/ra-knowledge of the truth of all the Tathagatas.

(4) The final section starting with the words, “Then, one should teach the mudrdknowledge of the samddhi called the empowerment of the knowledge-va/ra of all the Tathagatas”424 and ending with the words, “Having divided (it) into two, one should reunite (them)”,425 briefly describes the rite of binding the four mudrds of the Vajrajnana Dharmamandala:426


2. Structure o f the Vajrajnana Dharmamandala


418. atha bhagavam punar api sarvatathagatasulzsmavajrajnanamiidrdsamayamandalaadhisthanam nama samddhim samapadya: S. p. 116-2—3, T. p. 235-1-8-2-1, C2. p. 362-3- 5-6."

419. svahrdayasamddhayah samdpadyavasthita iti: S. p. 122-6-7, T. p. 236-1-3, C2. p. 364-1- 3-4.

420. atha vajrapanih punar api sarvatathdgatasamddhijndndbhijhdnispddandrtham idam vajrasulqtmajnanamandalam abhdsat: S. p. 122-8-9, T. p. 236-1-3-4, C2. p. 364-1-5-7.

421. jnanacihnam panibhyam dattvd: S. p. 123-2-3, T. p. 236-1-7, C2, p. 364-1-16. 422. svacittaparilmrmamahdmudrdjndnam siksayet: S. p. 123-3, T. p. 236-1-7, C2. p. 364-1- 16-18.

423. sarvakarma sa sadhayed iti: S, p. 127-10-11, T. p. 236-3-8, C2. p. 364-3-23.

424 tatah sarvatathdgatajndnavajrddhisthdnasamddhimudrdjnanam sifcsayet: S. p. 127-12-13, T. p. 236-4-1, C2. p. 364-3-24.

425. dvidhilcrtya prayojayed iti: S. p. 129-6-7, T. p. 236-4-7, C2. p. 365-1-26.

426. Cf. Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 136-3-5-5-1.


This mandala has the same structure and images of the thirty-seven deities as those of the Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala, the only specific difference being that each deity, except four Paramitas drawn as four symbols, in this mandala is drawn in the centre of a vajra in the posture of meditation, holding its own symbol at the heart. “The supreme Dharmamandala427 (of the Tathagata-family) has the basic design of the Vajradhdtu {Mahdmandala) and is called ‘ Vajrasuksma (Kq/ra-subtle)’. One should place the Mahasattvas (inside this mandala) in conformity with the {Vajradhdtu) Mahdmandala. One should draw the Buddha (Vairocana) in the centre of a vajra, and (also should draw the other four Tathagatas) in the Buddha-circles. One should draw the Mahasattvas, each of whom (holds) its own mudrd at the heart,428 abides in samddhi and forms a vajra-bond with both hands.”

Regarding the Sanskrit term vajra-suksma (or suksma-vajra), Anandagarbha interprets that the vajrasuksma (vq/ra-subtle) as a white coloured five-prongedvajra as small as a barleycorn, its inner essence being knowledge (jndna) and truth, generates the mudrd. Thus, the nature of the vajra-sulcsma is the mudrd of the knowledge of the vajra-sulcsma 430 Sakyamitra adds that the vajra-suksma of all the Tathagatas is the knowledge-vayra, and since it is generated from the mind which is not able to be seen, nobody can break it, so it is called the vajrasuksma.m As for the reason each deity is drawn in the centre of a vajra, Toganoo Shoun makes the following comment: “The vq/ra-subtle-knowledge can become unlimited and innumerable in division but as a whole it is called Pure-Absolute-Knowledge. This Pure-Absolute-Knowledge of Vairocana, known as a vajra of (Bodhi-) Sattva in the STTS, symbolised as the flve-pronged-va/ra established inside the lunar-disc,

personified as the Mahabodhisattva Vajrapani, is divided into countless and immeasurable Buddha-knowledges, which are represented as the thirty-seven knowledges and personified as the thirty-seven deities in the mandala. Thus, since these thirty-seven deities are manifested in the ambience of the subtle-vayra to be the Pure-Absolute-Knowledge, each of them is drawn in the centre of a vq/ra ”432 The Sulcsma Assembly of the Nine Assemblies Mandala433 consists of the main thirty-seven deities, die sixteen Bhadrakalpa Mahabodhisattvas and the twenty Hindu deities. Except the twenty Hindu deities, each of the other deities sits on a 427. Chinese 2 reads: “the supreme subtle-lunar-disc”,

428. Regarding ‘their own mudrds at their hearts’, which is translated from the Sanskrit ‘svamudra- hrdaya', Sakyamitra asserts that the sva-mudra-hrdaya means mudrds such as the vajra and others, and since the essence of these is the mudrd of the heart, so it is called svamudra- hrdaya.


(Kosalalamlcdra, Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 262-2-5-6).

429. S. p. 122-10-16, T. p. 236-1-4-6, C2. p. 364-1-8-13.

430. Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 220-3-2-3.

43 b Kosaldlamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 259-3-8-4-1.

432. Toganoo Shoun, Mandara no kenkyu, pp. 278-280.

433. TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 1, pp. 923-938; Adrian Snodgrass, The Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas in Shingon Buddhism, p. 666.


lotus where a vajra is drawn in the centre. In this mandala, some deities hold their own symbols, but the others such as the five Tathagatas form the hand gestures without holding their symbols. According to the Vajradhdtu Suksmamandala of the Gobttshinkan,434 which contains the images of the thirty-three deities excluding the four Paramitas, each deity places its own symbol in both hands in the posture of meditation, the only exception being Vairocana who is forming ‘the mudrd of supreme enlightenment’ without holding any symbol. In addition, only Vairocana sits on the lotus where a vajra is drawn in the centre.


3. Mudrdi-Knowledge


Since the Vajrajnana Dharmamandala constitutes the supreme dharma-mudrd, the STTS explains the methods of practising dharmas, which are known as the principal meditation practices for realising enlightenment in Mahayana Buddhism. According to the Mahdprajhapdramitasastra, apart from the seven groups of the bodhipaksilcas, there are eight groups of dharmas which the bodhisattva practises, i.e. (1) the three vimoltsamukhas or three samddhis (2) the four dhyanas, (3) the four brahmavihdras or four apramdnas (4) the four arupyasamdpattis (5) the eight vimolcsas (6) the eight abhibhvayatanas (7) the nine anupurvasamdpattis (8) the ten Icrtsndyatanas.435 Out of these eight classes, this section of the STTS (S. pp. 123~126) explains the four dhyanas, four brahmavihdras, four arupyasamdpattis and three vimoksamukhas respectively from the point of view of the yoga-tantra, where a subtle-va/ra is used as the object of meditation.


a. Four Dhyanas


“While making die tip of the tongue touch the palate,436 one should reflect upon (a subtle-wz/ra) at the tip of the nose. By feeling the pleasure of the subtle-vayra, one can compose the thought so that it rests in meditation.

If one then generates the sign associated with feeling the pleasure of the subtle-vq/ra, and can diffuse that sign, one can diffuse the thought in all directions.

Since the thought can be diffused at will, it can even be diffused into the three worlds. Then again, it should be contracted, as long as die tip of the nose can still be sensed.

From then on, one should contemplate with a well-concentrated mind whatever ('maha-mudra or image of deity to be worshipped).

434. TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Secdon), Vol. 2, pp. 110-126; Lokesh Chandra, A Ninth Century Scroll o f the Vajradhdtu Mandala, pp. 196-261; Toganoo ShSun, Kongdchdlcyo no Kenlcyu, Toganoo Shoun Zenshu, Extra Vol. Ill, pp. 301-367.

435. Tadeusz Skorupski, The Practices Conducive to Enlightenment, pp. 14-38.

436. Chinese 2 reads: “gradually moving (attention) from the tongue to the palate”.


Furthermore, if everything is completely steadfast, the knowledge of samddhi can be accomplished.”

This practice of the four dhyanas438 in the STTS is called ‘sva-citta-parikarmamaha- mudrd-jhdna\ which is translated as ‘knowledge of the maha-mudrd which makes one's mind endure’. The Sanskrit term 4parikarma’ in this context is explained by Sakyamitra as ‘making progress in meditation’.439 Accordingly, the first dhyana constituting a state of great joy is achieved by concentrating on a subtle-vq/ra at the tip of the nose, which signifies reflection and discernment; the second dhyana constituting a subtle joy is achieved by diffusing the subtle-vq/ra, which signifies making the thought arrive at one point without reflection and discernment; the third dhyana constituting a complete happiness is achieved by contracting the subtle-vq/ra, which signifies the abandonment of joy; and the fourth dhyana constituting a pure equanimity is achieved by making steadfast the subtlevajra, which signifies equanimity and mindfulness. The function of the four dhyanas is to liberate the mind.


b. Four Brahmavihdras


“If one wishes for friendliness together with great endurance to arise for the sake of any living being, one should expand this (friendliness) into all living beings by means of expanding the thought.

One whose aim is to benefit all living beings should expand compassion towards eveiybody by means of expanding friendliness.

The natural luminosity, which is in everything, has an original purity that is equal to the sky. Whether there is order or chaos, one is truly satisfied with this expansion.

Heretics are not the vessels for the Buddhahood. One should concentrate on great equanimity for die purpose of purifying these (heretics).”

43 7. Tibetan reads: “one can discern the wisdom of samddhi”. Chinese 2 reads: “the knowledge of samddhi will be established”.

S. p. 123-4-11, T. p. 236-1-8-2-2, C2. p. 364-1-19-26.

43S. Regarding the four dhyanas, the Mahdprajndpdramitasdstra explains that meditating on the object of the mind, the bodhisattva discards the five objects of enjoyment, rejects the impediments, and enters the first dhyana which constitutes a state of great joy. Then eliminating the activity of examination and judgement, and focusing his mind, he deeply penetrates into an internal peace, gains a subtle and marvellous joy, and submerges into the second dhyana. Next, since this subtle joy distracts his concentration, he distances himself from every joy, gains a complete happiness, and enters the third dhyana. Finally, destroying all suffering and happiness, and rejecting every mental vexation and satisfaction, as well the inhaling and exhaling breath, he endows himself with a pure and subtle equanimity, and penetrates into the fourth dhyana. (Tadeusz Skorupski, The Practices Conducive to Enlightenment, p. 19).

439. Kosaldlamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 262-3-2-3.

440 S. p. 124-1-8, T. p. 236-2-3-5, C2. p. 364-2-3-10.


The meditative practices as described above in the STTS that follows the use of subtle-vq/ra in the four dhyanas are comparable to the four brahmavihdras or four apramdnas (immeasurables), which cultivate four feelings, i.e. maitri (friendliness), karund (compassion), muditd (joy) and upeJcsd (equanimity), whereby the mind becomes gentle and peaceful. Anandagarbha441 interprets the STTS rite in the context of deity -yoga, i.e. visualising a great friendliness-goddess as having a white-coloured body, a great compassion-goddess as having a redcoloured body, a joy-goddess as having a yellow-coloured body and a great equanimity-goddess as having a green-coloured body respectively. In these terms, therefore, the sddhaka attains the four brahmavihdras when in union with these four goddesses.


c. Four Arupyasamdpattis


“While concentrating on the subtle-vq/ra, whether standing or sitting, one should visualise an image of a vajra in space or elsewhere.

In the same way, while concentrating on the subtle~vq/ra, one should visualise with a well-concentrated mind the heart-vajra (ihrdvajra)442 of the Bodhisattva443 in all directions. In the same way, while concentrating on the subtle-vq/m, one should visualise a great image of Vajrapani in all directions. In the same way, (while concentrating on the subtle-wzyra), one should visualise with a well-concentrated mind an image of the Buddha, endowed with all the most excellent forms, in all directions.”

The original title for this practice of the four arupyasamdpattis (immaterial samdpattis) in the STTS is ‘the knowledge of recollecting all the Tathagatas445 (sarvatathagattinusmrtijnanay. According to the Mahdprajnd-pdramitdsdstra,446 the four arupyasamdpattis include die sphere of infinite space, the sphere of the infinity of consciousness, the sphere of nothingness and the sphere of neither consciousness nor non-consciousness. The previous two kinds of meditation practices are performed in the sphere of form, but the above method is practised in


441. Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 225-4-3-5-2.

442. Sakyamitra comments that the heart-vq/ra in this context indicates Vajrasattva. (Kosaldlamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 264-1-4).

443. Chinese 2 reads: “all the Bodhisattvas”. Tibetan reads: “the vajra o f the Bodhisattva at (one's) heart”.

444 Tibetan reads; “all the time” instead of “in all directions”. S. p. 125-2-9, T. p. 236-2-6-3-1, C2. p. 364-2-17-24.

445. Sakyamitra comments that all the Tathagatas in this context refer to all the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. (Kosaldlamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 263-5-5-6), but Anandagarbha regards all the Tathagatas as referring to the nature of the following four, i.e. the fivepronged vajra, Hrdvajra Bodhisattva, Vajrasattva and Vairocana. (Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71,

No. 3333, p. 225-5-2-3).

446. Tadeusz Skorupski, The Practices Conducive to Enlightenment, pp. 24-26.


the sphere of the formless. The phrase ‘while concentrating on the subtle-vo/ra’ refers to the meditation method of the previous four dhyanas. In this meditation practice, the sddhaka visualises the four images, i.e. a five-pronged vajra, the vajra abiding inside the heart of the Bodhisattva Vajrasattva, Vajrapani and the Buddha Vairocana, which are logically correlated with each other. Thus, the meditation on these four external symbols is carried out sequentially.


d. Three Vimolcsamukhas


“While concentrating on the subtle-vq/ra, one should visualise oneself as the moon in order to generate the thought of enlightenment (bodhi-citta).

In the centre of this lunar disc, one should visualise oneself as an image of the vajra in order to generate the vajra of the (Bodhi-) Sattva.

While performing the rite of the subtle-vq/ra, one should visualise oneself as the heart-vajra of the (Bodhi-) Sattva in order to generate Vajrasattva.

One should visualise oneself as an image of the Buddha, endowed with all the most excellent forms, in order to realise the Enlightenment of the Buddha.”

The three vimohamukhas (emancipation-entrances) consist of sunyata (emptiness), dnimitta (causelessness) and apranihita (aimlessness), which represent the true character of the dharmas and are fundamentally one. By means of these three vimoksamukhas, samsara is identical with nirvana because both nirvana and samsdra are empty, causeless and aimless.448 The function of these three vimoksamukhas is to liberate the mind. The characteristics of the dharmas, i.e. emptiness, causelessness and aimlessness, are symbolised by the subtle-vq/ra. Practising the meditative skills, the sddhaka overcomes the dualism of consciousness which separates himself the subject from the object Buddha Vairocana, and experiences the perfectly purified state of consciousness in union with Vairocana drawn in the mandala. Comparing this method and the previous method of the four arupyasamdpattis, the differences and similarities are apparent. Whereas the meditation in the former focuses on only external objects, the latter focuses on the inner self and, fiirthermore, on the imion between the inner self and the external symbols. The two methods are similar in that both start with concentrating on a subtle-vq/ra, by means of which the apparent self is identified with the sum of existence,449 and end with attaining liberation.


e. Secret Rite


447. S. p. 126-1-8, T. p. 236-3-2-4, C2. p. 364-3-2-9.

448. Tadeusz Skorupski, The Practices Conducive to Enlightenment, pp. 14-18.

449. David Snellgrove, Sarva-Tathagata-Tattva-Sahgraha, Introduction, p. 36.


Since the STTS is classified as a yoga-tantra, it is dominated by mental states and meditative practices. Nevertheless, it also explains certain secret rituals containing some basic elements of the anuttara-yoga-tantra. All such rituals contain the Sanskrit term rahasya or giihya, both of which mean ‘secret or esoteric teaching’. However, it is significant that in the yoga-tantra, all the secret rituals are performed in samddhi. The STTS describes the secret mw<ira-knowledge of the truth of all the Tathagatas (sarvatathdgata-dharmatd-rahasya-mudrd-jhdna)450 in the following way:-

“Uttering once with the vayra-sound: ‘Indeed, I am identical to the Tathagata.’,451 one can gratify all living beings through the union of the two organs (indriya).

Uttering once with the va/ra-sound: ‘Indeed, I am identical to Mahavajra.’, one can, with confidence, attract the world through the union of the two organs.

Uttering once with the va/ra-sound: ‘Indeed, I am identical to Vajradharma.’, one can destroy the whole world through the union of the two organs.

Uttering once with the vq/ra-sound: ‘Indeed, I am identical to ViSvavajra.’, one can accomplish all actions through the union of the two organs.”

This rite is performed through four consecutive verbal utterances, which aim to identify, in sequence, with each of the four families, i.e. Tathagata, Vajra, Dharma and Karma, based upon the four rites, i.e. subjugation, attraction, destruction and pacification. In addition to the verbal utterances, the union of the two organs are introduced in this ritual. In this context, the union of the two organs refers to the union between the mentally projected body of the sddhalza and the body of the deity joined together in samddhi, which symbolises the perfect unity equivalent to the physical union between male and female.


4. Conclusion


The Vajrajnana Dharmamandala which constitutes the supreme dharma-mudrd represents the Speech of Vairocana, and consists of the main thirty-seven deities, 450. As regards the Sanskrit term ‘sarvatathagata-dharmatd’, which literally means ‘the nature of all the Tathagatas’, Sakyamitra comments that it means the nature to be able to complete the purpose of contemplating the maha-mudra of all the Tathagatas. (Kosaldlamkara, TTP. Vol.

70, No. 3326, p. 264-3-8-4-1). However, Anandagarbha asserts that, in this context, it indicates the ( Vajrajnana) Dharmamandala. (Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 226- 3-4).

45f Chinese 2 reads: “all the Tathagatas”.

452. Chinese 2 in this section interprets the Sanskrit words ‘dvayendriycisamapatti’ as “the union o f vajra and lotus”.

453. S. p. 127-3-10, T. p. 236-3-6-8, C2. p. 364-3-16-23.

According to Sakyamitra, Mahavajra signifies the Lord Akasagarbha, Vajradharma signifies the Lord Lokesvara and Visvavajra signifies the Lord Vajrakarma. {Kosaldlamkara, TTP.

Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 264-4-6-5-3).


each of which is drawn in the centre of a vajra, holding its own symbol with both hands. The essential or central symbol in this mandala is the subtle-vq/Va symbolising the Pure-Absolute-Knowledge of Vairocana. The specific function of this mandala is to guide the sddhaka in practising various meditative skills, i.e. the four dhyanas, four brahmavihdras, four arupyasamdpattis and three vimoksamukhas, which originated in the Abhidharma and were developed in Mahayana Buddhism. These four lands of meditative practice form a logical sequence. Firstly, the sddhaka practises on the basis of the four dhyanas the method of controlling die subtle-va/ra which is generated from his mind. Secondly, he gains compassionate thoughts towards living beings by means of controlling the subtle-va/ra and cultivating the four feelings. Thirdly, he practises the method of visualising a deity in the sphere of the formless with the help of the subtle-vq/ra. Finally, he practises the method of transforming himself into a deity drawn in the mandala by means of concentrating on the subtle-vn/'ra. As a result of these practices, the sddhaka experiences the state of nirvana in the sphere of samsdra.


Chapter 4. Vajrakarya Karmamandala

Chapter 4 of the explains the significance of assembling the Vajrakarya Karmamandala which constitutes the supreme karma-mudra and focuses on the Marvellous Action of Vairocana. The sixteen Mahabodhisattvas of the Vajrakarya Karmamandala, whose names have feminine endings, appear in feminine form. These sixteen Mahabodhisattvas are divided into four family groups known as the Great-Offerings of all the Tathagatas,455 the Consecration-Offerings of all the Tathagatas,456 the D/znrmn-Offerings of all the Tathagatas 457 and the Action- Offerings of all the Tathagatas


Amoghavajra explains the Vajrakarya Karmamandala as the extensive rite of worshipping all the Tathagatas. He adds that this mandala also contains the main thirty-seven deities, and each deity holds its own symbol and abides in worship 459 The basic structure of this mandala is the same as the previous mandalas, but die thirty-two deities excluding the five Tathagatas have female appearances and form the gestures of offering. According to Sakyamitra, since this is the mandala of offerings, the Mahasattvas assume the appearance of the offering goddesses 460 The section of the mudrd-knowledge of the Vajrakarya Karmamandala is devoted to the four kinds of worship-rites consisting of the sixteen offerings which correspond to the sixteen Mahabodhisattvas assuming female forms, and a secret worship-rite consisting of the four secret offerings. The main purpose of these offerings is to enable the sddhaka to gain Buddhahood by means of worship.


L Structural Analysis o f Chapter 4


(1) The first section of chapter 4 of the STTS starting with die words, “Then, the Lord once again entered the samddhi called the Vajra-Empowennent of the Action- Pledge Penetrated by the Extensive Rite of the Supreme Worship of all the Tathagatas”461 and ending with the words, “They are the Ritual-Offerings of all the

454. S. chapter 4. pp. 130-141, T. pp. 236-4-8-238-1-8, C2. pp. 365-2-9-368-1-6.

455. The Great-Offerings of all the Tathagatas consist of Sarvatathagatasukhasukha, Sarvatathagatakarsani, Sarvatathagatanuragini and Sarvatathagatasantosani.

45 6. The Consecration-Offerings of all the Tathagatas consist of MahadhipatinI, Mahodyota, Maharatnavarsa and Mahaprftiharsa.

457. The Z)/2tfrw<7 -Offerings of all the Tathagatas consist of Mahajnanagita, Mahaghosanuga, Sarvamandalapravesa and Mantracarya.

458. The Action-Offerings of all the Tathagatas consist of Sattvavatl, Mahabodhyarigavatl, Caksusmatl and Gandhavati.

459. OEAVS, TSD. Vol. 18, No. 869, p. 285-1-4-6.

460. Kosaldlamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 267-3-7-8.

46 f atha bhagavam punar api sarvatathagatdnuttarapujdvidhivistaraspharanakarmasamayavajrddhistanan ndma samadhim samdpadya: S. p. 130-2-4, T. p. 236-4-8-5-1, C2. p. 365- 2-9-11. “


Tathagatas’5,462 provides an exposition of the second samddhi called the supreme mandala-king of the Vajrakarya Karmamandala.

(2) The next section starting with the words, “Now comes the karma-mandala of the vq/'ra-ritual which is to do with the performing of the entire and complete Tathagata-worship”463 and ending with the words, “It is not necessary to say that (one is worshipped) by the others”,464 explains the mandala-rites of the Vajrakarya Karmamandala.

(3) The next section starting with the words, “Then, one should teach the knowledge of the worship-mudrd of generating the thought of great enlightenment”465 and ending with the words, “KAMA-VAJRA”,466 explains the mwrira-knowledge which contains four rites of making the sixteen offerings, namely, mahdbodhicittanispatti-, sarvabuddha-, dharma- and samadhipujamudrdjhanas, and also a secret rite of making the four offerings known as rahasyapujdmudrdjhdna.

(4) The final section starting with the words, “Then, one should teach the knowledge of the mahd-mudrd of the worship-ritual of all the Tathagatas”467 and ending with the words, “As regards karma-mudrds, briefly, the karma-mudrds should be divided into two”,468 briefly describes the rite of binding the four mudrds of the Vajrakarya Karmamandala


2. Mandala Rites


According to the samddhi-soction of the Vajrakarya Karmamandala,470 Vairocana enters the vajra-samadhi called the ritual-pledge (karma-samaya) of worshipping all the Tathagatas, and Vajradhara, who is the representative of Vairocana, generates from the hearts of the five Tathagatas the offering goddesses, who gather together in the mandala. Each goddess holds her own symbol (mudrd) with both hands, worships all the Tathagatas, and rests on her own lunar disc in accordance with the Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala. Basically, the rite of entering this mandala begins with


462. sarvatathdgatakarmapujdh: S. p. 135-10, T. p. 237-3-4, C2. p. 366-3-21.

463. athdtra vajrakdryakarmamandalain bhavaty asesanavasesatathagatapujapravartakam iti: S.

p. 135-11-12, T. p. 237-3-4-5, C2. p. 366-3-22-23.

464. kah punar vado 'nyair iti: S. p. 136-8-9, T. p. 237-4-1, C2. p. 367-1-6.

465. tato mahabodhicittanispattipujdmudrdjndnam silcsayet: S. p. 136-10, T. p. 237-4-1, C2. p. 367-1-7.

466 S. p. 140-5, T. p. 238-1-3, C2. p. 367-3-19.

Tibetan and Tattvalolca both read: “KARMA-VAJRA.”

467. tatah sarvatathagatapujakarmamahdmudrdjndnam siksayet: S. p. 140-6, T. p. 238-1-3-4, C2. p. 367-3-20.

Tibetan reads: “Then, one should teach the knowledge-mwafra of the mahd-mudrd of the worship-ritual of all the Tathagatas.” Tattvdloka reads: “Then, one should teach the knowledge-ww<ira of the worship-ritual of all the Tathagatas.”

46S. lcarmamudrah samdsena karmamudra dvidhilcrtd iti: S. p. 141-7-8, T. p. 238-1-6-7, C2. p. 368-1-5-6. ‘

469. Cf. Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, pp. 136-5-1-137-1-6. 47°. S. p. 132, T. p. 237-1-1-2-1, C2. pp. 365-3-14-366-1-1.


the rite of the Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala, but on entry the pupil is given a special pledge and also a crossed emblem symbolising this mandala. a. Structure o f the Vajrakarya Karmamandala “The supreme Karmamandala (of die Tathagata-family) has the basic design of the Vajradhdtu {Mahdmandala) and is called c Vajrakarya (Th/ra-performance)’. One should place die (five) Buddha-images in conformity with the ( Vajradhdtu)

Mahdmandala, and then should draw the goddesses possessing their own symbols {mudrds) in accordance with Vajrasattva and the other (deities described in the Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala).”471 According to this brief description, this mandala!s external structure and images of the five Tathagatas are the same as those of the Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala,412 but die main thirty-two deities are drawn in female forms having die same postures, body-colours and symbols as those corresponding to the Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala. Since the four Paramitas and the eight Offerings have female appearances in the Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala, Sakyamitra473 gives some

information about female images of the sixteen Mahabodhisattvas and the four Guardians. He explains that the four Mahasattvas drawn in the first lunar disc, i.e. Vajrasattva and the rest (Vajraraja, Vajraraga and Vajrasadhu) assume the form of Vajralasya and the rest (Vajramala, Vajraglta and Vajranrtya) respectively. The four Mahasattvas, i.e. Vajrakarma and the rest (Vajraraksa, Vajrayaksa and Vajrasandhi), assume the form of Vajradhupa and the rest (Vajrapuspa, Vajraloka and Vajragandha) respectively. The four Mahasattvas belonging to the Gem-family, i.e. Vajraratna and the rest (Vajratejas, Vajraketu and Vajrahasa), assume the forms of the four Ganapujas. The four Mahasattvas belonging to die Dharma-family, i.e. Vajradharma and the rest (Vajratlksna, Vajrahetu and Vajrabhasa), assume the forms of the four Dhamiapujas. The four Guardians also assume female forms. In the Vajradhdtu Karmapujdmandala of the Gobushinkan,474 which contains the images of the thirty-three deities excluding the four Paramitas, the thirty-two deities excluding Vairocana are drawn in female forms. However, all the main thirty-seven deities drawn in the Puja Assembly of the Nine Assemblies Mandala475 have male appearances, and each of the thirty-two deities excluding the five Tathagatas holds a lotus on which his own symbol is placed.


b. Entry into the Mandala


471. S. p. 135-13-17, T. p. 237-3-5-6, C2. p. 366-3-24-27.

472. Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 229-4-8-5-1.

473. Kosaldlamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 267-3-8-4-2.

474. TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 2, pp. 127-144; Lokesh Chandra, A Ninth Century Scroll o f the Vajradhdtu Mandala, pp. 262-327; Toganoo Shoun, Kongochokyo no Kenlcyu, Toganoo Shoun Zenshu, Extra Vol. Ill, pp. 369-439.

475. TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 1, pp. 939-954; Adrian Snodgrass, The Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas in Shingon Buddhism, p. 675.


“ 111 the beginning, (the pupil) should enter (the mandala) in conformity with entering the (Vajradhdtu) Mahdmandala.416 When he enters, (the wyra-master) should say this to him477: ‘Since this is the pledge (samaya) of worshipping all the Tathagatas, you should do all in your power to make these sixteen478 offerings by day and by night.5 Then, having removed the face-cover (of the pupil) and having revealed the karmamandala, (the va/ra-master) should give him a crossed emblem (visva-cihna)479 into both (his) hands. Then, he is worshipped by all the Tathagatas.”

According to Sakyamitra, this is the samaya-mandala in that it consists of offerings belonging to all the Tathagatas. Thus, in order to keep this pledge (samaya), one should make the sixteen offerings every day without stopping.481 The rite of making the sixteen offerings appears in the next mudrd-knowledge section. The phrase ‘in one's power’ means that if wealth, one may worship all the Tathagatas with flowers, etc., or in case of being familiar with meditation, one may worship them with the mind in any place.482 The words ‘a crossed emblem’ indicate ‘a crossed vajra' 483


3. Mudra-Knowledge


The rite of making the sixteen offering-mudrds in this mandala, which focuses on worshipping the five Tathagatas, is divided into four groups, i.e. four offeringmudrds of generating the thought of great enlightenment, whose function is to make the thought of enlightenment steadfast; four offering-mudrds of all the Buddhas, whose function is to gather the accumulation of merit; four offerin g-mudrds of dharma, whose function is to complete the accumulation of knowledge; and four offonng-mudrds of samddhi, whose function is to lead to enlightenment. In addition, die secret rite of making the four secret offering-mudrds consists in the four ways of the perfect bodily union with die four representative Mahabodhisattvas in samddhi.


a. Mahabodhicittanispattipujamudrajhana


“(a) While steadily generating the thought of enlightenment, one should think, ‘I am a Buddha’. Offering oneself with pleasure, one can attain the bliss of the Buddha.

476 Sanskrit omits: “Mahdmandala".

477. Chinese 2 reads: “the pupil”.

478. Chinese 2 adds: “Mahasattva”.

479. Chinese 2 reads: “emblem of the iftzrma-family”.

480 S. p. 136-3-9, T. p. 237-3-7-4-1, C2. pp. 366-3-28-367-1-6.

48f Kosaldlamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 267-4-7-5-1.

482 Ibid., p. 267-5-1-2.

4S3. Tattvaloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 230-1-5-6.


(b) While steadily generating the thought of enlightenment, one should think, ‘I am a Buddha5. Offering oneself with gifts such as a garland, one becomes consecrated (as a Buddha-body by all the Tathagatas).

(c) While steadily generating the thought of enlightenment, one should think, ‘I am a Buddha5. Offering oneself with gifts such as a well-sounding song, one can be gratified.


(d) While steadily generating the thought of enlightenment, one should think, T am a Buddha5. Offering oneself in dance, one becomes worshipped even by the Buddhas.

This rite refers to the four great-offerings made by the four female-shaped Mahabodhisattvas surrounding the Tathagata Alcsobhya in the Vajrakarya Karmamandala. Thus, the sddhaka visualises himself as one of the five Tathagatas, particularly Alcsobhya, who is worshipped with the four offerings, i.e. wantonness (Idsyd), garland, song and dance by the four Mahabodhisattvas, i.e. Vajrasattva assuming the bodily form of Vajralasya, Vajraraja assuming tire bodily form of Vajramala, Vajraraga assuming the bodily form of Vajraglta, and Vajrasadhu assuming the bodily form of Vajranrtya respectively. Sakyamitra explains that segment (a) involves making the thought of enlightenment steadfast, segment (b) involves making it manifest, segment (c) involves making it thoroughly cleansed, and segment (d) involves making living beings mature but without leaving the wheel of transmigration altogether


b. Sarvabuddhapujamudrdjhdna


“(e) As by bowing down using the supreme vajras of the body, speech and mind, so by making offerings to all the Buddhas, one can be certainly greeted with respect (by all living beings). (f) If one offers oneself with rejoicing in the great merit (mahdpunya) of all the Buddhas generated from the body, speech and mind vajra, one can attain the Buddha-nature immediately. (g) If one thinks, T will give to all the Buddhas all the offerings by presenting myself as the divine body, speech and mind vajra.j one will be worshipped (by all the Tathagatas, Bodhisattvas and living beings).

(h) One becomes equal to all the Buddhas by means of the transformational offerings that represent an accumulation of all the virtues of the body, speech and mind vajra ”m This rite refers to the four consecration-offerings made by the four female-shaped Mahabodhisattvas surrounding the Tathagata Ratnasambhava. Segment (e) involves performing the four salutations to all the Tathagatas. However, these salutations, which become the means of gathering the accumulation of merit, are made not by

484 S. p. 136-11-18, T. p. 237-4-1-4, C2. p. 367-1-8-15.

485. Kosaldlamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 268-3-3-4.

486. S. p. 137-7-14, T. p. 237-4-6-8, C2. p. 367-1-22-29.


means of the sadhaka's real body, but by means of the vajras transformed from the sadhaka's body, speech and mind. Segment (f) involves worshipping all the Tathagatas with rejoicing in the great merit of all the Tathagatas generated from the body, speech and mind vajra. The method described in this segment (f) makes the accumulation of merit perfect. Segment (g) involves presenting the sadhaka's own body in samddhi. According to Anandagarbha, if the sddhaka visualises himself as Samantabhadra making a salutation to the feet of all the Tathagatas, and worships all the Tathagatas with all the offerings of both the mundane world (loka) and the spiritual world (aloka), he will be worshipped by all the Tathagatas.487 Segment (h) involves blessing the entire accumulation of merit. The method described in this segment (h) is based on ‘the transfer of merit (parindmana-punyaY, common to I later Mahayana, whereby merit itself leads to enlightenment, and a bodhisattva ' shares his ‘roots of merit’ with all beings.


c. Dharmapujdmudrdjhdna


“(i) The dharmas are luminous by nature, and, indeed, from the beginning, they are pure by nature. One who offers oneself along with these dharmas can gain extreme happiness.

(j) The letter ‘A ’ is regarded as supreme in the collection of all the dharmas. One destroys all sufferings with this dharma-mudrd.

(k) The cause of all these dharmas is the Tathagata. If one makes an offering of the wheel of the good dharma,m one can become a dharma-holdQr.

(1) Having said that all the dharmas are by nature like echoes, and having made this dharma-offering, one can gain selffulfilment”

This rite refers to the four dharma-offQrmgs made by the four female-shaped Mahabodhisattvas surrounding the Tathagata Amitabha. This rite focuses on meditating on die attributes of dharmas of the prajhdpdramitdd91 According to Sakyamitra, segment (i) involves meditating on the nature of the pure dharma in order to cleanse oneself of impure perception, segment (j) involves meditating on the Samantabhadra's explanation of the truth that all the dharmas do not arise, segment (k) involves meditating on the wheel of the dharma because the cause of all these dharmas is the Tathagata, and segment (1) involves meditating on the state of absolute inactivity for these dharmas are said to be separated from the true meaning of the words


487. Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 230-5-3-7.

488. Har Dayal, The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sanshit Literature, pp. 188-193.

489. Tibetan reads: “pledge”, instead of “good dharma”.

490. Tibetan reads: “Buddha-voice”. Chinese 2 reads: “sound of enlightenment”.

S. p. 138-2-9, T. p. 237-5-1-4, C2. p. 367-2-7-14.

491. Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 231-1-1.

492. Kosaldlamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 269-3-6-7.


d. Samadhipujdmudrdjnana


“(m) Visualising oneself as vajra-forms as numerous as infinite particles of dust in the vajras of the body, speech and mind, one can obtain the Fq/ra-nature (or Vajra-body) immediately. (n) Visualising oneself as all the Buddhas as numerous as infinite particles of dust in the vajras of the body, speech and mind, one can acquire a Dharma-body quickly.

(o) Visualising oneself as Vajrasattvas as numerous as infinite particles of dust in the vajras of the body, speech and mind, one can become identical to Vajrasattva.

(p) Visualising oneself as the Buddha-forms as numerous as infinite particles of dust in the vajras of the body, speech and mind, one can attain the Buddha-nature.”

This rite refers to the four samddhi-offerings made by the four female-shaped Mahabodhisattvas surrounding the Tathagata Amoghasiddhi. Segment (m) involves visualising oneself as numerous vajras, segment (n) involves visualising oneself as numerous Dharma-bodies of the five Tathagatas, segment (o) involves visualising oneself as numerous Vajrasattvas, and segment (p) involves visualising oneself as numerous Appearance-bodies {rupa-kaya) of the Buddha endowed with the same thirty-two major marks and eighty minor marks as the Buddha Sakyamuni.


e. Secret Rite


“If one dedicates the innate pleasure-offerings that embrace all the bodies (to the Buddhas), one can indeed become identical to Vajrasattva immediately.

If one dedicates the pleasure of seizing hair494 in strong passionate union with the Buddhas, one can become identical to Vajraratna. If one dedicates the supreme pleasure of being kissed495 which is associated with strong affection and pleasure for the Buddhas, one can become identical to Vajradharma.

If one dedicates entirely the enjoyment arising from practising the samdpatti-yoga of using two organs496 (with the Buddhas) for worship, one can become identical to Vajrakarma.”

This secret worship-rite, which is called lrahasya-pujd-miidrd-jndna'> in the STTS, explains the sadhaka's practice in meditating on and uniting with both the Dharmabodies (dharma-kdya) and the Appearance-bodies {rupa-kaya) of the four Mahabodhisattvas, i.e. Vajrasattva, Vajraratna, Vajradharma and Vajrakarma respectively, who are the four deities representing the four families. Applying these four methods, the sddhaka can achieve the perfect union with his deity. Toganoo


493. S. pp. 138-16-439-6, T. p. 237-5-5-8, C2. p. 367-2-21-28.

494. Tibetan reads: “firmly”, instead of “hair”.

495. Tibetan reads: “being together”.

496. Chinese 2 reads; “the union of the vajra and lotus”, instead of “two organs”.

497. S. p. 139-13-20, T. pp. 237-5-8-238-1-3, C2, p. 367-3-7-14.


Shoun498 interprets these four secret offerings as the means in which the sddhaka worships all the Buddhas with complete happiness attained through union with his deity. He adds that both the previous rite {samadhipujdmudrdjhana) and the above rite are illustrated in the Vajradhdtu Karmapujdmandala of the Gobushinkan


4. Conclusion


The Vajrakarya Karmamandala constitutes the supreme karma-mudrd and represents the Marvellous Action of Vairocana. Since this mandala focuses on the Action of Vairocana, the key word in this mandala is ‘worship or offering {pujd)\ This concept of worship is manifested in the constructed mandala as the femaleshaped thirty-two deities offering their symbols to the five Tathagatas. Thus, the function of this mandala is to guide the sddhaka in worshipping himself as the five Tathagatas and in making die sixteen offerings like the sixteen Mahabodhisattvas worship the five Tathagatas. In addition, by practising the secret rite of making the four secret offerings, the sddhaka, having worshipped with die sixteen offerings, worships himself by meditating on the complete union with his deity, and experiences the perfect state of bliss.

49S. Toganoo Shoun, Mandara no kenkyu, pp. 295-297.

4" . TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 2, p. 144; Toganoo Shoun, Kongocholcyo no Kenlcyu, Toganoo Shoun Zenshu, Extra Vol. Ill, pp. 436-439. However, Lokesh Chandra classifies these two illustrations of the Gobushinkan as lNayamandald'. (A Ninth Century Scroll o f the Vajradhdtu Mandala, pp. 328-334).


Chapter 5. Epilogue of Part One


Chapter 5 of the Sanskrit STTS serves as an epilogue of part one, and consists of expositions of two mandalas, namely, Vajrasiddhi Caturmudrdmandala and Mahaydndbhisamayamandala. The Vajrasiddhi Caturmudrdmandala consisting of Vairocana and four symbols is revealed for the benefit of those who wish to gather together the essence of the previous four mandalas in one mandala. The Mahaydndbhisamayamandala containing only a single deity, i.e. Vajrasattva, is revealed for the benefit of those who prefer the quick and easy doctrine and ritual. By means of these two mandalas, although they are relatively simpler, the sddhaka can attain not only the accomplishment of the practices in the previous four mandalas, but also complete enlightenment.


A. Vajrasiddhi Caturmudrdmandala


The first part of chapter 5 of the STTS500 deals with the fifth mandala of the Vajradhdtu, called Vajrasiddhi Caturmudrdmandala (or Vajrasiddhi Mudrdmandala). The term *catur-mudrd-mandala' means a mandala of assembling the four seals which refer to the four mandalas. Thus, this mandala is a symbolic synthesis of the basic principles of the four mandalas of the Vajradhdtu, namely, mahd-, dhdrani-, dharma- and karma-mandalas (or Vajradhdtu Mahdmandala, Vajraguhya Vajramandala, Vajrajnana Dharmamandala and Vajrakarya Karmamandala). These four mandalas are in reality one mandala, seen from four different aspects, and are, in effect, inseparable. This Vajrasiddhi Caturmudrdmandala,

therefore, symbolises the fusion of the previous four mandalas into a single mandala.501 The main purpose of establishing this mandala as a simplified unity of the previous four mandalas is mentioned in the STTS “There are living beings whose views are wrong, whose actions are evil, who are deficient in strength,502 who have no deliverance from pain and who are ignorant of various actions. Due to deficiency in strength, they do not enter the great mandalas of the family of all the Tathagatas, i.e. the Vajradhdtu {Mahdmandala) and the other {mandalas)503 For their benefit, this Vajrasiddhi Mudrdmandala, which becomes the pledge {samaya) of the mandala of the family of all the Tathagatas,504 is consecrated in order to realise the goals that range from the liberation of the entire and complete sphere of living beings, experiencing complete


500 S. pp. 142-148 of chapter 5, T. p. 238-1-8-5-7, C2. pp. 368-1-7-369-1-4.

50h Lokesh Chandra, Sarva-Tathdgata-Tattva-Sahgraha, Introduction, p. 43. 502. Chinese 2 omits: “who are deficient in strength”.

503. Chinese 2 omits: “the Vajradhdtu and the rest”.

504. Chinese 2 reads: “ Vajrasiddhimandala Sarvatathdgatamudrdmandala Sarvatathdgatakulasamayatattvamandala”.


benefit, pleasure and satisfaction to the highest attainment of the vcijra of all the Tattiagatas.”

The samddhi-section of this mandala500 enumerates the names of only five Tathagatas in correct order, i.e. Sarvatathagatamusti, Vajrasattvamusti, Vajraratnamusti, Yajradharmamusti and Vajrakarmamusti. These five deities are manifested in the mandala as an image of Yairocana in the centre and four symbols in place of the four Tathagatas, i.e. vajra, gem, lotus and crossed vajra.

The mi/dra-knowledge section explains the four ways of accomplishing the four mudras which symbolically represent the previous four mandalas. According to Amoghavajra, this mandala gives the rite of realising the four kinds of rapid attainment, and facing this mandala, the sddhaka realises the attainments of the four mandalas 501 This section also explains a secret rite which perfects these four mandalas.


A-L Structural Analysis of the First Part o f Chapter 5


(1) The first section of die first part of chapter 5 of the STTS starting with the words, “Then, the Lord Tathagata Vairocana”508 and ending with the words, “OM VAJRA-KARMA-MUSTI HAM”,509 provides an exposition of the fifth samddhi510 called the supreme mandala-king of the Vajrasiddhi Caturmudramandala.

(2) The next section starting with the words, “Then, the Mahabodhisattva Vajrapani”511 and ending with the words, “One should reveal the mandala”,512 explains the mandala-htGS of the Vajrasiddhi Caturmudramandala.

(3) The next section starting with the words, “Then, one should explain the pledge of the mudras of all the Tathagatas”513 and ending with the words, “This is the highest mandala of the va/ra-activity”,514 explains die mw^ra-knowledge of die


505. S. pp. 144-13-145-5, T. p. 238-3-6-4-1, C2. p. 368-2-16-23.

506. S. pp. 142-4-143, T. p. 238-1-8-3-1, C2. p. 368-1-8-2-3.

507. OEAVS, TSD. Vol. 18, No. 869, p. 285-1-8-10.

508. atha bhagavan vairocanas tathagcitah: S. p. 142-4, T. p. 238-1-8, C2. p. 368-1-8.

509. S. p. 143-15, T. p. 238-3-1, C2. p. 368-2-3.

51°. When Anandagarbha analyses twenty-four out of the twenty-eight mandalas described in the STTS, he uses the common terms associated with the three samddhis, i.e., the first samddhi o f the initial yoga, the second samddhi called the supreme mandala-king and the third samddhi called the supreme action-king. However, when explaining the four kinds of caturmudrd- mandalas described in the STTS, he uses the term ‘the fifth samddhi'. Thus, the samddhis used in the catur-mudrd-mandalas consist of the samddhi o f the initial yoga, the fifth samddhi called the supreme mandala-king and the fifth samddhi called the supreme action-king. The reason why he uses the term ‘the fifth samddhi’ is not obvious, but possibly because the catur-mudra-mandala is positioned as the fifth mandala in each part of the four main mandalas, i.e. Vajradhatn, Trilokavijaya, Sakalajagadvinaya and Sarvaarthasiddhi, and also because its composition is a symbolic synthesis of the basic principles of the four mandalas, i.e. mahd-, dharani-, dharma- and karma-mandalas.


51 h atha vaj?'apanir mahabodhisattvah: S. p. 144-1, T. p. 238-3-1, C2. p. 368-2-4.

512. mandalan darsayet: S. p. 145-8-9, T. p. 238-4-3, C2. p. 368-2-26.

513. tatah sarvatathagatamudrdsamayam bruydt: S. p. 145-10, T. p. 238-4-3, C2. p. 368-2-27.

514. vajrakdrydgramandala iti’. S. p. 147-9-10, T, p. 238-5-2, C2. p. 368-3-20.


Vajrasiddhi Caturmudramandala, which consists of the two rites, i.e. the rite of attaining the four mudras described in the previous four mandalas of the Vajradhdtu and the secret rite of attaining the previous four mandalas of the Vajradhdtu.

(4) The final section starting with the words, “Then, one should teach the (rite of) binding the four {mudras) including the maha-mudrds of Vajrasattva515 and the rest”516 and ending with the words, “They can achieve the supreme attainment within a year”,517 constitutes the concluding part of the Vajrasiddhi Caturmudrdmandala.


A-2. Structure o f the Vajrasiddhi Caturmudramandala


As already mentioned, the Vajrasiddhi Caturmudramandala consists of an image of Vairocana constructed in the centre of the mandala and four symbols drawn in place of the four Tathagatas, i.e. vajra, gem, lotus and crossed vajra. These four symbols, which represent four Paramitas, four families and four mudras, refer to the previous four mandalas of the Vajradhdtu in this mandala because the previous four mandalas correspond to the supreme four mudras.

“The supreme Mudramandala (of the Tathagata family) has the basic design of the Vajradhdtu (Mahdmandala) and is called ‘ Vajrasiddhi (Fayra-success)’. (The whole mandala) should be designed in conformity with the {Vajradhdtu) Mahdmandala. First, one should set up a form of the Buddha (Vairocana), and then should draw the four symbols {mudras), i.e. the vajra-mudrd and the rest {ratna-, padma- and karma-mudras) in the centres of the (four) lunar discs (surrounding Vairocana).”5

Anandagarbha explains that this mandala consists of Vairocana and the four symbols of four Paramitas.520 Sakyamitra, however, regards this mandala as consisting of five deities and four symbols of four Paramitas, i.e. Vairocana in the centre, the four Paramitas in the four Tathagatas' places, and their four symbols between the pillars.521 The Vajradhdtu Caturmudramandala of the Gobushinkan522 seems to support the view of Sakyamitra because it consists of 515. Tibetan and Kosaldlamkara both read: “Sattvavajri”.


516. tato yathdvad vajrasattvddimahamudrdbandhacatustayam siksayitva: S. p. 147-11-12, T. p. 238-5-2-3, C2. p. 368-3-21.

517. varsenottama siddhir: S. p. 148-6, T. p. 238-5-7, C2. p. 369-1-2-3.

518. Cf. Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 137-1-6-3-6.

519. S. p. 144-5-9, T. p. 238-3-3-5, C2. p. 368-2-8-12.

520. A vajra as the symbol of Sattvavajri is drawn in the place of Aksobhya, a gem as the symbol of Ratnavajri in the place of Ratnasambhava, a lotus as the symbol of Dharmavajri in the place of Amitabha, and a crossed vajra as the symbol of Karmavajri in the place of Amoghasiddhi. {Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 234-1-2-5).

521. Kosaldlamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 271-5-5-8.

522. TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 2, p. 145; Lokesh Chandra, A Ninth Century Scroll o f the Vajradhdtu Mandala, pp. 335-341; Toganoo Shoun, Kongochokyo no Kenlcyu, Toganoo Shoun Zenshu, Extra Vol. Ill, pp. 441-448.


Vairocana in the centre, four representative Mahabodhisattvas (i.e. Vajrasattva, Vajraratna, Vajradharma and Vajrakaima) holding their symbols in the four Tathagatas' places, and the four symbols in the four corners. This mandala also includes the four hand gestures referring to the four symbols, which are positioned at the four comers outside the internal circle. The Caturmudra Assembly of the Nine Assemblies Mandala523 consists of the images of five deities and eight symbols, i.e. Vairocana, four Mahabodhisattvas (Vajrasattva, Akasagarbha, Avaloldtesvara and Vajrakaima), their four symbols, and four symbols of four Internal Offerings. In this mandala the four symbols of four Internal Offerings, i.e. a vajra with three prongs at both ends, a garland, a vajra-vlna and a crossed vajra with three prongs at both ends, are positioned at the four comers outside the internal circle. Based upon the STDS's brief description that all the (other four) mandalas, i.e.

Aksobhya's mandala and the rest, should be constructed in accordance with the Vajrasiddhi Caturmudramandala, and their own mudras should also be drawn in conformity with the (Vajrasiddhi) Caturmudramandala in order to gain all the attainments,524 Anandagarbha defines the term Vajrasiddhi Caturmudramandala whereby * Vajrasiddhi’ indicates Vairocana, and * Caturmudramandala' means the mandala containing the four symbols of the four Paramitas who are Vairocana's attendant Mahabodhisattvas. He provides some detailed information about the caturmudrdmandalas of four Tathagatas, namely, Aksobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha and Amoghasiddhi. The caturmudramandala of Aksobhya, for instance, consists of the Tathagata sitting on an elephant-seat in the position of Vairocana, and four symbols of the four attendant Mahabodhisattvas drawn in place of the four Tathagatas, i.e. the five-pronged vajra of Vajrasattva, the hook of Vajraraja, the bow and arrow of Vajraraga and the mudrd of Vajrasadhu.


A-3. Mudra Knowledge


The TWfdra-knowledge section of the Vajrasiddhi Caturmudramandala can be divided into two, i.e. the rite of perfecting the four mudras explained in the previous four mandalas of the Vajradhdtu and the secret rite of perfecting the previous four mandalas of the Vajradhdtu.


a. Rite o f Perfecting the Four Mudras


"(a) If one should bind any mudrd of any great being, one should visualise as oneself that (great being) while reciting the hrdaya (of that great being). By following this instruction, according to the words of Vajrapani, one can achieve all the mudras of all the great beings successfully.

523. TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 1, pp. 955-961; Lokesh Chandra, Sarva- Tathagata-Tattva-Sahgraha, Introduction, p. 42; Adrian Snodgrass, The Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas in Shingon Buddhism, p. 686.

524 S. p. 147-13-15, T. p. 238-5-3-4, C2. p. 368-3-22-25.

525. Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 237-1-1-2-7.


(b) Having controlled one's own organ, one should seize it using the vfl/m-fist.526 One who can touch the (samaya-) mudrd in this way will subdue it instantly.

(c) Employing the rite of the subtle-vayra, one should bind the knowledge-mwrira. By means of this rite, one can subdue the knowledge-mwrira.

(d) If one presents the pleasures of song, dance, flavour, food and play to the Buddhas, one can subdue the karma-mudra.”527 This rite shows the characteristics of the four mudras which are common to the previous four mandalas. The title of segment (a) in the Sanskrit STTS is ‘the pledge of the mudrd of all the Tathagatas (sarvatathagata-mudra-samayay ,528 which refers to the method of attaining all the maha-mudras explained in the previous four mandalas of the Vajradhdtu. Anandagarbha explains that the words ‘any mudrd’ refer to the maha-mudras of the previous four mandalas, i.e. maha-, dharani dharma-, and karma-mandalas, but Sakyamitra favours the four mudras, i.e.

maha-, samaya-, dharma-, and harma-mudrds. Anandagarbha further explains that the words ‘any great being’ (mahdtmanah) refer to the thirty-seven deities, i.e. Vairocana and the rest, but Sakyamitra refers to the sixteen Mahabodhisattvas, i.e. Vajrasattva and the rest.529 The view of Anandagarbha is more reasonable than Sakyamitra because the maha-mudra, which symbolises the bodily image of deity, consists in visualising the image of the deity. The title of segment (b) is ‘the secret of all the mudras (sarva-mudra-rahasyaY, which refers to the method of attaining all the samaya-mudrds explained in the previous four mandalas of the Vajradhdtu. The words ‘having controlled one’s own organ’ are explained by Anandagarbha: “When meditating on the emptiness of the dharmas, and it becomes evident that all the dharmas are gathered, one should take mental possession of the bodily image of one’s deity.”530 Since the above rite uses the vq/ra-fist instead of using the vajrabond which is die original cause of all samaya-mudrds, Toganoo Shoun

interprets the words ‘one should seize it using the vajra-fisV from an illustration, which has a Buddha placed upon the vajra-bond, in the Vajradhdtu Caturmudramandala of the Gobushinkan.532 The title of segment (c) is ‘the essence of all the mudras (sarva-mudra-dharmataY, which refers to the method of attaining all the dharma-mudrds explained in the previous four mandalas of the


526. Tibetan reads: “va/ra-bond”.

527. S. pp. 145-11-146, T. p. 238-4-3-7, C2. p. 368-2-28-3-11.

52S. Chinese 2 reads: “sarvatathagata-lcula-mudrd-samaya”.

529 Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 234-5-1-3; Kosaldlamkara, TTP. Vol. 70, No. 3326, p. 272-4-1-2.

530. Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 235-1-1-2.

53 k Toganoo Shoun, Mandara no kenlyu, p. 308.

532 TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 2, p. 145; Lokesh Chandra, A Ninth Century Scroll o f the Vajradhdtu Mandala, p. 336; Toganoo Shoun, Kongocholcyo no Kenlcyu, Toganoo Shoun Zenshu, Extra Vol. Ill, p. 442.


Vajradhdtu. According to Anandagarbha,533 if the sadhaka meditates on a subtlevajra and binds the knowledgQ-mudra which refers to all the dharma-mudrds explained in the previous four mandalas, he immediately subdues all the dharmamudrds. The title of segment (d) is ‘the ritual of all the mudras (sarva-mudrdkarma)\ which refers to the method of attaining all the karma-mudras explained in the previous four mandalas of the Vajradhdtu. Anandagarbha explains that ‘song (gltaf refers to Vajragita, etc.; ‘dance (nrtya)' refers to Vajranrtya, etc.; ‘flavour (rasa)' refers to not only tranquillity experienced from union with a deity but also the thought (Tibetan nyams) endowed with the essence of (Vajra-) Lasya, etc.; ‘food (dhdraf refers to one hundred tastes of food, etc.; and ‘play (vihdraf refers to either possessing the characteristics of sitting, walking, stopping and lying, or abiding in Avalokitesvara who cleanses the (sadhaka's) mind.534 Thus, if the sadhaka generates bliss from making the various offerings, and worships all the Tathagatas with it in his samddhi, he can accomplish all the karma-mudras.


b. Secret Rite o f Perfecting the Four Mandalas


“(a) Having made the sign (lingo) steadfast in oneself, one should abide in (a state of mind being purified like) a white cloth.535 Having empowered the sign as a stupa (<caitya)536 one should visualise oneself as the Vajradhdtu (Mahdmandala).

(b) Having made the vq/Az-bond (vajra-bandha) firm, one should erect the middle fingers like a sprout, and raise both little fingers and forefingers. This is the pledge (samaya) of the supreme pledges.

(c) By means of the subtle-vq/Az (sulcsma-vajra), one should meditate while concentrating the mind. Hie subtlo-vajra-mandala becomes the principle of controlling the samddhi.


(d) Having bound the two (separated) vajra-mudrds, one should firmly seize a (crossed) vajra consisting of the two (yajras), and bind together the little fingers and the forefingers. This is the supreme Vajrakdrya531 (Karma-) mandala,”

These four segments (a~d) entitled ‘the secret mwJrn-knowledge of perfecting all the mandalas (sarva-mandala-sddhikd-rahasya-mudrd-jhdndf explain the means of accomplishing the four mandalas of the Vajradhdtu. Anandagarbha539 interprets the term ‘sign (lihgaf as the union between the thought of enlightenment (bodhicitta) symbolised as a vajra and the six perfections (pdramitaj) symbolised as a y r lotus. The words ‘abiding in a white cloth’ refer to the sadhaka discerning the


533. Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 235-1-5-8. 534 Ibid., p. 235-2-3-5.

535. Chinese 2 reads: “one should sit on the seat steadily, abiding in tranquillity”.

536. Tibetan reads: “the thought of the sign”.

537. Chinese 2 reads “ Vajrakdrya” as “ Vajrakaya”.

538. S. p. 147-2-10, T. p. 238-4-8-5-2, C2. p. 368-3-13-20.

539. Tattvdloka, TTP. Vol. 71, No. 3333, p. 235-3-3-4-8.


thought of enlightenment, by practising the first abhisambodhi, just as discerning the nature of a white cloth without defilement. The words ‘having empowered the sign as a stupa' refer to visualising a vajra on the lunar disc. Toganoo Shoun540 interprets the words ‘having empowered the sign as a stupa' from an illustration, which has a bodhisattva meditating on a stupa, in the Vajradhdtu Caturmudramandala of the Gobushinkan,541 Thus, it is evident that tire method described in segment (a) is the summary of the five abhisambodhis dealt with in chapter 1. Segment (b) explains the method of accomplishing the Vajraguhya Vajramandala by forming hand gestures (samaya-mudra) because this mandala is classified as the dhdranl-mandala which constitutes the supreme samaya-mudra. Since all the samaya-mudrds are generated from the vayra-bond, this method also begins with making the vajra-bond firm. According to Anandagarbha, the term ‘pledge {samaya)' indicates the samaya-mudra and ‘supreme pledges’ refer to the samaya-mudrds of the five Tathagatas.542 Segment (c) describes the method of accomplishing the Vajrastilcsma Jnanamandala (or Vajrajndna Dharmamandala) by reflecting upon a subtle-vay'ra at the tip of the nose, as explained in the four dhydnas section of chapter 3. The subtlQ-vajra-mandala in this context indicates the Vajrasulcsma Jnanamandala. Finally, segment (d) describes the method of accomplishing the Vajrakdrya Karmamandala, by forming the two vajra-mudrds, which indicate the two separated vayra-fists (vajra-musti) regarded as the original cause of all the karma-mudras.

A characteristic of this secret rite is that the previous secret rites use the secret meditational methods of anuttara-yoga tantra, but this rite, on the basis of the correspondence between the four mandalas and the four mudras, uses the methods of making the four mudras.


A-4. Conclusion


The Vajrasiddhi Caturmudramandala symbolically unites the previous four mandalas of the Vajradhdtu into a single mandala, and consists of the image of Vairocana and the four mudras (symbols) of the four Paramitas, i.e. vajra, gem, lotus and crossed vajra. These four symbols represent not only the essential principles of the previous four mandalas of the Vajradhdtu but also the four mudras of Vairocana, i.e. the Body, Mind, Speech and Action of Vairocana. Since the four Paramitas have the function of generating these four mudras of Vairocana in the sddhaka's mind, tire Vajrasiddhi Caturmudrd-mandala guides the sadhaka in generating the four mudras of Vairocana abiding in his nature. As a result, the sadhaka perfectly controls his body, mind, speech and action like Vairocana, and

54°. Toganoo Shoun, Mandara no kenlcyu, p. 310.

541. TSD. Tu-xiang-bu (Iconographic Section), Vol. 2, p. 145; Lokesh Chandra, A Ninth Centwy Scroll o f the Vajradhdtu Mandala, p. 336; Toganoo Shoun, Kongdcholcyo no Kenlcyu, Toganoo Sh5un Zenshu, Extra Vol. Ill, p.