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Itivuttaka Buddhas Discourses

From Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
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The Itivuttaka, a collection of 112 short discourses, takes its name from the statement at the beginning of each of its discourses:

this (iti) was said (vuttaṁ) by the Blessed One.

The collection as a whole is attributed to a laywoman named Khujjuttarā, who worked in the palace of King Udena of Kosambī as a servant to one of his queens, Sāmāvatī.

Because the Queen could not leave the palace to hear the Buddha’s discourses,

Khujjuttarā went in her place, memorized what the Buddha said, and then returned to the palace to teach the Queen and her 500 ladies-in-waiting.

For her efforts, the Buddha cited Khujjuttarā as the foremost of his laywomen disciples in terms of her learning.

She was also an effective teacher:

when the inner apartments of the palace later burned down, killing the Queen and her entourage, the Buddha commented (in Udāna 7:10) that all of the women had reached at least the first stage of awakening.

The name of the Itivuttaka is included in the standard early list of the 9 divisions of the Buddha’s teachings–a list that predates the organization of the Pali Canon as we now know it.

It’s impossible to determine, though, the extent to which the extant Pali Itivuttaka corresponds to the Itivuttaka mentioned in that list:

The Chinese canon contains a translation of an Itivuttaka, attributed to Hsüan-tsang, that strongly resembles the text of the Pali Itivuttaka,

the major difference being that parts of the Group of Threes and all of the Group of Fours in the Pali are missing in Hsüan-tsang’s translation.

Either these parts were later additions to the text that found their way into the Pali but not into the Sanskrit version translated by Hsüan-tsang, or the Sanskrit text was incomplete, or Hsüan-tsang’s translation–which dates from the last months of his life–was left unfinished.

The extant Pali Itivuttaka is composed of 112 Itivuttakas. The collection is organized into 4 groups, according to the number of items treated in each Itivuttaka.

Thus the Group of Ones contains Itivuttakas treating one item; the Group of Twos, those treating two items, and so on up to four.

In this way, the Itivuttaka resembles the Aṅguttara Nikāya in its method of organization. And the resemblance goes beyond that:

Many of the suttas in the Aṅguttara are composed of a prose passage followed by a verse summary of what’s given in the prose. This was apparently one of the Buddha’s techniques for helping his listeners remember his message.

In the Itivuttaka, all of the passages follow this pattern:

a prose passage, spoken by the Buddha to the monks, followed by a verse, also attributed to the Buddha, summarizing the prose passage.

However, more often than not, the verses in the Itivuttakas add extra information not covered in the prose. In most cases, the extra information is fairly minor, but in a few (such as §63), it’s quite extensive.

In terms of style, the Itivuttaka differs from its neighbours in the Khuddaka Nikāya – such as the Dhammapada and Udāna – in being less obviously shaped by literary considerations.

Most of the prose and verse passages are straightforwardly didactic, and so the collection as a whole does not convey a strong literary “savour” (rasa), the aesthetic experience of an emotion that people in ancient India sought in literary works. However, the collection does contain occasional traces of a literary sensibility.

As an overall organizing principle, the final Itivuttaka in each of the four groups conveys the astounding savour: the aesthetic experience conveyed by the portrayal of something astonishing:

The Group of Ones ends with a passage (§27) on how good will for all beings is a victory excelling the victories of all the kings of the past;

the Group of Twos ends with a passage (§49) on the Arahant’s paradoxical avoidance of both becoming and non-becoming in mastering the path to awakening.

The Group of Threes ends with a celebration (§99) of the Arahant as the true Brāhman;

and the Group of Fours ends with an even more elaborate celebration (§112) of the many amazing qualities of the Buddha himself.

In this way , even though the majority of passages in each group are not literary, the experience of reading (or listening to) each group ends on an aesthetically satisfying note.

In terms of content, the Itivuttakas cover the full range of Buddhist practice, with an emphasis on the very basic and very advanced stages:

On the basic levels, the texts focus on the distinction between skilful and unskilful behaviour.

On the advanced, they treat such subtle topics as the role of becoming on the path (§49), the different aspects of Unbinding (§44), and the fact that an Arahant, having abandoned the All (§66; §68) cannot be classified in any way (§63; §69).

In fact, many of the discussions about these more advanced points of the practice are found nowhere else in the Canon. If they had not been memorized, our knowledge of the Buddha’s teachings would have been severely impoverished. Like Queen Sāmāvatī and her entourage, we are in Khujjuttarā’s debt.


The Group of Ones §1. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Abandon one quality, monks, and I guarantee you non-return.

Which one quality?

Abandon greed as the one quality, and I guarantee you non-return.”

This is the meaning of what the Blessed One said. So with regard to this it was said:

The greed with which beings go to a bad destination, coveting: from rightly knowing that greed, those who see clearly let go. Letting go, they never come to this world again.

This, too, was the meaning of what was said by the Blessed One, so I have heard.

§2. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Abandon one quality, monks, and I guarantee you non-return.

Which one quality?

Abandon aversion as the one quality, and I guarantee you non-return.”

The aversion with which beings go to a bad destination, upset: from rightly knowing that aversion, those who see clearly let go. Letting go, they never come to this world again.

§3. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Abandon one quality, monks, and I guarantee you non-return.

Which one quality?

Abandon delusion as the one quality, and I guarantee you non-return.”

The delusion with which beings go to a bad destination, confused: from rightly knowing that delusion, those who see clearly let go. Letting go, they never come to this world again.

§4. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Abandon one quality, monks, and I guarantee you non-return.

Which one quality?

Abandon anger as the one quality, and I guarantee you non-return.”

The anger with which beings go to a bad destination, enraged: from rightly knowing that anger, those who see clearly let go. Letting go, they never come to this world again.

§5. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Abandon one quality, monks, and I guarantee you non-return.

Which one quality?

Abandon contempt as the one quality, and I guarantee you non-return.”

The contempt with which beings go to a bad destination, disdainful: from rightly knowing that contempt, those who see clearly let go. Letting go, they never come to this world again.

§6. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Abandon one quality, monks, and I guarantee you non-return.

Which one quality?

Abandon conceit as the one quality, and I guarantee you non-return.”

The conceit with which beings go to a bad destination, proud: from rightly knowing that conceit, those who see clearly let go. Letting go, they never come to this world again.

§7. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, one who has not fully known & fully understood the All, whose mind has not been cleansed of passion for it, has not abandoned it, is incapable of putting an end to stress.

But one who has fully known & fully understood the All, whose mind has been cleansed of passion for it, has abandoned it, is capable of putting an end to stress.”

Knowing the All from all around, not stirred by passion in all places: he, having comprehended the All, has gone beyond all stress.

§8. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, one who has not fully known & fully understood conceit, whose mind has not been cleansed of it, has not abandoned it, is incapable of putting an end to stress.

But one who has fully known & fully understood conceit, whose mind has been cleansed of it, has abandoned it, is capable of putting an end to stress.”

People are possessed by conceit, bound with conceit delighted with becoming. Not comprehending conceit, they come to further becoming.

But those who, letting go of conceit, are, in its destruction, released, conquering the bond of conceit, go beyond all bonds.

§9. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, one who has not fully known & fully understood greed, who has not detached his mind from it and let go of it, is incapable of putting an end to stress.

But one who has fully known & fully understood greed, who has detached his mind from it and let go of it, is capable of putting an end to stress.”

The greed with which beings go to a bad destination, coveting: from rightly knowing that greed, those who see clearly let go. Letting go, they never come to this world again.

§§10—13. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, one who has not fully known & fully understood aversion ... delusion... anger... contempt, who has not detached his mind from it and let go of it, is incapable of putting an end to stress.

But one who has fully known & fully understood aversion. delusion. anger. contempt, who has detached his mind from it and let go of it, is capable of putting an end to stress.”

[THE VERSES FOR THESE DISCOURSES ARE IDENTICAL WITH THOSE FOR §§2—5.]

§14. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, I don't envision even one other hindrance- hindered by which people go wandering & transmigrating on for a long, long time- like the hindrance of ignorance. Hindered by the hindrance of ignorance, people go wandering & transmigrating on for a long, long time.”

No one other thing so hinders people that they wander on, day & night, as when they're obstructed by delusion. But those who, letting go of delusion, shatter the mass of darkness, wander no further. Their cause isn't found.

§15. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, I don't envision even one other fetter- fettered by which beings conjoined go wandering & transmigrating on for a long, long time- like the fetter of craving. Fettered with the fetter of craving, beings conjoined go wandering & transmigrating on for a long, long time.”

With craving his companion, a man wanders on a long, long time. Neither in this state here nor anywhere else does he go beyond the wandering- on. Knowing this drawback- that craving brings stress into play- free from craving, devoid of clinging, mindful, the monk lives the mendicant life.

§16. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, with regard to internal factors, I don't envision any other single factor like appropriate attention as doing so much for a monk in training, who has not attained the heart's goal but remains intent on the unsurpassed safety from bondage.

A monk who attends appropriately abandons what is unskilful and develops what is skilful.

Appropriate attention as a quality of a monk in training: nothing else does so much for attaining the superlative goal. A monk, striving appropriately, attains the ending of stress.

§17. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, with regard to external factors, I don't envision any other single factor like friendship with admirable people as doing so much for a monk in training, who has not attained the heart's goal but remains intent on the unsurpassed safety from bondage.

A monk who is a friend with admirable people abandons what is unskilful and develops what is skilful.”

A monk who's a friend to admirable people – who's reverential, respectful, doing what his friends advise- mindful, alert, attains step by step the ending of all fetters.

§18. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“One thing, monks, when arising in the world, arises for the detriment of many, for the unhappiness of many, for the detriment & unhappiness of many beings, both human & divine.

Which one thing? Schism in the Sangha.

When the Sangha is split, there are arguments with one another, there is abuse of one another, ganging up on one another, abandoning of one another.

There those with little confidence [in the teaching] lose all confidence, while some of those who are confident become otherwise.”

Doomed for an eon to deprivation, to hell: one who has split the Sangha. Delighting in factions, unjudicious- he's barred from safety from bondage. Having split a Sangha in concord, he cooks for an eon in hell.

§19. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“One thing, monks, when arising in the world, arises for the welfare of many, for the happiness of many, for the welfare & happiness of many beings, both human & divine.

Which one thing? Concord in the Sangha.

When the Sangha is in concord, there are no arguments with one another, no abuse of one another, no ganging up on one another, no abandoning of one another.

There those with little confidence [in the teaching] become confident, while those already confident become even more so.”

Blissful is concord in the Sangha. One who assists in concord- delighting in concord, judicious- isn't barred from safety from bondage. Having brought concord to the Sangha, he rejoices for an eon in heaven.

§20. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there is the case where a certain person is corrupt-minded. Having encompassed that mind with [my] awareness, I discern, 'If this person were to die at this instant, then as if he were to be carried off, he would thus be placed in hell.'

Why is that? Because his mind is corrupt.

It's because of corrupt­-mindedness that there are cases where beings-at the break-up of the body, after death- reappear in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell.”

Knowing the case of a corrupt-minded person, the One Awakened explained its meaning in the presence of the monks. If that person were to die at this instant, he'd reappear in hell because his mind is corrupt- as if he were carried off and placed there. It's because of corrupt-mindedness that beings go to a bad destination.

§21. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there is the case where a certain person is clear-minded. Having encompassed that mind with [my] awareness, I discern, 'If this person were to die at this instant, then as if he were to be carried off, he would thus be placed in heaven.'

Why is that? Because his mind is clear.

It's because of clear-mindedness that there are cases where some beings-at the break-up of the body, after death- reappear in a heavenly world.”

Knowing the case of a clear-minded person, the One Awakened explained its meaning in the presence of the monks. If that person were to die at this instant, he'd reappear in heaven because his mind is clear- as if he were carried off and placed there. It's because of clear-mindedness that beings go to a good destination.

§22. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, don't be afraid of acts of merit. This is a synonym for what is blissful, desirable, pleasing, endearing, charming-i.e., acts of merit.

I directly know that, having long performed meritorious deeds, I long experienced desirable, pleasing, endearing, charming results. Having developed a mind of good will for seven years, then for seven eons of contraction & expansion I didn't return to this world.

Whenever the eon was contracting, I entered the [[[realm]] of] Radiance. Whenever the eon was expanding, I reappeared in an empty Brahma-abode.

There I was Brahma, the Great Brahma, the Unconquered Conqueror, Total Seer, Wielder of Power. Then for thirty-six times I was Sakka, ruler of the gods. For many hundreds of times I was a king, a wheel-turning emperor, a righteous king of Dhamma, conqueror of the four corners of the earth, maintaining stable control over the countryside, endowed with the seven treasures -to say nothing of the times I was a local king.

The thought occurred to me, 'Of what action of mine is this the fruit, of what action the result, that I now have such great power & might?'

Then the thought occurred to me, 'This is the fruit of my three [types of] action, the result of three types of action, that I now have such great power & might: i.e., generosity, self-control, & restraint.'”

Train in acts of merit that yield the foremost profit of bliss- develop generosity, a life in tune, a mind of good will.

Developing these three things that bring about bliss, the wise reappear in a world of bliss unalloyed.

§23. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“This one quality, monks, when developed & pursued, keeps both kinds of benefit secure: benefit in this life & in lives to come.

Which one quality? Heedfulness with regard to skilful qualities.

This is the one quality that, when developed & pursued, keeps both kinds of benefit secure: benefit in this life & in lives to come.”

They praise heedfulness, the wise, in doing acts of merit. When heedful, wise, you achieve both kinds of benefit: benefits in this life, & benefits in lives to come. By breaking through to your benefit, you're called enlightened, wise.

§24. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, if a single person were to wander & transmigrate on for an eon, he/she would leave behind a chain of bones, a pile of bones, a heap of bones, as large as this Mount Vepulla, if there were someone to collect them and the collection were not destroyed.”

The accumulation of a single person's bones for an eon would be a heap on a par with the mountain, so said the Great Seer. (He declared this to be the great Mount Vepulla to the north of Vulture Peak in the mountain-ring of the Magadhans.) But when that person sees with right discernment the four Noble Truths- stress, the cause of stress, the transcending of stress, & the noble eightfold path, the way to the stilling of stress- having wandered on seven times at most, then, with the ending of all fetters, he makes an end of stress.

§25. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, for the person who transgresses in one thing, I tell you, there is no evil deed that is not to be done.

Which one thing? This: telling a deliberate lie.”

For the person who lies, who transgresses in this one thing, transcending concern for the world beyond: there's no evil not to be done.

§26. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, if beings knew, as I know, the results of giving & sharing, they would not eat without having given, nor would the stain of selfishness overcome their minds.

Even if it were their last bite, their last mouthful, they would not eat without having shared, if there were someone to receive their gift.

But because beings do not know, as I know, the results of giving & sharing, they eat without having given. The stain of selfishness overcomes their minds.”

If beings knew what the Great Seer said, how the result of sharing has such great fruit, then, subduing the stain of selfishness with brightened awareness, they'd give in season to the noble ones, where a gift bears great fruit. Having given food as an offering to those worthy of offerings, many donors, when they pass away from here, the human state, go to heaven. They, having gone there to heaven, rejoice, enjoying sensual pleasures. Unselfish, they partake of the result of sharing.

§27. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, all the grounds for making merit leading to spontaneously arising [in heaven] do not equal one-sixteenth of the awareness-release through good will. Good will - surpassing them-shines, blazes, & dazzles.

“Just as the radiance of all the stars does not equal one-sixteenth of the radiance of the moon, as the moon-surpassing them-shines, blazes, & dazzles,

even so, all the grounds for making merit leading to spontaneously arising [in heaven] do not equal one-sixteenth of the awareness-release through good will. Good will-surpassing them-shines, blazes, & dazzles.

“Just as in the last month of the rains, in autumn, when the sky is clear & cloudless, the sun, on ascending the sky, overpowers the space immersed in darkness, shines, blazes, & dazzles,

even so, all the grounds for making merit leading to spontaneously arising [in heaven] do not equal one-sixteenth of the awareness-release through good will. Good will-surpassing them-shines, blazes, & dazzles.

“Just as in the last stage of the night the morning star shines, blazes, & dazzles, even so, all the grounds for making merit leading to spontaneously arising [in heaven] do not equal one-sixteenth of the awareness-release through good will. Good will-surpassing them-shines, blazes, & dazzles.”

When one develops-mindful- good will without limit, fetters are worn through, on seeing the ending of acquisitions. If with uncorrupted mind you feel good will for even one being, you become skilled from that. But a noble one produces a mind of sympathy for all beings, an abundance of merit. Kingly seers, who conquered the earth swarming with beings, went about making sacrifices: the horse sacrifice, human sacrifice, water rites, soma rites, & the “Unobstructed,” but these don't equal one sixteenth of a well-developed mind of good will- as all the constellations don't, one sixteenth of the radiance of the moon. One who neither kills nor gets others to kill, neither conquers, nor gets others to conquer, with good will for all beings, has no hostility with anyone at all.


he Group of Twos §28. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Endowed with two things, monks, a monk lives in stress in the present life- troubled, distressed, & feverish- and at the break-up of the body, after death, a bad destination can be expected.

Which two?

A lack of guarding of the doors of the sense faculties, and knowing no moderation in food.

Endowed with these two things, a monk lives in stress

in the present life-troubled, distressed, & feverish- and at the break-up of the body, after death, a bad destination can be expected.”

Eye & ear & nose, tongue, body & mind: when a monk leaves these doors unguarded – knowing no moderation in food, not restraining his senses- he experiences stress: stress in body, stress in mind. Burning in body, burning in mind, whether by day or by night, one like this lives in suffering & stress.

§29. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Endowed with two things, monks, a monk lives in ease in the present life- untroubled, undistressed, & unfeverish- and at the break-up of the body, after death, a good destination can be expected.

Which two?

A guarding of the doors of the sense faculties, and knowing moderation in food.

Endowed with these two things, a monk lives in ease in the present life-untroubled, undistressed, & unfeverish- and at the break-up of the body, after death, a good destination can be expected.”

Eye & ear & nose, tongue, body, & mind: when a monk has these doors well-guarded – knowing moderation in food, restraining his senses- he experiences ease: ease in body, ease in mind. Not burning in body, not burning in mind, whether by day or by night, one like this lives in ease.

§30. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these two things that cause remorse.

Which two?

There is the case of the person who has not done what is admirable, has not done what is skilful, has not given protection to those in fear, and instead has done what is evil, savage, & cruel.

Thinking, 'I have not done what is admirable,' he feels remorse. Thinking, 'I have done what is evil,' he feels remorse.

These are the two things that cause remorse.”

Having engaged in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, misconduct of mind, or whatever else is flawed, not having done what is skilful, having done much that is not, at the break-up of the body, the undiscerning one reappears in hell.

§31. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these two things that cause no remorse.

Which two?

There is the case of the person who has done what is admirable, has done what is skilful, has given protection to those in fear, and has done nothing that is evil, savage, or cruel.

Thinking, 'I have done what is admirable,' he feels no remorse. Thinking, 'I have not done what is evil,' he feels no remorse.

These are the two things that cause no remorse.”

Having abandoned bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, misconduct of mind, & whatever else is flawed, not having done what's not skilful, having done much that is, at the break-up of the body, the discerning one reappears in heaven.

§32. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Endowed with two things, monks, a person-as if carried off-is thus placed in hell.

Which two? Evil habits & evil views.

Endowed with these two things, a person-as if carried off-is thus placed in hell.”

Evil habits & evil views: a person, undiscerning, endowed with these two things, at the break-up of the body reappears in hell.

§33. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Endowed with two things, monks, a person-as if carried off-is thus placed in heaven.

Which two? Auspicious habits & auspicious views.

Endowed with these two things, a person-as if carried off-is thus placed in heaven.”

Auspicious habits & auspicious views: a person, discerning, endowed with these two things, at the break-up of the body reappears in heaven.

§34. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, a person without ardency, without compunction, is incapable of self-awakening, incapable of Unbinding, incapable of attaining the unsurpassed safety from bondage.

A person ardent & compunctious is capable of self-awakening, capable of Unbinding, capable of attaining the unsurpassed safety from bondage.”

With no ardency, no compunction, lazy, with low persistence, full of sloth & drowsiness, shameless, without respect: he's incapable, a monk like this, of touching superlative self-awakening.

But whoever is mindful, masterful, absorbed in jhāna, ardent, concerned, & heedful, cutting the fetter of birth & aging, touches right here a self-awakening un-surpassed.

§35. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, this holy life is lived,

not for the sake of deceiving people, not for the sake of inveigling people, not for the sake of the rewards of gain, offerings, & tribute, nor with the thought, 'Thus may people know me.'

This holy life is lived for the sake of restraint & abandoning.”

For the sake of restraint, for the sake of abandoning, he, the Blessed One, taught a holy life not handed down, coming ashore in Unbinding. This path is pursued by those great in purpose, great seers. Those who follow it, as taught by the One Awakened, heeding the Teacher's message, will put an end to suffering & stress.

§36. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, this holy life is lived,

not for the sake of deceiving people, not for the sake of inveigling people, not for the sake of the rewards of gain, offerings, & tribute, nor with the thought, 'Thus may people know me.'

This holy life is lived for the sake of direct knowledge & full comprehension.”

For the sake of direct knowledge & full comprehension, he, the Blessed One, taught a holy life not handed down, coming ashore in Unbinding. This path is pursued by those great in purpose, great seers. Those who follow it, as taught by the One Awakened, heeding the Teacher's message, will put an end to suffering & stress.

§37. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Endowed with two things, monks, a monk lives full of ease in the here-&-now and is appropriately aroused for the ending of the effluents.

Which two?

A sense of urgency toward things that should inspire urgency and, feeling urgency, appropriate exertion.

Endowed with two things, a monk lives full of ease in the here-&-now and is appropriately aroused for the ending of the effluents.”

Feeling urgency right here toward what should inspire urgency, the wise, masterful, ardent monk should investigate with discernment. One who lives thus ardently, not restlessly, at peace, committed to awareness-tranquillity, would attain the ending of suffering & stress.

§38. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, two trains of thought often occur to the Tathagata, worthy & rightly self­-awakened: the thought of safety & that of seclusion.

“The Tathagata enjoys non-ill will, delights in non-ill will. To him-enjoying non-ill will, delighting in non-ill will- this thought often occurs:

'By this activity I harm no one at all, whether weak or firm.'

“The Tathagata enjoys seclusion, delights in seclusion. To him-enjoying seclusion, delighting in seclusion- this thought often occurs:

'Whatever is unskilful is abandoned.'

“Thus, monks, you too should live enjoying non-ill will, delighting in non-ill will.

To you-enjoying non-ill will, delighting in non-ill will- this thought will often occur:

'By this activity we harm no one at all, whether weak or firm.'

“You too should live enjoying seclusion, delighting in seclusion.

To you- enjoying seclusion, delighting in seclusion- this thought will often occur: 'What is unskilful? What is not yet abandoned? What are we abandoning?'”

To the Tathagata, awakened, who endured what is hard to endure, two thoughts occur: safety the first thought mentioned; seclusion the second declared.

The dispeller of darkness, free of effluent, the great seer who has gone beyond, reached attainment, gained mastery, crossed over the poisons; who's released in the ending of craving: that sage bears his last body, has shaken off Mara, I tell you, has gone beyond aging.

As one standing on a rocky crag would see the people all around below, so the wise one, with the all-around eye, having scaled the tower made of Dhamma, having crossed over sorrow, gazes on those overwhelmed with sorrow, conquered by aging & death.

§39. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, the Tathagata-worthy & rightly self-awakened- has two Dhamma discourses given in sequence.

Which two?

'See evil as evil.' This is the first Dhamma discourse. 'Having seen evil as evil, become disenchanted there, dispassionate there, released.' This is the second Dhamma discourse.

These are the two Dhamma discourses that the Tathagata-worthy & rightly self-awakened-has given in sequence.”

See the two statements, declared in sequence, by the Tathagata, awakened, sympathetic to all beings. The first: see evil. Be dispassionate there toward evil. Then, with a mind dispassionate, you will make an end of suffering & stress.

§40. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, ignorance precedes the arrival of unskilful qualities; lack of shame & lack of compunction follow after. Clear knowing precedes the arrival of skilful qualities; shame & compunction follow after.”

Any bad destinations in this world, in the next, are rooted in ignorance-all- accumulations of desire & greed. And when a person of evil desires lacks shame & respect, evil comes from that, and by that he goes to deprivation. So cleansing away ignorance, desire, & greed, a monk giving rise to clear knowing would abandon all bad destinations.

§41. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, those beings are truly deprived who are deprived of noble discernment. They live in stress in the present life- troubled, distressed, & feverish- and at the break-up of the body, after death, a bad destination can be expected.

“Those beings are not deprived who are not deprived of noble discernment. They live in ease in the present life- untroubled, undistressed, & not feverish- and at the break-up of the body, after death, a good destination can be expected.

Look at the world -including its heavenly beings: deprived of discernment, making an abode in name-&-form, it conceives that 'This is the truth.' The best discernment in the world is what leads to penetration, for it rightly discerns the total ending of birth & becoming. Human & heavenly beings hold them dear: those who are self-awakened, mindful, bearing their last bodies with joyful discernment.

§42. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, these two bright qualities safeguard the world.

Which two? Shame & compunction.

If these two bright qualities did not safeguard the world, there would be no discerning of “mother,” “aunt,” “uncle's wife,” “teacher's wife,” or “wife of those deserving respect.” The world would fall into promiscuity, like rams with goats, roosters with pigs, or dogs with jackals.

But because these two bright qualities do safeguard the world, there is the discerning of “mother,” “aunt,” “uncle's wife,” “teacher's wife,” & “wife of those deserving respect.”

Those in whom shame & compunction are not always found have strayed from the bright root, are headed to birth & death. But those in whom shame & compunction always are rightly established, who are mature in the holy life: they are calm, their further becoming ended.

§43. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“There is, monks, an unborn-unbecome-unmade-unfabricated.

If there were not that unborn-unbecome-unmade-unfabricated, there would not be the case that escape from the born-become-made-fabricated would be discerned.

But precisely because there is an unborn-unbecome-unmade-unfabricated, escape from the born-become-made-fabricated is thus discerned.”

The born, become, produced, made, fabricated, impermanent, fabricated of aging & death, a nest of illnesses, perishing, come-into-being through nourishment and the guide [that is craving]- is unfit for delight. The escape from that is peaceful, permanent, a sphere beyond conjecture, unborn, unproduced, the sorrowless, stainless state, the cessation of stressful qualities, stilling-of-fabrications bliss.

§44. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these two forms of the Unbinding property.

Which two?

The Unbinding property with fuel remaining, & the Unbinding property with no fuel remaining.

And what is the Unbinding property with fuel remaining?

There is the case where a monk is an Arahant whose effluents have ended, who has reached fulfilment, finished the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, destroyed the fetter of becoming, and is released through right gnosis. His five sense faculties still remain and, owing to their being intact, he experiences the pleasing & the displeasing, and is sensitive to pleasure & pain. His ending of passion, aversion, & delusion is termed the Unbinding property with fuel remaining.

And what is the Unbinding property with no fuel remaining?

There is the case where a monk is an Arahant whose effluents have ended, who has reached fulfilment, finished the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, destroyed the fetter of becoming, and is released through right gnosis. For him, all that is sensed, being unrelished, will grow cold right here. This is termed the Unbinding property with no fuel remaining.”

These two proclaimed by the one with vision, Unbinding properties the one independent, the one who is Such: one property, here in this life, with fuel remaining from the destruction of [[[craving]]], the guide to becoming, and that with no fuel remaining, after this life, in which all becoming totally ceases. Those who know this unfabricated state, their minds released through the destruction of [[[craving]]], the guide to becoming, they, attaining the Dhamma's core, delighting in ending, have abandoned all becoming: they, the Such.

§45. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, live enjoying aloofness, delighting in aloofness, inwardly committed to awareness-tranquillity, not neglecting jhāna, endowed with clear-seeing insight, and frequenting empty buildings.

As you live enjoying aloofness, delighting in aloofness, inwardly committed to awareness-tranquillity, not neglecting jhāna, endowed with clear-seeing insight, and frequenting empty buildings,

then one of two fruits can be expected:

either gnosis right in the here-&-now, or-if there be any remnant of clinging-sustenance-non-return.”

Those with calm minds- masterful, mindful, absorbed in jhāna- clearly see Dhamma rightly, not intent on sensual pleasures. Delighting in heedfulness, calm, seeing danger in heedlessness, they -incapable of falling away- are right in the presence of Unbinding.

§46. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, live with the trainings [in heightened virtue, heightened mind, & heightened discernment] as your reward, with discernment uppermost, release the essence, & mindfulness the governing principle.

As you live with the trainings as your reward, with discernment uppermost, release the essence, & mindfulness the governing principle, then one of two fruits can be expected:

either gnosis right in the here-&-now, or-if there be any remnant of clinging-sustenance-non-return.”

Complete in the training, not subject to falling away, one with discernment uppermost, seeing the stopping, the ending of birth: that sage bears his last body, has shaken off Mara, I tell you, has gone beyond aging. So, always delighting in jhāna, centred, ardent, seeing the stopping, the ending of birth, conquering Mara, along with his armies, monks, be gone-beyond aging & death.

§47. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, a monk should be wakeful: mindful, alert, centred, sensitive, clear, & calm. And there he should, at the appropriate times, see clearly into skilful mental qualities.

For a monk who is wakeful- mindful, alert, centred, sensitive, clear, & calm, seeing clearly, at the appropriate times, into skilful mental qualities-

one of two fruits can be expected:

either gnosis right in the here-&-now, or-if there be any remnant of clinging-sustenance-non-return.”

Those who are wakeful, listen to this! Those who are sleeping, wake up! Wakefulness is better than sleep. For those who are wakeful, there's no danger, no fear. Whoever is wakeful, mindful, alert, centred, sensitive, calm, & clear, rightly exploring the Dhamma at appropriate times, he-on becoming unified- could shatter the darkness.

So be devoted to wakefulness. The ardent monk -masterful, acquiring jhāna, cutting the fetter of birth & aging- touches right here a self-awakening un­surpassed.

§48. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, these two are doomed to deprivation, to hell, for not abandoning their conduct.

Which two?

One who, not living the celibate life, pretends to be one who lives the celibate life;

and one who groundlessly accuses one who lives the celibate life perfectly & purely of uncelibate behaviour.

These are the two who are doomed to deprivation, to hell, for not abandoning their conduct.”

He goes to hell, the one who asserts what didn't take place, as does the one who, having done, says, 'I didn't.' Both-low-acting people- there become equal: after death, in the world beyond. An ochre robe tied 'round their necks, many with evil qualities -unrestrained, evil- rearise, because of their evil acts, in hell. Better to eat an iron ball -glowing, aflame- than that, unprincipled & unrestrained, you should eat the alms of the country.

§49. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Overcome by two viewpoints, monks, some human & divine beings adhere, other human & divine beings slip right past, while those with vision see.

“And how do some adhere?

Human & divine beings enjoy becoming, delight in becoming, are satisfied with becoming. When the Dhamma is being taught for the sake of the cessation of becoming, their minds do not take to it, are not calmed by it, do not settle on it or become resolved on it.

This is how some adhere.

“And how do some slip right past?

Some, feeling horrified, humiliated, & disgusted with that very becoming, relish non-becoming: 'When this self, at the break-up of the body, after death, perishes & is destroyed, and does not exist after death, that is peaceful, that is exquisite, that is sufficiency!'

This is how some slip right past.

“And how do those with vision see?

There is the case where a monk sees what's come to be as what's come to be. Seeing what's come to be as what's come to be, he practices for disenchantment with what's come to be, dispassion toward what's come to be, cessation of what's come to be.

This is how those with vision see.”

Those, having seen what's come to be as what's come to be, and what's gone beyond what's come to be, are released in line with what's come to be, through the exhaustion of craving for becoming.

If they've comprehended what's come to be, and are free from the craving for becoming & non-, with the non-becoming of what's come to be, monks come to no further becoming.

The Group of Threes | 50-80 §50. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three roots of what is unskilful.

Which three?

Greed as a root of what is unskilful, aversion as a root of what is unskilful, delusion as a root of what is unskilful. These are the three roots of what is unskilful.”

Greed, aversion, delusion destroy the self- same person of evil mind from whom they are born, like the fruiting of the bamboo.

§51. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three properties.

Which three?

The property of form, the property of formlessness, the property of cessation. These are the three properties.”

Comprehending the property of form, not taking a stance in the formless, those released in cessation are people who've left death behind. Having touched with his body the deathless property free from acquisitions, having realized the relinquishing of acquisitions, effluent-free, the Rightly Self-awakened One teaches the state with no sorrow, no dust.

§52. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three feelings.

Which three?

A feeling of pleasure, a feeling of pain, a feeling of neither pleasure nor pain. These are the three feelings.”

Centred, alert, mindful, the Awakened One's disciple discerns feelings, how feelings come into play, where they cease, & the path to their ending. With the ending of feelings, a monk free from hunger is totally unbound.

§53. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three feelings.

Which three?

A feeling of pleasure, a feeling of pain, a feeling of neither pleasure nor pain.

A feeling of pleasure should be seen as stressful. A feeling of pain should be seen as an arrow. A feeling of neither pleasure nor pain should be seen as inconstant.

When a monk has seen a feeling of pleasure as stressful, a feeling of pain as an arrow, and a feeling of neither pleasure nor pain as inconstant, then he is called a monk who is noble, who has seen rightly, who has cut off craving, destroyed the fetters, and who-from the right breaking-through of conceit- has put an end to suffering & stress.”

Whoever sees pleasure as stress, sees pain as an arrow, sees peaceful neither pleasure nor pain as inconstant: he is a monk who's seen rightly. From that he is there released. A master of direct knowing, at peace, he is a sage gone beyond bonds.

§54. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three searches.

Which three?

The search for sensuality, the search for becoming, the search for a holy life. These are the three searches.”

Centred, alert, mindful, the Awakened One's disciple discerns searches, how searches come into play, where they cease, & the path to their ending. With the ending of searches, a monk free from hunger is totally unbound.

§55. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three searches.

Which three?

The search for sensuality, the search for becoming, the search for a holy life. These are the three searches.”

Sensuality-search, becoming-search, together with the holy-life search- i.e., grasping at truth based on an accumulation of viewpoints: through the relinquishing of searches & the abolishing of viewpoints of one dispassionate to all passion, and released in the ending of craving, through the ending of searches, the monk is without perplexity, free of longing.

§56. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three effluents.

Which three?

The effluent of sensuality, the effluent of becoming, the effluent of ignorance. These are the three effluents.”

Centred, alert, mindful, the Awakened One's disciple discerns effluents, how effluents come into play, where they cease, & the path to their ending. With the ending of effluents, a monk free from hunger is totally unbound.

§57. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three effluents.

Which three?

The effluent of sensuality, the effluent of becoming, the effluent of ignorance. These are the three effluents.”

His effluent of sensuality ended, his ignorance faded away, his effluent of becoming exhausted: one totally released, acquisition-free, bears his last body, having conquered Mara along with his mount.

§58. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three cravings.

Which three?

Craving for sensuality, craving for becoming, craving for non-becoming. These are the three cravings.”

Bound with the bondage of craving, their minds smitten with becoming & non-, they are bound with the bondage of Mara- people with no safety from bondage, beings going through the wandering-on, headed for birth & death.

While those who've abandoned craving, free from the craving for becoming & non-, reaching the ending of effluents, though in the world, have gone beyond.

§59. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Endowed with three qualities, monks, a monk has passed beyond Mara's domain and shines like the sun.

Which three?

There is the case where a monk is endowed with the aggregate of virtue of one beyond training [i.e., an Arahant], the aggregate of concentration of one beyond training, the aggregate of discernment of one beyond training.

Endowed with these three qualities a monk has passed beyond Mara's domain and shines like the sun.”

Virtue, concentration, discernment: one in whom these are well-developed, passing beyond Mara's domain, shines like the sun.

§60. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three grounds for meritorious activity.

Which three?

The ground for meritorious activity made of generosity, the ground for meritorious activity made of virtue, and the ground for meritorious activity made of development [[[meditation]]]. These are the three grounds for meritorious activity.”

Train in acts of merit that yield the foremost profit of bliss- develop generosity, a life in tune, a mind of good will. Developing these three things that bring about bliss, the wise reappear in a world of bliss unalloyed.

§61. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three eyes.

Which three?

The eye of flesh, the divine eye, & the eye of discernment. These are the three eyes.”

The eye of flesh, the eye divine, the eye of discernment unsurpassed: these three eyes were taught by the Superlative Person. The arising of the eye of flesh is the path to the eye divine. When knowledge arises, the eye of discernment unsurpassed: whoever gains this eye is-from all suffering & stress- released.

§62. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three faculties.

Which three?

The faculty of 'I am about to know what is not yet finally known,' the faculty of final knowledge, the faculty of one who has finally known. These are the three faculties.”

For a learner in training along the straight path: first, the knowledge of ending; then, immediately, gnosis; then, from the ending of the fetter-becoming- there's the knowledge, the gnosis of one released who is Such: 'My release is unprovoked.'

One consummate in these faculties, peaceful, delighting in the peaceful state, bears his last body, having conquered Mara along with his mount.

§63. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three times.

Which three?

Past time, future time, present time. These are the three times.”

Perceiving in terms of signs, beings take a stand on signs. Not fully comprehending signs, they come into the bonds of death. But fully comprehending signs, one doesn't construe a signifier. Touching liberation with the heart, the state of peace unsurpassed, consummate in terms of signs, peaceful, delighting in the peaceful state, judicious, an attainer-of-wisdom makes use of classifications but can't be classified.

§64. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three kinds of misconduct.

Which three?

Bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct. These are the three kinds of misconduct.”

Having engaged in bodily misconduct, acts of verbal misconduct, misconduct of mind, or whatever else is flawed, not having done what is skilful, having done much that is not, at the break-up of the body, the undiscerning one reappears in hell.

§65. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three kinds of good conduct.

Which three?

Bodily good conduct, verbal good conduct, mental good conduct. These are the three kinds of good conduct.”

Having abandoned bodily misconduct, acts of verbal misconduct, misconduct of mind, & whatever else is flawed, not having done what's not skilful, having done much that is, at the break-up of the body, the discerning one reappears in heaven.

§66. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three kinds of cleanliness.

Which three?

Bodily cleanliness, verbal cleanliness, mental cleanliness. These are the three kinds of cleanliness.”

Clean in body, clean in speech, clean in awareness – effluent-free- one who is clean, consummate in cleanliness, is said to have abandoned the All.

§67. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three forms of sagacity.

Which three?

Bodily sagacity, verbal sagacity, mental sagacity. These are the three forms of sagacity.”

A sage in body, a sage in speech, a sage in mind, effluent-free: a sage consummate in sagacity is said to be bathed of evil.

§68. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, anyone whose passion is unabandoned, whose aversion is unabandoned, whose delusion is unabandoned is said to have gone over to Mara's camp, has come under Mara's power. The Evil One can do with that person as he likes.

But anyone whose passion is abandoned, whose aversion is abandoned, whose delusion is abandoned is said not to have gone over to Mara's camp, has thrown off Mara's power. With that person, the Evil One cannot do as he likes.”

Anyone whose passion, aversion, & ignorance have faded away, is said to be composed in mind, Brahma-become, awakened, Tathagata, one for whom fear & hostility are past, one who's abandoned the All.

§69. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, anyone-monk or nun- in whom passion is unabandoned, aversion is unabandoned, & delusion is unabandoned, is said not to have crossed the ocean with its waves, breakers, & whirlpools, its seizers & demons.

Anyone-monk or nun- in whom passion is abandoned, aversion is abandoned, & delusion is abandoned, is said to have crossed the ocean with its waves, breakers, & whirlpools, its seizers & demons. Having crossed over, having reached the far shore, he/she stands on high ground, a Brahman.”

One whose passion, aversion, & ignorance have faded away,

has crossed over this ocean

with its seizers, demons, dangerous waves, so hard to cross.

Free from acquisitions -bonds surmounted, death abandoned-

he has abandoned stress with no further becoming.

Having gone to the goal he is undefeated,

has outwitted, I tell you, the King of Death.

§70. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, I have seen beings who-endowed with bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct; who reviled noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views- at the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell.

It is not from having heard this from another contemplative or Brahman that I tell you that I have seen beings who-endowed with bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct; who reviled noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views- at the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell.

It is from having known it myself, seen it myself, realized it myself that I tell you that I have seen beings who-endowed with bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct; who reviled noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views- at the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell.”

With mind wrongly directed, speaking wrong speech, doing wrong deeds with the body: a person here of next-to-nothing learning, a doer of evil here in this next-to-nothing life, at the break-up of the body, undiscerning, reappears in hell.

§71. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, I have seen beings who-endowed with bodily good conduct, verbal good conduct, & mental good conduct; who did not revile noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influence of right views- at the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in a good destination, a heavenly world.

It's not from having heard this from another contemplative or Brahman that I tell you that I have seen beings who-endowed with bodily good conduct, verbal good conduct, & mental good conduct; who did not revile noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influence of right views- at the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in a good destination, a heavenly world.

It's from having known it myself, seen it myself, realized it myself that I tell you that I have seen beings who-endowed with bodily good conduct, verbal good conduct, & mental good conduct; who did not revile noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influence of right views- at the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in a good destination, a heavenly world.”

With mind rightly directed, speaking right speech, doing right deeds with the body: a person here of much learning, a doer of merit here in this next-to-nothing life, at the break-up of the body, discerning, reappears in heaven.

§72. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three properties for escape.

Which three?

This is the escape from sensuality: renunciation. This is the escape from form: formlessness. And as for whatever has come into being, is fabricated & dependently co-arisen, the escape from that is cessation. These are the three properties for escape.”

Knowing the escape from sensuality, & the overcoming of forms – ardent always- touching the stilling of all fabrications: he is a monk who's seen rightly. From that he is there released. A master of direct knowing, at peace, he is a sage gone beyond bonds.

§73. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, formless phenomena are more peaceful than forms; cessation, more peaceful than formless phenomena.”

Those beings headed to forms, and those standing in the formless, with no knowledge of cessation, return to further becoming.

But, comprehending form, not taking a stance in formless things, those released in cessation are people who've left death behind.

Having touched with his body the deathless property free from acquisitions, having realized relinquishing of acquisitions, effluent-free, the Rightly Self-awakened One teaches the state with no sorrow, no dust.

§74. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three types of sons & daughters existing in the world.

Which three?

One of heightened birth, one of similar birth, one of lowered birth.

“And how is a son or daughter of heightened birth?

There is the case where a son or daughter's parents have not gone to the Buddha for refuge, have not gone to the Dhamma for refuge, have not gone to the Sangha for refuge. They do not abstain from taking life, from stealing, from sexual misconduct, from false speech, from fermented & distilled liquors that cause heedlessness. They are unprincipled & evil by nature.

However, their son or daughter has gone to the Buddha for refuge, has gone to the Dhamma for refuge, has gone to the Sangha for refuge. He/she abstains from taking life, from stealing, from sexual misconduct, from false speech, from fermented & distilled liquors that cause heedlessness. He/she is principled & admirable by nature. This is called a son or daughter of heightened birth.

“And how is a son or daughter of similar birth?

There is the case where a son or daughter's parents have gone to the Buddha for refuge, have gone to the Dhamma for refuge, have gone to the Sangha for refuge. They abstain from taking life, from stealing, from sexual misconduct, from false speech, from fermented & distilled liquors that cause heedlessness. They are principled & admirable by nature.

Their son or daughter has also gone to the Buddha for refuge, has gone to the Dhamma for refuge, has gone to the Sangha for refuge. He/she abstains from taking life, from stealing, from sexual misconduct, from false speech, from fermented & distilled liquors that cause heedlessness. He/she is principled & admirable by nature. This is called a son or daughter of similar birth.

“And how is a son or daughter of lowered birth?

There is the case where a son or daughter's parents have gone to the Buddha for refuge, have gone to the Dhamma for refuge, have gone to the Sangha for refuge. They abstain from taking life, from stealing, from sexual misconduct, from false speech, from fermented & distilled liquors that cause heedlessness. They are principled & admirable by nature.

However, their son or daughter has not gone to the Buddha for refuge, has not gone to the Dhamma for refuge, has not gone to the Sangha for refuge. He/she does not abstain from taking life, from stealing, from sexual misconduct, from false speech, from fermented & distilled liquors that cause heedlessness. He/she is unprincipled & evil by nature. This is called a son or daughter of lowered birth.”

The wise hope for a child of heightened or similar birth, not for one of lowered birth, a destroyer of the family. These children in the world, lay followers – consummate in virtue, conviction; generous, free from stinginess- shine forth in any gathering like the moon when freed from a cloud.

§75. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, these three types of persons can be found existing in the world.

Which three?

One like a cloud without rain, one who rains locally, and one who rains everywhere.

“And how is a person like a cloud without rain?

There is the case where a person is not a giver of food, drink, clothing, vehicles, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings, or lights to anyone at all: to contemplatives or Brahmans, to any of the miserable, the homeless, or beggars. This is how a person is like a cloud without rain.

“And how is a person one who rains locally?

There is the case where a person is a giver of food, drink, clothing, vehicles, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings, & lights to some contemplatives & Brahmans, to some of the miserable, the homeless, & beggars, but not to others. This is how a person is one who rains locally.

“And how is a person one who rains everywhere?

There is the case where a person gives food, drink, clothing, vehicles, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings, & lights to all contemplatives & Brahmans, to all of the miserable, the homeless, & beggars. This is how a person is one who rains everywhere.

“These are the three types of persons who can be found existing in the world.”

Not to contemplatives, to Brahmans, to the miserable, nor to the homeless does he share what he's gained: food, drinks, nourishment. He, that lowest of people, is called a cloud with no rain. To some he doesn't give, to others he does: the intelligent call him one who rains locally. A person responsive to requests, sympathetic to all beings, delighting in distributing alms: “Give to them! Give!” he says. As a cloud-resounding, thundering-rains, filling with water, drenching the plateaus & gullies: a person like this is like that. Having rightly amassed wealth attained through initiative, he satisfies rightly with food & drink those fallen into the homeless state.

§76. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Aspiring to these three forms of bliss, monks, a wise person should guard his virtue.

Which three?

[[[Thinking]],] 'May praise come to me,' a wise person should guard his virtue.

[[[Thinking]],] 'May wealth come to me,' a wise person should guard his virtue.

[[[Thinking]],] 'At the break-up of the body, after death, may I reappear in a good destination, a heavenly world,' a wise person should guard his virtue.

Aspiring to these three forms of bliss, a wise person should guard his virtue.”

Intelligent, you should guard your virtue, aspiring to three forms of bliss: praise; the obtaining of wealth; and, after death, rejoicing in heaven. Even if you do no evil but seek out one who does, you're suspected of evil. Your bad reputation grows. The sort of person you make a friend, the sort you seek out, that's the sort you yourself become- for your living together is of that sort.

The one associated with, the one who associates, the one who's touched, the one who touches another – like an arrow smeared with poison- contaminates the quiver. So, fearing contamination, the enlightened should not be comrades with evil people. A man who wraps rotting fish in a blade of kuśa grass makes the grass smelly: so it is if you seek out fools.

But a man who wraps powdered incense in the leaf of a tree makes the leaf fragrant: so it is if you seek out the enlightened.

So, knowing your own outcome as like the leaf-wrapper's, you shouldn't seek out those who aren't good. The wise would associate with those who are. Those who aren't good lead you to hell. The good help you reach a good destination.

§77. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, this body falls apart; consciousness is subject to fading; all acquisitions are inconstant, stressful, subject to change.”

Knowing the body as falling apart, & consciousness as dissolving away, seeing the danger in acquisitions, you've gone beyond birth & death. Having reached the foremost peace, you bide your time, composed.

§78. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, it's in accordance with their properties that beings come together & associate with one another.

Beings of low dispositions come together & associate with beings of low dispositions. Beings of admirable dispositions come together & associate with beings of admirable dispositions.

In the past, it was in accordance with their properties that beings came together & associated with one another.

... In the future, it will be in accordance with their properties that beings will come together & associate with one another..

And now at present, it's in accordance with their properties that beings come together & associate with one another.

Beings of low dispositions come together & associate with beings of low dispositions.

Beings of admirable dispositions come together & associate with beings of admirable dispositions.”

The underbrush born of association is cut away by non-association. Just as one riding a small wooden plank would sink in the great sea, so does even one of right living sink, associating with the lazy. So avoid the lazy, those with low persistence. Live with the noble ones- secluded, resolute, absorbed in jhāna, their persistence constantly aroused: the wise.

§79. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, these three things lead to the falling away of a monk in training.

Which three?

There is the case where a monk in training enjoys activity, delights in activity, is intent on his enjoyment of activity. He enjoys chatter, delights in chatter, is intent on his enjoyment of chatter. He enjoys sleep, delights in sleep, is intent on his enjoyment of sleep. These are the three things that lead to the falling away of a monk in training.

“These three things lead to the non-falling away of a monk in training.

Which three?

There is the case where a monk in training doesn't enjoy activity, doesn't delight in activity, isn't intent on his enjoyment of activity. He doesn't enjoy chatter, doesn't delight in chatter, isn't intent on his enjoyment of chatter. He doesn't enjoy sleep, doesn't delight in sleep, isn't intent on his enjoyment of sleep. These are the three things that lead to the non-falling away of a monk in training.”

Enjoying activity, delighting in chatter, enjoying sleep, & restless: he's incapable -a monk like this- of touching superlative self-awakening.

So he should be a man of few duties, of little sloth, not restless. He's capable -a monk like this- of touching superlative self-awakening.

§80. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three kinds of unskilful thinking.

Which three?

Thinking concerned with not wanting to be despised; thinking concerned with gains, offerings, & tribute; thinking concerned with an empathy for others. There are three kinds of unskilful thinking.”

Fettered to not wanting to be despised; to gains, offerings, respect; to delight in companions: you're far from the ending of fetters.

But whoever here, having abandoned sons, cattle, marriage, intimates: he's capable -a monk like this- of touching superlative self-awakening.


The Group of Threes | 81-99 §81. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, I have seen beings conquered by receiving offerings-their minds overwhelmed- at the break-up of the body, after death, reappearing in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell.

I have seen beings conquered by not receiving offerings-their minds overwhelmed- at the break-up of the body, after death, reappearing in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell.

I have seen beings conquered both by receiving offerings & by not receiving offerings- their minds overwhelmed- at the break-up of the body, after death, reappearing in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell.

“It's not through having heard it from another contemplative or Brahman that I say, 'I have seen beings conquered by receiving offerings-their minds overwhelmed- at the break-up of the body, after death, reappearing in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell.

I have seen beings conquered by not receiving offerings-their minds overwhelmed- at the break-up of the body, after death, reappearing in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell.

I have seen beings conquered both by receiving offerings & by not receiving offerings- their minds overwhelmed- at the break-up of the body, after death, reappearing in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell.'

“Instead, it's from having known it myself, seen it myself, observed it myself that I say, 'I have seen beings conquered by receiving offerings-their minds overwhelmed- at the break-up of the body, after death, reappearing in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell.

I have seen beings conquered by not receiving offerings-their minds overwhelmed- at the break-up of the body, after death, reappearing in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell.

I have seen beings conquered both by receiving offerings & by not receiving offerings- their minds overwhelmed- at the break-up of the body, after death, reappearing in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell.'”

Both when receiving offerings & not, his concentration doesn't waver; he remains heedful: he-continually absorbed in jhāna, subtle in view & clear-seeing, enjoying the ending of clinging- is called a man of integrity.

§82. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, these three divine sounds sound forth among devas on appropriate occasions.

Which three?

When a disciple of the noble ones, shaving off his hair & beard, clothing himself in the ochre robe, makes up his mind to go forth from the home life into homelessness, on that occasion the divine sound sounds forth among the devas: 'This disciple of the noble ones has made up his mind to do battle with Mara.' This is the first divine sound that sounds forth among devas on appropriate occasions.

“When a disciple of the noble ones lives devoted to developing the seven [sets of] qualities that are wings to awakening, on that occasion the divine sound sounds forth among the devas: 'This disciple of the noble ones is doing battle with Mara.' This is the second divine sound that sounds forth among the devas on appropriate occasions.

“When a disciple of the noble ones, through the ending of effluents, dwells in the effluent-free awareness-release & discernment-release, directly knowing & realizing it for himself right in the here-&-now, on that occasion the divine sound sounds forth among the devas: 'This disciple of the noble ones has won the battle. Having been in the front lines of the battle, he now dwells victorious.' This is the third divine sound that sounds forth among the devas on appropriate occasions.

“These are the three divine sounds that sound forth among the devas on appropriate occasions.”

Seeing he's won the battle -the disciple of the Rightly Self-awakened One- even the devas pay homage to this great one, thoroughly mature. “Homage to you, O thoroughbred man- you who have won the hard victory, defeating the army of Death, unhindered in emancipation.” Thus they pay homage, the devas, to one who has reached the heart's goal, for they see in him no means that would bring him under Death's sway.

§83. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, when a deva is about to pass away from the company of devas,

five omens appear:

his garlands wither, his clothes get soiled, sweat comes out of his armpits, a dullness descends on his body, he no longer delights in his own deva- seat.

The devas, knowing from this that 'This deva-son is about to pass away,' encourage him with three sayings:

'Go from here, honourable sir, to a good destination. Having gone to a good destination, gain the gain that is good to gain. Having gained the gain that is good to gain, become well-established.'”

When this was said, a certain monk said to the Blessed One, “What, lord, is the devas' reckoning of going to a good destination? What is their reckoning of the gain that is good to gain? What is their reckoning of becoming well- established?”

“The human state, monks, is the devas' reckoning of going to a good destination. Having become a human being, acquiring conviction in the Dhamma-&-Vinaya taught by the Tathagata: this is the devas' reckoning of the gain that is good to gain. When that conviction is settled within one-rooted, established, & strong, not to be destroyed by any Brahman or contemplative; deva, Mara, or Brahma; or anyone else in the world: this is the devas' reckoning of becoming well-established.”

When a deva passes away from the company of devas through his life-span's ending, three sounds sound forth -the devas' encouragement.

'Go from here, honourable sir, to a good destination, to companionship with human beings. On becoming a human being, acquire a conviction unsurpassed in True Dhamma. That conviction of yours in True Dhamma, well-taught, should be settled, rooted, established, -undestroyed as long as you live. Having abandoned bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct, and whatever else is flawed; having done with the body what's skilful, and much that is skilful with speech, having done what's skilful with a heart without limit, with no acquisitions, then-having made much of the merit that's a ground for spontaneously arising [in heaven] through giving- establish other mortals in True Dhamma & the holy life.'

With this sympathy, the devas- when they know a deva is passing away- encourage him: 'Come back, deva, again & again.'

§84. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, these three persons, appearing in the world, appear for the benefit of many, the happiness of many, in sympathy for the world- for the welfare, the benefit, the happiness of beings human & divine.

Which three?

“There is the case where a Tathagata appears in the world, worthy & rightly self-awakened, consummate in clear knowing & conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the cosmos, unsurpassed trainer of tamable people, teacher of beings human & divine, awakened, blessed.

He teaches the Dhamma admirable in its beginning, admirable in its middle, admirable in its end.

He proclaims the holy life both in its particulars & in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure.

This is the first person who, appearing in the world, appears for the benefit of many, the happiness of many, in sympathy for the world- for the welfare, the benefit, the happiness of beings human & divine.

“Furthermore, there is the disciple of that Teacher who is a worthy one, his effluents ended, who has reached fulfilment, done the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, totally destroyed the fetter of becoming, and who is released through right gnosis.

He teaches the Dhamma admirable in its beginning, admirable in its middle, admirable in its end. He proclaims the holy life both in its particulars & in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure.

This is the second person who, appearing in the world, appears for the benefit of many, the happiness of many, in sympathy for the world- for the welfare, the benefit, the happiness of beings human & divine.

“Furthermore, there is the disciple of that Teacher who is a worthy one who follows the practice in training, erudite, having entered into [good] habits & practices. He, too, teaches the Dhamma admirable in its beginning, admirable in its middle, admirable in its end. He proclaims the holy life both in its particulars & in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure.

This is the third person who, appearing in the world, appears for the benefit of many, the happiness of many, in sympathy for the world- for the welfare, the benefit, the happiness of beings human & divine.

“These are the three persons who, appearing in the world, appear for the benefit of many, the happiness of many, in sympathy for the world- for the welfare, the benefit, the happiness of beings human & divine.”

The Teacher, Great Seer, is first in the world; following him, the disciple with mind composed; and then the erudite one who follows the practice for one in training, having entered into good habits, practices.

These three, chief among beings divine & human, giving light, proclaiming the Dhamma, throw open the door to the Deathless, release many from bondage.

Those who follow the path, well-taught by the Caravan Leader unsurpassed, will put an end to stress right here- those heeding the message of the One Well-Gone.

§85. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Remain focused, monks, on foulness in the body. Have mindfulness of in-&-out breathing well-established to the fore within you. Remain focused on the inconstancy of all fabrications.

For one who remains focused on the foulness of the body, the obsession with passion for the property of beauty is abandoned.

For one who has mindfulness of in-&-out breathing well-established to the fore within oneself, annoying external thoughts & inclinations don't exist.

For one who remains focused on the inconstancy of all fabrications, ignorance is abandoned, clear knowing arises.”

Focusing on foulness in the body, mindful of in-&-out breathing, seeing the stilling of all fabrications -ardent always: he is a monk who's seen rightly. From that he is there released. A master of direct knowing, at peace, he is a sage gone beyond bonds.

§86. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, with reference to a monk who practices the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma, it is this way of according with the Dhamma that he should be described

as practicing the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma. When speaking, he speaks Dhamma and not non-Dhamma. When thinking, he thinks about Dhamma and not about non-Dhamma.

Avoiding both these things, he stays equanimous, mindful, alert.”

Dhamma his dwelling, Dhamma his delight, a monk pondering Dhamma, calling Dhamma to mind, doesn't fall away from true Dhamma. Whether walking, standing, sitting, or lying down – his mind inwardly restrained- he arrives right at peace.

§87. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three kinds of unskilful thinking that produce blindness, produce lack of vision, produce lack of knowledge, lead to the cessation of discernment, side with vexation, and are not conducive to Unbinding.

Which three?

Thinking imbued with sensuality.... Thinking imbued with ill-will

Thinking imbued with harmfulness produces blindness, produces lack of vision, produces lack of knowledge, leads to the cessation of discernment, sides with vexation, and is not conducive to Unbinding.

These are the three kinds of unskilful thinking that produce blindness, produce lack of vision, produce lack of knowledge, lead to the cessation of discernment, side with vexation, and are not conducive to Unbinding.

“There are these three kinds of skilful thinking that produce non­-blindness, produce vision, produce knowledge, foster discernment, side with non-vexation, and are conducive to Unbinding.

Which three?

Thinking imbued with renunciation.. Thinking imbued with non-ill-will..

Thinking imbued with harmlessness produces non-blindness, produces vision, produces knowledge, fosters discernment, sides with non-vexation, and is conducive to Unbinding.

These are the three kinds of skilful thinking that produce non-­blindness, produce vision, produce knowledge, foster discernment, side with non-vexation, and are conducive to Unbinding.”

Three skilful thoughts should be thought, three unskilful thoughts rejected. Whoever stills thoughts & evaluations -as rain would, a cloud of dust- through an awareness with thinking stilled, attains right here the state of peace.

§88. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three inside stains, inside enemies, inside foes, inside murderers, inside adversaries.

Which three?

Greed is an inside stain, inside enemy, inside foe, inside murderer, inside adversary. Aversion is an inside stain... Delusion is an inside stain, inside enemy, inside foe, inside murderer, inside adversary. These are the three inside stains, inside enemies, inside foes, inside murderers, inside adversaries.”

Greed causes harm. Greed provokes the mind. People don't realize it as a danger born from within. A person, when greedy, doesn't know his own welfare; when greedy, doesn't see Dhamma.

Overcome with greed, he's in the dark, blind. But when one, abandoning greed, feels no greed for what would merit greed, greed gets shed from him- like a drop of water off a lotus leaf.

Aversion causes harm. Aversion provokes the mind. People don't realize it as a danger born from within. A person, when aversive, doesn't know his own welfare; when aversive, doesn't see Dhamma.

Overcome with aversion he's in the dark, blind. But when one, abandoning aversion, feels no aversion for what would merit aversion, aversion drops away from him- like a palm leaf from its stem.

Delusion causes harm. Delusion provokes the mind. People don't realize it as a danger born from within. A person, when deluded, doesn't know his own welfare; when deluded, doesn't see Dhamma.

Overcome with delusion he's in the dark, blind. But when one, abandoning delusion, feels no delusion for what would merit delusion, he disperses all delusion- as the rising of the sun, the dark.

§89. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, conquered by three forms of false Dhamma-his mind overwhelmed- Devadatta is incurably doomed to deprivation, to hell, for an eon.

Which three?

Conquered by evil desires-his mind overwhelmed- Devadatta is incurably doomed to deprivation, to hell, for the duration of an eon.

Conquered by friendship with evil people-his mind overwhelmed- Devadatta is incurably doomed to deprivation, to hell, for the duration of an eon.

And, there being something further to be done, he nevertheless stopped halfway with a lower modicum of distinctive attainment.

Conquered by these three forms of false Dhamma-his mind overwhelmed- Devadatta is incurably doomed to deprivation, to hell, for an eon.”

May no one in the world ever be reborn with evil desire. Know that through that evil desire, his destination's that of all who have evil desires. I've heard how Devadatta, -regarded as wise, composed, incandescent with honour- in the thrall of heedlessness assaulted the Tathagata and fell to the four-gated, fearful place: Avīci, unmitigated hell. Whoever plots against one free of corruption who's done no evil deed: that evil touches him himself, corrupted in mind, disrespectful. Whoever might think of polluting the ocean with a pot of poison, couldn't succeed, for the mass of water is great. So it is when anyone attacks with abuse the Tathagata – rightly-gone, of peaceful mind- for abuse doesn't grow on him. A wise person should make friends, should associate, with a person like him- whose path a monk can pursue and reach the ending of suffering & stress.

§90. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three supreme objects of confidence.

Which three?

“Among whatever beings there may be-footless, two-footed, four-footed, many footed; with form or formless; percipient, non-percipient, neither percipient nor non-percipient- the Tathagata, worthy & rightly self-awakened, is considered supreme.

Those who have confidence in the Awakened One have confidence in what is supreme; and for those with confidence in the supreme, supreme is the result.

“Among whatever dhammas there may be, fabricated or unfabricated,

dispassion-the subduing of intoxication, the elimination of thirst, the uprooting of attachment, the breaking of the round, the destruction of craving, dispassion, cessation, the realization of Unbinding - is considered supreme.

Those who have confidence in the dhamma of dispassion have confidence in what is supreme; and for those with confidence in the supreme, supreme is the result.

“Among whatever fabricated qualities there may be,

the noble 8-fold path-right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration-is considered supreme.

Those who have confidence in the dhamma of the noble path have confidence in what is supreme; and for those with confidence in the supreme, supreme is the result.

“Among whatever communities or groups there may be, the Sangha of the Tathagata's disciples is considered supreme-i.e., the four [groups of noble disciples] when taken as pairs, the eight when taken as persons.

Those who have confidence in the Sangha have confidence in what is supreme; and for those with confidence in the supreme, supreme will be the result.

“These, monks, are the three supreme objects of confidence.”

With confidence, realizing the supreme Dhamma to be supreme; confidence in the supreme Buddha, unsurpassed in deserving offerings; confidence in the supreme Dhamma, the bliss of stilling, dispassion; confidence in the supreme Sangha, unsurpassed as a field of merit; having given gifts to the supreme, one develops supreme merit, supreme long life & beauty, status, honour, bliss, & strength. Having given to the supreme, the wise person, centred in supreme Dhamma, whether becoming a divine or human being, rejoices, having attained the supreme.

§91. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, this is a lowly means of livelihood, alms gathering. It's a form of abuse in the world [to say], 'You go around as an alms gatherer with a bowl in your hand!'

Yet reasonable young men of good families have taken it up for a compelling reason:

They have not been forced into it by kings or robbers, nor through debt, through fear, nor through the loss of their livelihood, but through the thought:

'We are beset by birth, aging, & death, by sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, & despairs, beset by stress, overcome with stress.

O, that the end of this entire mass of suffering & stress might be known!'

But this young man of good family, having gone forth in this way,

may be greedy for sensual pleasures, strong in his passions, malevolent in mind, corrupt in his resolves, his mindfulness muddled, unalert, uncentred, his mind scattered, & his faculties uncontrolled.

Just as a firebrand from a funeral pyre-burning at both ends, covered with excrement in the middle-is used as fuel neither in a village nor in the wilderness:

I tell you that this is a simile for this person. He has missed out on the householder's enjoyments and does not fulfil the purpose of the contemplative life.”

He's missed out on the householder's enjoyment & the purpose of the contemplative life -unfortunate man! Ruining it, he throws it away, perishes like a firebrand used at a funeral. Better to eat an iron ball -glowing, aflame- than that, unprincipled & unrestrained, he should eat the alms of the country.

§92. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, even if a monk, taking hold of my outer robe, were to follow right behind me, placing his feet in my footsteps,

yet if he were to be greedy for sensual pleasures, strong in his passions, malevolent in mind, corrupt in his resolves, his mindfulness muddled, unalert, uncentred, his mind scattered, & his faculties uncontrolled,

- then he would be far from me, and I from him.

Why is that?

Because he does not see the Dhamma. Not seeing the Dhamma, he does not see me.

“But even if a monk were to live 100 leagues away,

yet if he were to have no greed for sensual objects, were not strong in his passions, not malevolent in mind, uncorrupt in his resolves, his mindfulness established, alert, centred, his mind at singleness, & his faculties well-restrained,

- then he would be near to me, and I to him.

Why is that?

Because he sees the Dhamma! Seeing the Dhamma, he sees me.”

Though following right behind, ambitious, annoyed: see how far he is!- the perturbed from the unperturbed, the bound from the Unbound, the greedy one from the one with no greed. But the wise person who, through direct knowledge of Dhamma, gnosis of Dhamma, grows still & unperturbed like a lake unruffled by wind: see how close he is!- the unperturbed to the unperturbed, the Unbound to the Unbound, the greedless one to the one with no greed.

§93. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these 3 fires.

Which three?

The fire of passion, the fire of aversion, the fire of delusion.

These are the three fires.”

The fire of passion burns in a mortal delighting in, smitten with sensual desires; the fire of aversion, in a malevolent person taking life; the fire of delusion, in a bewildered person ignorant of the noble teaching.

Not understanding these fires, people -fond of self-identity- unreleased from Mara's shackles, swell the ranks of hell, the wombs of common animals, demons, the realm of the hungry ghosts.

While those who, day & night, are devoted to the message of the rightly self-awakened, put out the fire of passion, constantly perceiving the foul.

They, superlative people, put out the fire of aversion with good will, and the fire of delusion with the discernment leading to penetration. They, the masterful, untiring by night & day, having put out [the fires], having, without remainder, comprehended stress, are, without remainder, totally unbound.

They, the wise, with an attainer-of-wisdom's noble vision, right gnosis, directly knowing the ending of birth, come to no further becoming.

§94. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, a monk should investigate in such a way that-

his consciousness neither externally scattered & diffused, nor internally positioned-he is, from lack of clinging/sustenance, unagitated, and there is no coming into being of the origination of future birth, aging, death, or stress.”

For a monk who has abandoned seven attachments and cut the guide: the wandering-on in birth is finished; there is, for him, no further becoming.

§95. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these three ways of obtaining sensual pleasures.

Which three?

Those whose sensual pleasures are already provided, those who delight in creating, those with control over what is created by others.

These are the three ways of obtaining sensual pleasures.”

Devas whose pleasures are already provided, those with control, those who delight in creation, and any others enjoying sensual pleasures in this state here or anywhere else, don't go beyond the wandering-on.

Knowing this drawback in sensual pleasures, the wise should abandon all sensual desires, whether human or divine. Having cut the flow of greed for lovely, alluring forms so hard to transcend, having, without remainder, comprehended stress, they are, without remainder, totally unbound. They, the wise, with an attainer-of-wisdom's noble vision, right gnosis, directly knowing the ending of birth, come to no further becoming.

§96. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“Tied by the yoke of sensuality & the yoke of becoming, monks, one is a returner, returning to this state.

Untied from the yoke of sensuality but tied by the yoke of becoming, one is a non-returner, not returning to this state.

Untied from [both] the yoke of sensuality & from the yoke of becoming, one is an Arahant whose effluents are ended.”

Tied by both the yoke of sensuality & the yoke of becoming, beings go to the wandering-on leading to birth & death. Those who've abandoned the sensual without reaching the ending of effluents, are tied by the yoke of becoming, are said to be Non-returners. While those who've cut off doubt have no more conceit or further becoming. They who have reached the ending of effluents, while in the world have gone beyond.

§97. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, a monk who has admirable virtue, admirable qualities, & admirable discernment is called, in this Dhamma-&-Vinaya, one who is complete, fulfilled, a superlative person.

“And how is a monk a person with admirable virtue?

There is the case where a monk is virtuous: He dwells restrained in accordance with the Pāṭimokkha, consummate in his behaviour & sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults. In this way a monk is a person with admirable virtue. Thus he is of admirable virtue.

“And how is a monk a person with admirable qualities?

There is the case where a monk lives devoted to developing the seven [sets of] qualities that are wings to awakening. In this way a monk is a person with admirable qualities. Thus he is of admirable virtue & admirable qualities.

“And how is a monk a person with admirable discernment?

There is the case where a monk-with the ending of effluents- remains in the effluent-free awareness-release & discernment-release, directly knowing & realizing it for himself right in the here-&-now. In this way a monk is a person with admirable discernment.

Thus he is of admirable virtue, admirable qualities, admirable discernment. In this Dhamma-&-Vinaya he is called one who is complete, fulfilled, a superlative person.”

Devoid of wrong-doing in thought, word, or deed, he's called a person of admirable virtue: the monk conscientious.

Well-developed in the qualities that go to the attainment of self-awakening, he's called a person of admirable qualities: the monk unassuming.

Discerning right here for himself, in himself, the ending of stress he's called a person of admirable discernment: the monk with no effluent.

Consummate in these things, untroubled, with doubt cut away, unattached in all the world, he's said to have abandoned the All.

§98. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

Monks, there are these two kinds of gifts: a gift of material things & a gift of the Dhamma. Of these two kinds of gifts, this is supreme: a gift of the Dhamma. There are these two kinds of sharing: sharing of material things & sharing of the Dhamma. Of these two kinds of sharing, this is supreme: sharing of the Dhamma. There are these two kinds of assistance: assistance with material things & assistance with the Dhamma. Of these two kinds of assistance, this is supreme: assistance with the Dhamma.”

The gift he describes as supreme & unsurpassed, the sharing the Blessed One has extolled: who-confident in the supreme field of merit, wise, discerning- wouldn't give it at appropriate times?

Both for those who proclaim it and those who listen, confident in the message of the One Well-Gone: it purifies their foremost benefit- those heeding the message of the One Well-Gone.

§99. This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard:

“It's with reference to Dhamma, monks, that I describe [a person as] a Brahman with 3-fold knowledge, and not another as measured by citing & reciting.

And how is it with reference to Dhamma that I describe [a person as] a Brahman with 3-fold knowledge, and not another as measured by citing & reciting?

“There is the case where a monk recollects his manifold past lives, i.e., one birth, two... five, ten... fifty, a hundred, a thousand, a hundred thousand,

many eons of cosmic contraction, many eons of cosmic expansion, many eons of cosmic contraction & expansion:

'There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my sensitivity to pleasure & pain, such the end of my life.

Passing away from that state, I re-arose there:

There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my sensitivity to pleasure & pain, such the end of my life.

Passing away from that state, I re-arose here.'

Thus he recollects his manifold past lives in their modes & details.

“This is the first knowledge he has attained:

Ignorance has been destroyed; knowledge has arisen; darkness has been destroyed; light has arisen-as happens in one who remains heedful, ardent, & resolute.

“Then again, the monk sees-by means of the divine eye, purified & surpassing the human-beings passing away & re-appearing,

and he discerns how they are inferior & superior, beautiful & ugly, fortunate & unfortunate in accordance with their actions:

'These beings

-who were endowed with bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct; who reviled noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views-at the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell.

But these beings

-who were endowed with bodily good conduct, verbal good conduct, & mental good conduct; who did not revile noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influence of right views-at the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in a good destination, a heavenly world.'

Thus-by means of the divine eye, purified & surpassing the human-he sees beings passing away & re-appearing, and discerns how they are inferior & superior, beautiful & ugly, fortunate & unfortunate in accordance with their actions.

“This is the second knowledge he has attained:

Ignorance has been destroyed; knowledge has arisen; darkness has been destroyed; light has arisen- as happens in one who remains heedful, ardent, & resolute.

“Then again, the monk-with the ending of effluents- remains in the effluent- free awareness-release & discernment-release, directly knowing & realizing it for himself right in the here-&-now.

“This is the third knowledge he has attained:

Ignorance has been destroyed; knowledge has arisen; darkness has been destroyed; light has arisen-as happens in one who remains heedful, ardent, & resolute.

“It's in this way that, with reference to Dhamma, I describe [a person as] a Brahman with 3-fold knowledge, and not another as measured by citing & reciting.”

He knows his former lives. He sees heavens & states of woe, has attained the ending of birth, is a sage who has mastered direct-knowing. By means of these three knowledges he becomes a three-knowledge Brahman. He's what I call a three-knowledge man- not another, citing, reciting.



Source

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