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Mahāvaipulya Sūtra of Buddha Adornment

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Mahāvaipulya Sūtra of Buddha Adornment
Translated from Sanskrit into Chinese in the Tang Dynasty
by
The Tripiṭaka Master Śikṣānanda from Yutian

Fascicle 50 (of 80)
Chapter 37a – A Tathāgata’s Appearance in the World

The Buddha Empowers a Bodhisattva to Request Teachings

At that time the World-Honored One emitted from the white hair between His eyebrows vast radiance called the appearance of a Tathāgata, accompanied by a retinue of countless hundreds of thousands of koṭis of nayutas of beams of light. This radiance illuminated all worlds in the ten directions throughout the domain of space and the dharma realm. Ten times it circled [these worlds clockwise, displaying a Tathāgata’s immeasurable mastery, enlightening innumerable Bodhisattvas, shaking all worlds in the ten directions, ending the suffering on all evil life-paths, obscuring [the radiance of] all māra palaces, revealing all Buddha-Tathāgatas seated on bodhi seats and attaining samyak-saṁbodhi, and displaying all assemblies in Their bodhimaṇḍas. Having done these things, it returned, circled this assembly of Bodhisattvas clockwise, and entered the top of the head of the Bodhisattva called Wondrous Virtues Arising from Tathāgata Nature.
    Meanwhile, the huge multitude in this bodhimaṇḍa felt great and exuberant joy in body and mind. They thought, “How extraordinary! Now that the Tathāgata has emitted vast radiance, He definitely will expound the profound great Dharma.”
    Then Wondrous Virtues Arising from Tathāgata Nature Bodhisattva bared his right shoulder, knelt on his right knee on his lotus flower seat, and joined his palms. Intent upon facing the Tathāgata, he spoke in verse:

    Great wisdom arising from the virtue of saṁbodhi true enlightenment,
    He masters all states, and arrives at the opposite shore1 as an equal of
    All past, present, and future Tathāgatas.
    Hence I now make reverent obeisance.

    Having realized that dharmas have no appearance,
    He displays His wondrous appearance in a sublime body.
    He emits a thousand beams of taint-free light,
    Entirely destroying the māra troops.
    Worlds in the ten directions are
    Shaken without exception,
    But not even one sentient being is terrified.
    Such is the awesome power of the Sugata.2

    He abides in the dharma nature of equality
    As do the domain of space and the dharma realm.
    Although sentient beings are innumerable,
    He enables them all to end their evils and afflictions.

    After diligently training in ascetic practices for countless kalpas,
    He has attained unsurpassed bodhi.
    Having acquired hindrance-free wisdom-knowledge jñāna of all things,
    He has become an equal of all Buddhas.

    This guiding teacher emits vast radiance
    And shakes worlds in the ten directions.
    After displaying immeasurable transcendental powers,
    His radiance returns and enters my head.

    Innumerable Bodhisattvas, who can learn well
    The definitive teachings, have assembled,
    Inspiring me to ask for teachings.
    Hence I now ask the Dharma King [for His teachings].
    The huge multitude in this assembly is pure,
    Well able to deliver the world.
    With wisdom, boundless and untainted,
    Such worthy elites have come to assemble.

    This honored guiding teacher benefits the world,
    His wisdom and vigor being immeasurable.
    He now illuminates this huge multitude with vast radiance,
    Enabling me to ask for [teachings of] the unsurpassed Dharma.

    Who can truly describe
    The profound state of a Buddha?
    Who is the eldest son in the Buddha Dharma?
    I pray that the World-Honored One will tell us.

The Buddha Empowers Samantabhadra Bodhisattva to Expound the Dharma

Then the Tathāgata emitted from His mouth vast radiance called the fearless and hindrance free, accompanied by a retinue of 100,000 koṭi asaṁkhyeya beams of light. It illuminated everywhere in all worlds in the ten directions throughout the domain of space and the dharma realm. Ten times it circled [these worlds clockwise, displaying a Tathāgata’s various kinds of mastery, enlightening innumerable Bodhisattvas, shaking all worlds in the ten directions, ending the suffering on all evil life-paths, obscuring the radiance of all māra palaces, revealing all Buddha-Tathāgatas seated on bodhi seats and attaining samyak-saṁbodhi, and displaying all assemblies in Their bodhimaṇḍas. Having done these things, it returned, circled this assembly of Bodhisattvas clockwise, and entered Samantabhadra Bodhisattva’s mouth. After this radiance had entered his mouth, Samantabhadra Bodhisattva’s body and lion throne became a hundredfold larger than their former size and the size of the other Bodhisattvas, but not that of the Tathāgata.
    Then Wondrous Virtues Arising from Tathāgata Nature Bodhisattva asked Samantabhadra Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva, “Buddha-Son, the Buddha has delighted Bodhisattvas with these vast miraculous manifestations, but they are inconceivable and unknowable to the world. What is [the meaning of] this auspicious sign?”
    Samantabhadra Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva answered, “Buddha-Son, in the past I saw that after Tathāgatas, also called Arhats and Samyak-Saṁbuddhas, had produced such vast miraculous manifestations, They at once expounded the Dharma Door of the appearance of a Tathāgata. I think that because the Tathāgata has displayed this sign, He will give this teaching.” As he spoke these words, the entire great earth shook, displaying immeasurable radiance called requesting teachings.
Requesting Teachings on a Tathāgata’s Appearance

Then Wondrous Virtues Arising from Tathāgata Nature Bodhisattva asked Samantabhadra Bodhisattva, “Buddha-Son, what should a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva know about the appearances of Buddha-Tathāgatas, also called Arhats and Samyak-Saṁbuddhas? Please tell me, Buddha-Son. These countless hundreds of thousands of koṭis of nayutas of Bodhisattvas in this assembly have long trained in doing pure karmas, fully developed mindfulness and wisdom, and arrived at the shore of ultimate great splendor. They behave like Buddhas and rightly think of Buddhas, never forgetting Them. With great compassion, they observe sentient beings, and they definitely know great Bodhisattvas’ states and transcendental powers. Supported by Buddhasspiritual powers, they can retain the wondrous Dharma of all Tathāgatas. These Bodhisattvas with such immeasurable virtues have come to assemble.
    “Buddha-Son, you have attended and made offerings to countless hundreds of thousands of koṭis of nayutas of Buddhas, completed supreme Bodhisattva actions, achieved command of samādhi, entered the secrets of Buddhas, mastered the Dharma of Buddhas, ended your doubts, received the support of Buddhasspiritual powers, known the capacities of sentient beings, taught them the true ways to achieve liberation according to their preferences, expounded the Buddha Dharma in accord with Buddha wisdom, and arrived at the opposite shore. You have done such immeasurable virtuous works. Very good, Buddha-Son. I pray that you will describe a Tathāgata’s appearance in the world; His physical form, speech, and mental state; His attaining bodhi, doing Buddha work, turning the Dharma wheel, and entering parinirvāṇa; and the roots of goodness developed by those who see, hear, or stay close to Him. Please describe these things.”
    Then, to restate his meaning, Wondrous Virtues Arising from Tathāgata Nature Bodhisattva spoke to Samantabhadra Bodhisattva in verse:

    Great is the one with vast hindrance-free wisdom,
    Who has realized the boundless equality of dharmas!
    I pray that you will describe a Buddha’s immeasurable actions.
    Buddha-sons who hear you will rejoice.

    What should a Bodhisattva know about
    Buddha-Tathāgatas’ appearances in worlds?
    What are the states of Their body, voice, and mind?
    What are the spheres of Their actions?
    How do Buddhas attain true enlightenment
    How do Tathāgatas turn the Dharma wheel?
    How do Sugatas enter parinirvāṇa?
    The multitude that hears you will be delighted.

    If someone sees a Buddha, a great Dharma King,
    Or stays close to Him, his roots of goodness will expand.
    Please describe a sentient being’s store of merits
    Acquired by seeing a Buddha.

    Suppose someone comes to hear the names of a Tathāgata,
    Whether He is in the world or in parinirvāṇa,
    And elicits profound belief in his store of merits.
    Please describe the benefits he has received.

    All these Bodhisattvas join their palms,
    Gazing reverently upon the Tathāgata, you Samantabhadra, and me.
    Please describe the state of a Buddha, an ocean of great virtues,
    Who purifies sentient beings.

    Please reveal the causes and conditions for His appearance and use analogies
    To expound the meanings in accordance with the wondrous Dharma.
    After hearing you, sentient beings will activate the great bodhi mind,
    End their doubts, and acquire wisdom-knowledge as pure as the open sky.

    Buddhas appear in sublime bodies
    Throughout all worlds.
    Please use wonderful tones and analogies
    To describe Buddha bodhi They have attained.

    In tens of millions of worlds in the ten directions,
    Through countless koṭis of nayutas of kalpas,
    It is hard to see
    The Bodhisattvas who now have assembled.

    All these Bodhisattvas are reverent,
    Longing to hear the wondrous meanings.
    I pray that you will expound with pure mind
    The great matter of a Tathāgata’s appearance.

Ten Past Things Contributing to a Tathāgata’s Appearance

Then Samantabhadra Bodhisattva told Wondrous Virtues Arising from Tathāgata Nature Bodhisattva and the other Bodhisattvas in the assembly, “Buddha-Sons, this matter is inconceivable because a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha, appears in the world through countless dharmas. Why? Because a Tathāgata’s appearance is not accomplished through one condition or one thing, but through ten kinds of countless hundreds of thousands of asaṁkhyeyas of things in the past. What are these ten? They are (1) activation of the immeasurable bodhi mind to draw in all sentient beings; (2) immeasurably pure and excellent aspirations; (3) immeasurable rescue and protection of all sentient beings with great lovingkindness and compassion; (4) countless continuing action vows; (5) insatiable accumulation of merit and wisdom; (6) immeasurable offerings to Buddhas and teachings to sentient beings; (7) pure paths of immeasurable wisdom and skillful means; (8) stores of immeasurable virtuous works; (9) immeasurable majestic wisdom-knowledge; (10) immeasurable understanding of the meanings of the Dharma. Buddha-Sons, upon completion of such countless asaṁkhyeyas of Dharma Doors, a Bodhisattva becomes a Tathāgata.
Ten Characteristics of a Tathāgata’s Appearance

“First, Buddha-Sons, a Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold World does not form through one condition or one thing, but through countless conditions and countless things, such as forming and spreading enormous clouds, pouring down massive rains, and relying on four wind wheels. What are these four? The first is called holder, because it can hold massive waters. The second is called remover, because it can remove massive waters. The third is called maker, because it makes all places. The fourth is called adorner, because it skillfully distributes adornments. All these wind wheels arise from sentient beings’ collective karmas and Bodhisattvasroots of goodness, enabling all sentient beings to enjoy the world according to their needs. Buddha-Sons, through such countless causes and conditions, a Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold World forms. Such is the nature of dharmas. There is no producer, no maker, no knower, and no accomplisher. Nevertheless, a world forms.
    “Likewise a Tathāgata’s appearance is not accomplished through one condition or one thing, but through countless causes and conditions, and countless things, such as hearing, accepting, and retaining past Buddhas’ great Dharma clouds and rains, which can activate a Tathāgata’s four wind wheels of great wisdom-knowledge. What are these four? The first is the wind wheel of great wisdom-knowledge to retain and not to forget dhāraṇīs, because this wheel can hold all Tathāgatas’ great Dharma clouds and rains. The second is the wind wheel of great wisdom-knowledge to practice śamatha and vipaśyanā, because this wheel can remove all afflictions. The third is the wind wheel of great wisdom-knowledge to transfer merits with skillfulness, because this wheel can develop all roots of goodness. The fourth is the wind wheel of great wisdom-knowledge to produce various taint-free adornments, because this wheel can enable all sentient beings taught in the past to be adorned with pure roots of goodness, and to acquire the power of a Tathāgata’s affliction-free roots of goodness. This is how a Tathāgata attains true enlightenment. It is attained without birth or act, because such is the nature of dharmas. Buddha-Sons, this is the first characteristic of the appearance of a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should know His appearance.
    “Second, Buddha-Sons, when a Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold World is forming, enormous clouds pour down rains called the downpour, which cannot be held by any place, except by a large thousandfold world when it is forming. Buddha-Sons, likewise a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha, forms great Dharma clouds and pours down great Dharma rains called accomplishing the appearance of a Tathāgata. They cannot be retained by the narrow minds of riders of the Two Vehicles, unless through the sustaining power of great Bodhisattvasminds. Buddha-Sons, this is the second characteristic of the appearance of a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should know His appearance.
    “Third, Buddha-Sons, because of the power of sentient beingskarmas, enormous clouds pour down rains, which come from nowhere and go to nowhere. Likewise a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha, because of the power of Bodhisattvasroots of goodness, forms great Dharma clouds and pours down great Dharma rains, which also come from nowhere and go to nowhere. Buddha-Sons, this is the third characteristic of the appearance of a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should know His appearance.
    “Fourth, Buddha-Sons, when enormous clouds pour down massive rains, no sentient being in a large thousandfold world can know their quantity. If someone tries to calculate it, he will go mad. Only the god-king Maheśvara, the ruler of a large thousandfold world, because of the power of his past roots of goodness, can know it, not missing even one raindrop. Buddha-Sons, likewise a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha, forms great Dharma clouds and pours down great Dharma rains, which sentient beings, voice-hearers, and Pratyekabuddhas cannot know. If they try to ponder them, their minds will go wild. Only Bodhisattva-Mahāsattvas, rulers of the entire world, because of the power of their past cultivation of bodhi wisdom, know them clearly, not missing even one word or phrase that enters a sentient being’s mind. Buddha-Sons, this is the fourth characteristic of the appearance of a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should know His appearance.
    “Fifth, when enormous clouds pour down massive rains, the massive rain called extinguisher can extinguish fires; the massive rain called producer can produce massive waters; the massive rain called stopper can stop massive waters; the massive rain called maker can make treasures, such as gems; the massive rain called differentiator can differentiate [among all worlds in] the Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold World. Buddha-Sons, it is similar for a Tathāgata’s appearance. He forms great Dharma clouds and pours down great Dharma rains. The great Dharma rain called extinguisher can extinguish [the fires of] all sentient beingsafflictions; the great Dharma rain called producer can produce all sentient beingsroots of goodness; the Dharma rain called stopper can stop all sentient beingswrong views; the great Dharma rain called maker can make all Dharma treasures of wisdom; the Dharma rain called differentiator can differentiate all sentient beingsminds and preferences. Buddha-Sons, this is the fifth characteristic of the appearance of a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should know His appearance.
    “Sixth, Buddha-Sons, although massive clouds rain down the one-flavored3 water, the rains have countless differences. Buddha-Sons, it is similar for the appearance of a Tathāgata. Although He rains down the one-flavored Dharma water of great compassion, He gives sentient beings appropriate teachings with countless differences. Buddha-Sons, this is the sixth characteristic of the appearance of a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should know His appearance.
    “Seventh, Buddha-Sons, when a Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold World forms, the celestial palaces in the form realm form first, then those in the desire realm form, and then the abodes of humans and other sentient beings form. Buddha-Sons, it is similar for appearance of a Tathāgata. He first enables Bodhisattvas to develop their wisdom through training, then enables Pratyekabuddhas to develop their wisdom through training, and then enables voice-hearers to develop their roots of goodness and their wisdom through training. Then He enables other sentient beings to develop, through causes and conditions, their roots of goodness and their wisdom through training. Buddha-Sons, as enormous clouds rain down the one-flavored water, the palaces formed for sentient beings differ according to their different roots of goodness. Likewise a Tathāgata’s one-flavored Dharma rains taste different according to sentient beings’ different capacities. Buddha-Sons, this is the seventh characteristic of the appearance of a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should know His appearance.
    “Eighth, Buddha-Sons, when a Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold World is forming, massive water pervades it and produces a huge lotus flower called the precious adornment of virtues of a Tathāgata’s appearance. It spans the massive water, and its radiance illuminates all worlds in the ten directions. When the god-king Maheśvara and gods in the pure-abode heavens see this flower, they definitely know that, in this kalpa, Buddhas will appear in the world.
    “Buddha-Sons, then wind wheels arise. The wind wheel called pure radiance can build the celestial palaces in the form realm; the wind wheel called pure light that adorns can build the celestial palaces in the desire realm; the wind wheel called firm and indestructible can build the vajra mountain range, and other large and small concentric mountain ranges; the wind wheel called supremely tall can build Mount Sumeru, the king of mountains.
    “The wind wheel called immovable can build the ten kings of mountains. What are these ten?4 They are (1) Khadiraka Mountain, (2) Ṛṣi Mountain, (3) Māra-Subjugating Mountain, (4) Great Māra-Subjugating Mountain, (5) Twin-Peak Mountain, (6) Nimiṁdhara Mountain, (7) Mucilinda Mountain, (8) Mahāmucilinda Mountain, (9) Fragrance Mountain, and (10) Snow Mountain.
    “The wind wheel called abider can build the great earth; the wind wheel called adorner can build the palaces of dragons, gandharvas, and gods who reside on the earth; the wind wheel called inexhaustible store can build all immense oceans in a Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold World; the wind wheel called store of universal radiance can make treasures in a Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold World; the wind wheel called strong root can grow all wish-fulfilling trees. Buddha-Sons, the one-flavored water poured down from enormous clouds does not differentiate its drinkers. However, because sentient beingsroots of goodness are different, the wind wheels are different; because the wind wheels are different, the worlds are different.
    “Buddha-Sons, it is similar for the appearance of a Tathāgata. Adorned with the virtues of all roots of goodness, He emits radiances of unsurpassed great wisdom-knowledge, such as (1) the radiance called inconceivable wisdom-knowledge to enable the Tathāgata seed never to end, which illuminates all worlds in the ten directions, and bestows upon Bodhisattvas the prophecy that all Tathāgatas will pour nectar on their heads and that they will attain true enlightenment and appear in the world; (2) the radiance called pure and hindrance free, which can reveal a Tathāgata’s endless affliction-free wisdom-knowledge; (3) the radiance called universal illumination, which can reveal a Tathāgata’s inconceivable wisdom-knowledge to enter everywhere in the dharma realm; (4) the radiance called sustaining the Buddha character-type, which can reveal a Tathāgata’s insuperable power; (5) the radiance called indestructible, which can reveal a Tathāgata’s fearless and indestructible wisdom-knowledge; (6) the radiance called all transcendental powers, which can reveal a Tathāgata’s exclusive dharmas;5 (7) the radiance called producing manifestations, which can reveal a Tathāgata’s wisdom-knowledge to enable those who see, hear, or stay close to Him not to lose or damage their roots of goodness; (8) the radiance called universal accord, which can form a Tathāgata’s body of inexhaustible merit and wisdom in order to benefit all sentient beings; (9) the radiance called endless, which can reveal a Tathāgata’s profound, wondrous wisdom-knowledge to enable the seeds of the Three Jewels never to end; (10) the radiance called diverse adornments, which can form a Tathāgata’s sublime body in order to delight all sentient beings; (11) the radiance called indestructible, which can produce a Tathāgata’s extraordinary lifespan, as endless as the domain of space and the dharma realm.
    “Buddha-Sons, a Tathāgata’s one-flavored water of great compassion does not differentiate its drinkers. However, because of sentient beings’ different desires, preferences, and capacities, it activates various wind wheels of great wisdom-knowledge, enabling Bodhisattvas to become Tathāgatas and appear in the world. Buddha-Sons, all Tathāgatas have the same nature, and Their wheels of great wisdom-knowledge emit various radiances of wisdom. Buddha-Sons, you all should know that a Tathāgata produces from the one flavor of liberation various immeasurable and inconceivable virtuous works. Sentient beings may think that these are produced by a Tathāgata’s spiritual power. Buddha-Sons, these are not produced by a Tathāgata’s spiritual power. Buddha-Sons, it is impossible for any Bodhisattva to acquire a little Tathāgata wisdom without planting his roots of goodness under a Buddha. It is through the power of Buddhas’ awe-inspiring virtues that sentient beings are enabled to acquire a Buddha’s virtues. Yet Buddha-Tathāgatas make no differentiations, knowing that there is neither construction nor destruction, neither doer nor doing. Buddha-Sons, this is the eighth characteristic of the appearance of a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should know His appearance.
    “Ninth, Buddha-Sons, four wind wheels abide in the open sky and can hold the water wheel. What are these four? The first is called abiding; the second, ever abiding; the third, everlasting; the fourth, unyielding. These four wind wheels can hold the water wheel. The water wheel can hold the great earth, not letting it disintegrate or decay. Hence the earth wheel relies on the water wheel; the water wheel relies on the wind wheels; the wind wheels rely on the open sky; the open sky relies on nothing. Although it relies on nothing, it can let a Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold World abide.
    “Buddha-Sons, it is similar for the appearance of a Tathāgata. A Buddha’s four wind wheels of great wisdom-knowledge arise from His radiant hindrance-free wisdom, and can sustain all sentient beingsroots of goodness. What are these four? They are (1) the wind wheel of great wisdom-knowledge to draw in sentient beings and delight them; (2) the wind wheel of great wisdom-knowledge to establish the true Dharma and delight sentient beings; (3) the wind wheel of great wisdom-knowledge to guard and protect all sentient beingsroots of goodness; (4) the wind wheel of great wisdom-knowledge to use all skillful means to enter the affliction-free dharma realm. These are the four. Buddha-Bhagavāns, with great lovingkindness rescue all sentient beings, and with great compassion deliver all sentient beings. They benefit all of them with great lovingkindness and compassion. However, great lovingkindness and compassion rely on great skillful means; great skillful means rely on a Tathāgata’s appearance; a Tathāgata’s appearance relies on His radiant hindrance-free wisdom; His radiant hindrance-free wisdom relies on nothing. Buddha-Sons, this is the ninth characteristic of the appearance of a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should know His appearance.
    “Tenth, Buddha-Sons, after a Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold Word forms, it benefits innumerable sentient beings. Aquatic sentient beings benefit from the water; land sentient beings benefit from the earth; sentient beings that reside in palaces benefit from the palaces; sentient beings that reside in the open sky benefit from the open sky. It is similar for a Tathāgata’s appearance, which benefits innumerable sentient beings in various ways. Those who delight in seeing a Buddha benefit from their delight; those who abide by the pure precepts benefit from the pure precepts; those who abide in meditation and the Four Immeasurable Minds benefit from acquiring supra-worldly great transcendental powers; those who abide in the radiance of Dharma Doors benefit from the indestructible cause and effect; those who abide in the truth of the emptiness of dharmas benefit from the indestructibility of all dharmas. That is why I say, ‘A Tathāgata’s appearance benefits all innumerable sentient beings.’ Buddha-Sons, this is the tenth characteristic of the appearance of a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should know His appearance.
    “Buddha-Sons, a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva who knows a Tathāgata’s appearance in the world knows that it is immeasurable. Knowing that it encompasses immeasurable works, he knows that it is vast. Knowing that it pervades [all worlds in] the ten directions, he knows that it neither comes nor goes. Knowing that it is free from arising, abiding, and perishing, he knows that it is free from doing and from what is done. Knowing that it is beyond mind, intellect, and consciousness, he knows that it has no body. Knowing that it is like the open sky, he knows that all dharmas are equal in their emptiness. Knowing that all sentient beings have no selves, he knows that it has no end. Knowing that it endlessly pervades all worlds, he knows that it never retreats. Knowing that it ceaselessly pervades the endless future, he knows that it never decays. Knowing that Tathāgata wisdom is unexcelled, he knows that it is non-dual. Knowing the equality of dharmas by observing saṁskṛta and asaṁskṛta dharmas, he knows that a Tathāgata’s appearance in the world benefits all sentient beings, because it is the natural fulfillment of His transferring [the merit of His] past actions.”
    Then, to restate his meaning, Samantabhadra Bodhisattva spoke in verse:

    This great hero with the Ten Powers is unsurpassed,
    Like the unequaled open sky.
    His state is vast and immeasurable, and
    His virtuous works are foremost, transcending the world.
    Limitless are His virtuous works,
    Beyond the measure of the mind and intellect.
    No Dharma Door of this lion among men
    Can be known by sentient beings in a koṭi kalpas.

    Suppose worlds in the ten directions are pulverized into dust particles.
    Perhaps someone can calculate their number.
    The virtues of one hair of this Tathagata
    Cannot be described in a million koṭi kalpas.
    Suppose someone uses a ruler to measure the open sky, and
    His companion calculates its size.
    As the boundary of the open sky can never be captured,
    The state of a Tathāgata can never be captured.

    Suppose someone can know in a kṣaṇakṣaṇa
    The minds of past, present, and future sentient beings.
    He cannot know, in kalpas as numerous as sentient beings,
    Even one thought of a Buddha.
    Because the dharma realm pervades everywhere,
    One should not take as entire what one perceives.
    Likewise a Buddha’s state pervades all dharmas, and
    One should not take as entire what one perceives of His state.
    True suchness is free from delusion and always quiet.
    With neither birth nor death, it pervades everywhere.
    Likewise the essence of Buddhas’ states is equality,
    With neither increase nor decrease.
    The true state6 bhūta-koṭi is no state.
    As it pervades the past, present, and future, there is nothing that pervades.
    Likewise this guiding teacher’s state
    Pervades the past, present, and future, hindrance free.

    Dharma nature neither acts nor changes,
    Like the open sky, which is always pure.
    Likewise the nature of Buddhas is pure.
    Their inherent nature is no nature, beyond existence and nonexistence.
    Dharma nature does not hinge upon words
    Because it is nirvāṇa, free from words.
    Likewise Buddhas’ states are
    Beyond the description of words.
    Buddhas know that dharma nature is nirvāṇa,
    Like traces of birds flying in the sky.
    Through the power of Their original vows, Buddhas appear in physical forms,
    Enabling sentient beings to see Their great, miraculous manifestations.

    If someone wants to see a Buddha’s state,
    He should make his mind as pure as the open sky,
    Discard deluded perceptions and wrong views,
    And head for bodhi, hindrance free.

    Hence Buddha-sons should hearken.
    I will use a few analogies to describe a Buddha’s state.
    Although the virtuous works of a hero with the Ten Powers are immeasurable,
    I now will briefly describe them to enlighten sentient beings.

    I will describe a guiding teacher’s displays of the pure states of
    Body karmas, voice karmas, and mind karmas,
    His turning the wondrous Dharma wheel, His entering parinirvāṇa,
    And all His roots of goodness.

    The formation of a Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold World
    Is not accomplished through one cause and condition,
    But through countless skillful means,
    Causes, and conditions.
    Likewise a Tathāgata’s appearance in the world
    Is accomplished through immeasurable virtuous works.
    While minds of sentient beings as numerous as dust particles can be known,
    The causes and conditions of a Buddha’s appearance cannot be measured.

    At the beginning of a formation kalpa, clouds pour down rains,
    And four wind wheels arise.
    Through sentient beingsroots of goodness and Bodhisattvaspowers,
    A Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold World forms, where sentient beings reside.
    Likewise a Buddha’s Dharma clouds
    Activate His wind wheels of wisdom-knowledge that purify sentient beings’] minds
    And guide those to whom in the past He had transferred His merits,
    Enabling them to harvest the unsurpassed spiritual fruit.

    The massive rains called the downpour
    Cannot be held by any place,
    Except through the power of great winds in the pure open sky
    When a world is forming.
    It is similar for the appearance of a Tathāgata.
    He pours down Dharma rains that pervade the dharma realm.
    They cannot be retained by lowly minds,
    Only by vast, pure minds.

    Massive rains that fall from the sky
    Have neither makers nor recipients.
    Coming from nowhere and going to nowhere,
    They naturally pervade everywhere.
    Likewise a Buddha’s Dharma rains
    Neither come nor go, nor act.
    Bodhisattvas with vast minds accept them
    Through the power of their primary training.

    When massive rains fall from clouds in the sky,
    No one can count the raindrops,
    But Maheśvava, the ruler of a Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold World,
    Knows their number because of the power of his virtues.
    Likewise a Sugata’s Dharma rains
    Cannot be measured by sentient beings,
    But a Dharma King
    Sees them as clearly as a jewel in His palm.

    Massive rains that fall from clouds in the sky
    Can extinguish [fires], produce [waters], and stop [waters].
    They make all treasures
    And differentiate [among all worlds in] a Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold World.
    Likewise a Buddha’s Dharma rains
    Extinguish [the fires of sentient beings’] afflictions, produce [their roots of] goodness, and stop their wrong views.
    They make the Dharma treasures of wisdom
    And differentiate sentient beingsminds and preferences.

    The rains that fall from the sky come in only one flavor,
    But they have countless differences.
    The rains do not differentiate their drinkers,
    But they naturally give rise to different things.
    A Tathāgata’s Dharma rains are neither same nor different.
    Impartial and quiet, they do not differentiate their drinkers.
    To different sentient beings ready to be transformed,
    They naturally provide different teachings.

    When a world forms,
    The celestial palaces in the form realm form first,
    Then those in the desire realm form, and then the abodes in the human realm form.
    Gandharva palaces form last.
    It is similar for the appearance of a Tathāgata.
    He first activates immeasurable Bodhisattva actions,
    Then transforms Pratyekabuddhas, who delight in quietness nirvāṇa,
    Then teaches voice-hearers, and then sentient beings.

    When gods see the lotus flower [on the water, an auspicious sign,
    They rejoice because they know that Buddhas will appear in the world.
    Rains activate winds, and winds bring forth a world,
    Where palaces, mountains, and rivers form.
    A Tathāgata emits radiance, which skillfully differentiates Bodhisattvas
    And bestows upon them the prophecy [of attaining Buddhahood.
    His wheels of wisdom-knowledge are pure,
    Each expounding the Dharma of Buddhas.

    Trees rely on the earth in order to exist.
    The earth relies on water in order not to disintegrate.
    Water relies on wind, and wind relies on the open sky.
    The open sky relies on nothing.
    The entire Buddha Dharma relies on lovingkindness and compassion.
    Lovingkindness and compassion rely on skillful means.
    Skillful means rely on wisdom-knowledge, and wisdom-knowledge relies on wisdom.
    The hindrance-free wisdom body dharma body7] relies on nothing.

    After a world forms,
    All sentient beings receive its benefits.
    Those who reside on earth, in water, or in the sky, and
    Those with two feet or four feet, all receive its benefits.
    It is similar for the appearance of a Dharma King
    Because all sentient beings receive its benefits.
    He enables those who see, hear, or stay close to Him
    To end their afflictions.

    A Tathāgata’s appearance is
    Inconceivable and unknowable to the world.
    To enlighten sentient beings,
    I have used analogies to describe that which is beyond analogies.

Ten Characteristics of a Tathāgata’s Body

“Buddha-Sons, how should a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva see the body of a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha?
    “Buddha-Sons, a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should use no measure to see a Tathāgata’s body. Why? Because a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should not see a Tathāgata through only one dharma, one thing, one body, one world, or one sentient being, but through all things.
    “First, Buddha-Sons, the open sky pervades everywhere in realms with or without form, though it neither arrives nor does not arrive. Why? Because the open sky has no body. Likewise a Tathāgata’s body pervades all places, all sentient beings, all dharmas, and all worlds, though it neither arrives nor does not arrive. Why? Because a Tathāgata’s body is no body. To benefit sentient beings, He manifests His body. Buddha-Sons, this is the first characteristic of a Tathāgata’s body. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should see His body.
    “Second, Buddha-Sons, the open sky is vast and formless, but it can display all forms. Yet the open sky neither differentiates among them nor makes ludicrous statements about them. Likewise a Tathāgata’s body illuminates the world with the radiance of wisdom, enabling sentient beings to fully develop worldly and supra-worldly roots of goodness. Yet a Tathāgata’s body neither differentiates among them nor makes ludicrous statements about them. Why? Because it has always been free from all attachments and all ludicrous statements. Buddha-Sons, this is the second characteristic of a Tathāgata’s body. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should see His body.
    “Third, Buddha-Sons, the sun rises in Jambudvīpa and benefits all sentient beings in countless ways, such as dispelling darkness, removing coldness and wetness, nurturing trees and grass, ripening grains and crops, lighting the open sky, opening flowers, enabling travelers to see their way, and inhabitants to do their work. Why? Because the sun emits immeasurable radiance. Buddha-Sons, likewise a Tathāgata, a wisdom sun, appears in the world and benefits all sentient beings in countless ways, such as ending their evil to produce good, changing their stupidity into wisdom, rescuing and protecting them with great lovingkindness, delivering them with great compassion, expanding their capacities, strengths, and aspirations for bodhi. He enables them to elicit profound belief and discard the muddled mind, to see and hear the Dharma without destroying causes and conditions, to acquire the god-eye to see the places of their births and deaths, to acquire the hindrance-free mind without damaging their roots of goodness, to develop wisdom and open the flower of enlightenment, and to activate the bodhi mind to complete all Bodhisattva actions. Why? Because a Tathāgata’s body is a vast wisdom sun, which emits immeasurable radiance to illuminate all. Buddha-Sons, this is the third characteristic of a Tathāgata’s body. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should see His body.
    “Fourth, when the sun rises in Jambudvīpa, it first illuminates Mount Sumeru and all great kings of mountains, then the black mountain, then plateaus, and then the entire great earth. The sun does not think, ‘I first illuminate this, then that.’ Because the mountains and the ground each have variations in height, it illuminates them in this order. Likewise a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha, acquires in the boundless dharma realm the wheels of wisdom-knowledge, which constantly emit the radiance of hindrance-free wisdom. The radiance first illuminates Bodhisattva-Mahāsattvas, who are like great kings of mountains, then Pratyekabuddhas, and then voice-hearers. Then it illuminates sentient beings definitely on the bodhi path, imparting to them vast wisdom-knowledge according to their capacities. Then it illuminates all other sentient beings, even those definitely on the wrong paths,8 providing the causes and conditions for them to receive future benefits and come to spiritual maturity. However, the radiance of a Tathāgata, a wisdom sun, does not think, ‘I should illuminate Bodhisattvas first and sentient beings definitely on the wrong paths last.’ It impartially emits radiance to illuminate all, hindrance free and differentiation free. Buddha-Sons, when the sun or the moon rises, it impartially illuminates tall mountains and deep valleys. Likewise a Tathāgata’s wisdom illuminates all without discrimination. However, the radiance of His wisdom-knowledge differs according to sentient beings’ preferences and capacities. Buddha-Sons, this is the fourth characteristic of a Tathāgata’s body. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should see His body.
    “Fifth, Buddha-Sons, when the sun rises, sentient beings born blind cannot see it. Although they have never seen the sun, they still benefit from sunlight. Why? Because sunlight enables them to know day and night, and seasons; to enjoy food and drink, and life-supporting things, such as clothing; and to make their bodies comfortable and free from troubles, such as illnesses from coldness or dampness. It is similar for a Tathāgata, a wisdom sun. Those with no belief and no understanding violate the precepts, malign the right views, live an evil way of life, and cannot see a Buddha, a wisdom sun, because, like the born blind, they have no eye of belief. Although they do not see a Buddha, a wisdom sun, they still benefit from that wisdom sun. Why? Because a Buddha’s awesome power enables sentient beings to end their physical suffering and their afflictions, which are the cause of suffering in their future lives. Buddha-Sons, a Tathāgata emits various radiances. One radiance is called accumulating merits; one is called illuminating all; one is called illuminating with purity and ease; one is called emitting loud, wonderful tones; one is called understanding all languages to delight all; one is called displaying the commanding state that ends all doubts forever; one is called the reliance-free wisdom-knowledge that illuminates all with ease; one is called the commanding wisdom-knowledge that ends all ludicrous statements; one is called responsively emitting wonderful tones; one is called emitting pure and commanding tones to adorn worlds and bring sentient beings to spiritual maturity.
    “Buddha-Sons, a Tathāgata’s every pore emits a thousand kinds of such radiances. Five hundred radiances illuminate below; five hundred radiances illuminate above. When Bodhisattvas in various places of Buddhas in various worlds see these radiances, they at once attain a Tathāgata’s state. Every Bodhisattva’s ten heads, ten eyes, ten ears, ten noses, ten tongues, ten bodies, ten hands, ten feet, Ten Grounds, and ten kinds of wisdom-knowledge are purified. Because he sees these radiances, his earlier attainments on Bodhisattva grounds become purer and all his roots of goodness mature, as he heads for all wisdom-knowledge. Riders of the Two Vehicles end all their afflictions; a few sentient beings born blind experience happiness in their bodies, and their minds become pure, gentle, and docile, capable of cultivating mindfulness; all other sentient beings on various life-paths, including hell dwellers, hungry ghosts, and animals, experience happiness, are liberated from myriad suffering and, after death, will be reborn as gods or humans. Buddha-Sons, those sentient beings do not know through what causes and conditions, or what spiritual power, they have been reborn as gods or humans. Those born blind in their previous life think, ‘I am a Brahma god. I am manifested by a Brahma god.’ Then a Tathāgata, who abides in the Samādhi of Universal Command, voices sixty kinds of wonderful tones, telling them, ‘All of you are neither Brahma gods nor manifestations of a Brahma god, nor products of the god-king Śakra or the four god-king protectors of the world. Your fortunate rebirth is accomplished through a Tathāgata’s awesome spiritual power.’ When those sentient beings hear these words, through that Buddha’s spiritual power, they come to know their past lives, and great joy arises in their hearts. Because of their joy, as an offering they naturally form clouds of utpala flowers, fragrances, music, garments, canopies, banners, cylindrical banners, powdered incense, treasures, half-moon-shaped towers with lion banners, songsand praises, and various adornments, and they make that offering to that Tathāgata with reverent minds. Why? Because those sentient beings have acquired the pure eye. Then that Tathāgata bestows upon them the prophecy of attaining anuttara-samyak-saṁbodhi. Buddha-Sons, in this way a Tathāgata, a wisdom sun, benefits sentient beings born blind, enabling them to acquire roots of goodness and come to spiritual maturity. Buddha-Sons, this is the fifth characteristic of a Tathāgata’s body. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should see His body.
    “Sixth, Buddha-Sons, the moon has four extraordinary and unprecedented abilities. What are these four? (1) It outshines all stars. (2) It displays waxing and waning. (3) It casts its reflection in clear waters in Jambudvīpa. (4) All viewers see it before them, but the moon neither differentiates among them nor makes ludicrous statements about them. Buddha-Sons, likewise a Tathāgata’s body has four extraordinary and unprecedented abilities. What are these four? (1) It outshines all Pratyekabuddhas and voice-hearers, including those who are still learning śaikṣa and those who have nothing more to learn aśaikṣa.9 (2) According to sentient beings’ different needs, it displays different lifespans, though its life neither lengthens nor shortens. (3) Its reflection appears in [the water contained in] bodhi vessels, the pure minds of sentient beings in all worlds. (4) When sentient beings see it, they say, ‘The Tathāgata appears before me alone.’ A Tathāgata expounds the Dharma to sentient beings according to their preferences, enables them to achieve liberation according to their spiritual levels, and enables those ready to be taught to see a Buddha’s body. Yet a Tathāgata’s body neither differentiates among them nor makes ludicrous statements about them, as it completes Buddha work. Buddha-Sons, this is the sixth characteristic of a Tathāgata’s body. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should see His body.
    “Seventh, Buddha-Sons, the great Brahma king of a Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold Word, using a few skillful means, enables all sentient beings to see him present before them, though he neither makes copies of his body nor has various bodies. Buddha-Sons, likewise a Tathāgata neither makes copies of his body nor has various bodies. As He appears in a body according to sentient beings’ preferences, He does not think about manifesting a certain number of bodies. Buddha-Sons, this is the seventh characteristic of a Tathāgata’s body. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should see His body.
    “Eighth, Buddha-Sons, there is a medicine king who well knows many medicines and mantras. He uses the inexhaustible medicines in Jambudvīpa, the power of roots of goodness developed in his past lives, and the power of great mantras. Using these skillful means, he cures illnesses of sentient beings that come to see him. When that great medicine king realizes that his life is ending, he thinks, ‘After my death, sentient beings have no one to rely on. Now, I should demonstrate some skillful means.’ Then he prepares medicine, spreads it on his body, and recites mantras, enabling his body, after his death, neither to decompose nor to dry out. It continues to do things and to see and hear, no different from before. All the diseases it has treated are cured. Buddha-Sons, it is similar for a Tathāgata, also called an Arhat and a Samyak-Saṁbuddha, who is an unsurpassed medicine king. Through countless hundreds of thousands of koṭis of kalpas, He has completed His development of Dharma medicine, acquired all skillful means and illumination mantras, and arrived at the opposite shore. He is skilled in curing sentient beingsdiseases, i.e., ending their afflictions, and in sustaining His life for countless kalpas. His body is pure, free from deliberation and consumption, as it does Buddha work without rest. Sentient beings that see it can have their affliction-diseases cured. Buddha-Sons, this is the eighth characteristic of a Tathāgata’s body. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should see His body.
    “Ninth, Buddha-Sons, the immense ocean has a great gem called the solar store that collects all radiance. If sentient beings touch its light, they take on its color; if they see it, their eyes are purified. In every place illuminated by its light, they sky rains down a jewel called peace and joy, which frees sentient beings from their suffering and gives them comfort. Buddha-Sons, likewise a Tathāgata’s body is a great gem, a store of all virtuous works and vast wisdom. If sentient beings touch the precious wisdom light of a Buddha’s body, they take on the [golden] color of the Buddha body. If they see it, they acquire the pure Dharma-eye. In every place illuminated by its light, it frees sentient beings from the suffering of poverty and gives them joy, even the joy of Buddha bodhi. Buddha-Sons, as a Tathāgata’s dharma body does great Buddha work for all sentient beings, it neither differentiates among them nor makes ludicrous statements about them. Buddha-Sons, this is the ninth characteristic of a Tathāgata’s body. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should see His body.
    “Tenth, Buddha-Sons, the immense ocean has a wish-fulfilling king of jewels, called the store of all worldly adornments, that can do a million virtuous works. Wherever it is, it ends sentient beings’ tribulations and fulfills their wishes. However, this wish-fulfilling jewel cannot be seen by sentient beings with meager merits. Likewise a Tathāgata’s body, called able to delight all sentient beings, is a wish-fulfilling jewel. If sentient beings see His body, hear His name, or praise His virtue, they are enabled to leave behind the painful tribulations of birth and death forever. If all sentient beings in all worlds, at the same time, single-mindedly wish to see a Tathāgata, they will be enabled to see Him and have their wishes fulfilled. Buddha-Sons, a Buddha’s body cannot be seen by sentient beings with meager merits, unless they are ready to be tamed by His spiritual power. If, after seeing Buddha’s body, sentient beings can plant their roots of goodness, they will be enabled to see a Tathāgata’s body, in order to bring them to spiritual maturity. Buddha-Sons, this is the tenth characteristic of a Tathāgata’s body. In this way a Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should see His body.
    “A Tathāgata’s body has these ten characteristics because His mind is immeasurable and pervades [all worlds in] the ten directions; because His actions are hindrance free, like the open sky; because He enters everywhere in the dharma realm; because He abides in true reality; because He has neither birth nor death; because He simultaneously abides in the past, present, and future; because He has forever discarded all differentiations; because He carries out His vows throughout the endless future; because He purifies all worlds; because He adorns every one of His Buddha bodies perceived by sentient beings.”
    Then, to restate his meaning, Samantabhadra Bodhisattva spoke in verse:

    The open sky extends in the ten directions,
    As if physical but non-physical, as if existent but nonexistent.
    Countless bodies of past, present, and future sentient beings
    Are everywhere in all worlds.
    Likewise the true bodies dharma bodies of Buddhas
    Pervade all dharma realms.
    Invisible and impossible to capture,
    To transform sentient beings, they take shapes.

    Although the open sky cannot be captured,
    It allows sentient beings to do karmas.
    It never thinks about what it does,
    Why it does anything, or for whom it does anything.
    Likewise a Buddha’s body karmas
    Enable sentient beings to do good dharmas.
    They never think,
    “I have done various things for them.”

    The sun rises in Jambudvīpa,
    And its radiance dispels darkness without exception.
    Mountains, trees, lakes, flowers, other things on earth,
    And various sentient species receive its benefits.
    Likewise the rise of a Buddha sun
    Enables the good works of gods and humans to increase,
    Dispels the darkness of ignorance forever, and brings sentient beings the radiance of wisdom
    For them to find glory and joy.

    When sunlight appears,
    It first illuminates the kings of mountains, then other mountains,
    Then plateaus, and then the great earth.
    Yet the sun never differentiates among them.
    Likewise the radiance of a Sugata
    First illuminates Bodhisattvas, then Pratyekabuddhas,
    Then voice-hearers, and then other sentient beings.
    Yet a Buddha never thinks even one thought.

    Those born blind cannot see the sun,
    But sunlight still benefits them,
    Enabling them to know seasons, enjoy food and drink,
    Leave troubles behind, and enjoy comfort.
    Likewise nonbelievers cannot see a Buddha,
    But a Buddha still benefits them.
    Those who hear His name or touches His radiance
    Will for this reason attain bodhi.

    The pure moon in the sky
    Outshines stars and displays its waxing and waning.
    It casts its reflection in all waters, and
    All viewers think that the moon is before them.
    Likewise a Tathāgata, a pure moon,
    Outshines the Two Vehicles and displays an appropriate lifespan.
    His reflection appears in the water contained in all bodhi vessels, the pure minds of gods and humans,
    Who say that He is before them.

    Although the Brahma king remains in his palace,
    He appears everywhere in a Three-Thousand Large Thousandfold World.
    Although all humans and gods see him,
    He does not make copies of his body for them.
    Likewise a Buddha appears everywhere
    In worlds in the ten directions.
    Although His bodies are countless,
    He neither makes copies of His body nor differentiates the viewers.

    There is a medicine king versed in healing arts, and
    Those who see him are cured of their illnesses.
    He spreads medicine on this body so that,
    After death, he can continue to work as before.
    Likewise a Buddha, a supreme medicine king,
    Equipped with skillful means, all wisdom-knowledge,
    And merits acquired from His] past wondrous actions, appears in a Buddha’s body.
    Sentient beings that see it end their afflictions.

    The king of jewels in the ocean
    Emits immeasurable radiance.
    Those who touch its radiance take on its color.
    Those who see its radiance open the pure eye.
    It is similar for a Buddha, a supreme treasure king.10
    Those who touch His radiance take on His [golden] color.
    Those who see His radiance open the five eyes,
    Dispel the darkness of ignorance, and abide on the Buddha ground.

    A wish-fulfilling jewel
    Fulfills all wishes.
    Sentient beings with meager merits cannot see it,
    But this king of jewels never discriminates against them.
    Likewise a Sugata, a supreme treasure king,
    Fulfills all wishes.
    Nonbelievers cannot see a Buddha,
    But a Sugata never abandons them.

Mahāvaipulya Sūtra of Buddha Adornment, fascicle 50
Translated from the digital Chinese Canon (T10n0279)

Notes

    1. The opposite shore is that shore of nirvāṇa, opposite this shore of saṁsāra. (Return to text)
    2. Sugata, Well-Gone One, is the fifth of a Buddha’s ten epithets. (Return to text)
    3. See “one flavor” in the glossary. (Return to text)
    4. According to text 279 (T10n0279), fascicle 39, the ten kings of mountains are Snow himālaya Mountain, Intoxicating Fragrance gandhamādana Mountain, Vaidhari Mountain, Ṛṣi Mountain, Yugaṁdhara Mountain, Horse Ear aśvakarṇa Mountain, Nimiṁdhara Mountain, Cakravāḍa Mountain, Ketumati Mountain, and Sumeru Mountain (Rulu 2013, 237). (Return to text)
    5. See Eighteen Exclusive Dharmas in the glossary. (Return to text)
    6. See “true state” defined in the glossary’s “true suchness.” (Return to text)
    7. See “dharma body” defined in “three bodies of a Buddha” in the glossary. (Return to text)
    8. See “three groups” in the glossary. (Return to text)
    9. See the phrases “still learning” and “nothing more to learn” defined in the glossary’s “voice-hearer fruits.” (Return to text)
    10. A Buddha is honored as a treasure king (寶王), because He is adorned with merit and wisdom, likened to the seven treasures.

Source

www.sutrasmantras.info