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Martial Arts: Deductive argument

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This article examines the structure of a ound deductive argument, from its premise to its conclusion. The conclusion is only as compelling as the premises upon which it is based. Logic in itself does not solve the problem of verifying the basic assertions that are used to support arguments, for that, we need to use scientific enquiry. Since the philosophy of science and the scientific method are complicated topics, they are not covered in this discussion.

Propositions

A proposition is a statement that is either true or false. It pertains to the meaning of the statement, not to the arrangement of words used to convey that meaning. For example, "There a black belt in our class" is a proposition. "Our class has a black belt in it" is a rephrasing of the same proposition. Care must be used in rephrasing, since it is easy to change the meaning of a statement unintentionally by rephrasing it.

Arguments

An argument is "a connected series of statements used to establish a definite proposition." There are many types of arguments, however, for this discussion we are only concerned with the deductive argument. Deductive arguments are generally viewed as the most precise and the most persuasive. They provide conclusive proof of their conclusion, and are either valid or invalid. Deductive arguments have three stages: premises, inference, and conclusion.

Premises

A deductive argument requires a number of core assumptions, called premises, on which the argument is built. They are the reasons for accepting the argument. Premises are only premises in the context of a particular argument; in another argument, they might be conclusions.

You should always explicitly state the premises of the argument. Failing to do so is often viewed as suspicious, and will likely reduce acceptance of your argument.

The premises of an argument are often introduced with words such as "Assume", "Since", "Obviously," and "Because." You should get your opponent to agree with the premises of your argument before proceeding.

Using the word "obviously" in a premise is often viewed with suspicion, since it is sometimes used to persuade people to accept false statements rather than admit that they do not understand why something is obvious. Do not be afraid to question statements that people tell you should be obvious.

Inference

Once the premises have been agreed upon, the argument proceeds using a step-by-step process called inference. In inference, you start with one or more propositions that have been accepted, and then you use these propositions to arrive at a new proposition. If the inference is valid, the new proposition should also be accepted. You may later use the new proposition for inference. This means that initially you can only infer things from the premises of the argument. However, as the argument proceeds, the number of statements available for inference increases. Various types of valid and invalid inferences will be discussed later. Inference steps are often identified by using phrases such as "therefore" or "implies that."

Conclusion

If all goes well, you will arrive at a proposition that is the conclusion of the argument (the result you were trying to prove). The conclusion is the result of the final step of inference. It is only a conclusion in the context of a particular argument; it could be a premise or an assumption in another argument. The conclusion is said to be affirmed on the basis of the premises, and the inference from them.

Implication

Clearly, you may build a valid argument from true premises, and arrive at a true conclusion. You may also build a valid argument from false premises, and arrive at a false conclusion. You may also start with false premises, proceed using valid inference, and reach a true conclusion. However, you cannot start with true premises, proceed using valid deductive inference, and then reach a false conclusion. These results may be displayed as a Truth Table for implication. In the table, "A" is the premise, "B" is the conclusion, and "=>" denotes implication.

Truth Table for Implication

Line

Premises

Inference

Conclusion

A

A => B

B

1

False

True

False

2

False

True

True

3

True

False

False

4

True

True

True

  • If the premises are false and the inference valid, the conclusion can be true or false. (Lines 1 and 2.)
  • If the premises are true and the conclusion false, the inference must be invalid. (Line 3.)
  • If the premises are true and the inference valid, the conclusion must be true. (Line 4.)

This means that the fact that an argument is valid does not necessarily mean that its conclusion is true, since it may have started from false premises.

If an argument is valid, and it started from true premises, then it is called a sound argument and a sound argument must arrive at a true conclusion.

The following is an example of argument that has an invalid inference (Line3):

Premise: Taekwondo students are martial artists that workout in a dojang. (True)
Premise: Karate students are martial artists. (True)
Inference: Therefore, Karate students workout in a dojang. (False)
Conclusion: Both taekwondo students and Karate students workout in a dojang (False)

The following is an example of an argument that is valid, but may or may not be sound:

Premise: Every event has a cause
Premise: The universe has a beginning
Premise: All beginnings involve an event
Inference: This implies that the beginning of the universe involved an event
Inference: Therefore the beginning of the universe had a cause
Conclusion: The universe had a cause

The proposition in statement 4 is inferred from statements 2 and 3. Statement 1 is then used, with the proposition derived in statement 4, to infer a new proposition in statement 5. The result of the inference in statement 5 is then restated as the conclusion.

Spotting arguments

Spotting an argument is harder than spotting premises or a conclusion. Many people pepper their writing with assertions, without ever producing anything that might reasonably be called an argument.

Sometimes arguments do not follow the pattern described above. For example, people may state their conclusions first, and then justify them. This is valid, but it may be a bit confusing.

Some statements look like arguments but are not. For example:

"If the history of taekwondo is accurate, then General Choi must either have been a power hungry pretender, or the founder of taekwondo."

This is not an argument; it is a conditional statement. It does not state the premises necessary to support its conclusion, and, even if you add those assertions, it still suffers from a number of other flaws that are discussed later.

An argument is also not the same as an explanation. Suppose that you are trying to argue that John believes that taekwondo is an ancient art, and you state:

"John said taekwondo is an ancient art because he believes taekwondo has its roots in the ancient art of Subak"

This may appear to be a relevant argument but it is not, it is an explanation of John's statement. To see this, remember that a statement of the form "X because Y" may be rephrased as an equivalent statement, of the form "Y therefore X." Doing this with this statement results in:

"John believes that taekwondo has its roots in the ancient art of Subak, therefore he said that taekwondo was an ancient art."

Now it is clear that the statement, which seemed to be an argument, is actually assuming the result which it is supposed to be proving.

Sources

Source

taekwondo-tutor.com