preceptor (upādhyāya, 和尚). A monk qualified to teach other monks. However, the Chinese title heshang was phonetically translated from khosha, a word used in the kingdom of Yutian (于闐), or Khotan, present-day Hetian (和田), in Xinjiang, China. It has become an honorific address to an exalted monk. A Spiritual Guide who give us vows or commitments to observe.