How to Transmute Human Consciousness into Buddhas Wisdom
First of all an introduction of this subject in a few paragraphs to all readers is necessary. Almost all of essential Buddhism and the important practices of the Tripitaka, of Hinayana, Mahayana, and Vajrayana are brought together under this subject. He who has deep belief and earnest practice in accordance with it may get full Enlightenment without following any other ways.
Within this subject, the term "consciousness" is used in a Buddhist sense which is, on the one hand, the mental faculties studied by psychologists such as the will, mind, spirit, soul, including the nervous system, sentiments, emotions, passion, and sorrow. On the other hand, all the potentiality of Buddhas characteristics such as Buddhas wisdom, Buddhas compassion, Buddhas Bodhicitta, Buddhas merits, Buddhas supernatural power and so on are also included.
The term "wisdom" in this subject is not a profane wisdom but sacred and particularly confined to the Buddhahood. The Buddha wisdoms are of five kinds, viz., Adarsana-jnana, the great round mirror wisdom transmuted from the eighth consciousness reflecting all things, associated with Aksobhya Buddha and the eastern Dakini; Samatajnana, transmuted from the seventh consciousness, the universal wisdom which regards all things equally and universally, associated with Buddha Ratnasambhava and the southern Dakini; Pratyaveksanajnana transmuted from the sixth consciousness, a wisdom of profound insight, associated with Amitabha Buddha and the western Dakini; Krtyanusthanajnana transmuted from the foregoing five senses, a wisdom of perfecting the double works of self welfare and that of others, associated with Amoghasiddhi Buddha and the northern Dakini; Dharmadhatu-prakrti-jnana transmuted from the ninth consciousness, derived from Amalavijnana, a wisdom which directs the embodiment of the Dharmadhatu or Dharmakaya, associated with the Vairocana Buddha and central Dakini which makes the five wisdoms of a Buddha perfectly accomplished. Thus the entire transmutation is integrated.
Although there are many teachings which have been given by Buddha in Sutras and Shastras, yet the whole system of transmutation arranged in an adequate order without multiplicity and confusion has only been written about by me in this booklet. One may find out the step-stones clearly therefrom and get the realization straightforwardly, when one actually follows it. It is the crystallization of my knowledge, practices and experiences.
I. To Distinguish Good from Evil and Practice the Former
Good and evil both seem to have no certain standard, that was why the Old Testament Isaiah v. 20 said: "Woe unto them that call evil good and good evil: that put darkness for light and light for darkness, and put bitter for sweet and sweet for bitter." But Buddhism has scientifically distinguished the good from the evil and has seriously divided and catalogued all of them, one by one. It thus gives knowledge of good and makes clear knowing evil. A Buddhist who goes through the first two knowledges of hearing and thinking even before practicing can be free from the confusion of good and evil in his consciousness.
Though this kind of discernment has been taught in both Hinayana and Mahayana, yet their total numbers are different, i.e., Hinayana has mentioned 75 Dharmas while Mahayana 100. I prefer the latter refined one to the former coarse one.
Among the 100 Dharmas there are some Dharmas which are not relevant directly to good or evil. There are 8 Dharmas of consciousness itself, 11 Dharmas of forms, 24 Dharmas which are not associated with consciousness, and 6 Dharmas of noncreated elements. It is only in the species of 51 Dharmas of Mental Function that the specifics of good and evil have been distinguished. Neither the 5 Dharmas of general function of mind, which in Sanskrit are named Sarvatraga, nor the 5 Dharmas of special function of mind, which are called in Sanskrit Viniyata, directly belong to good or evil. Hence I do not deal with any of those here. Let me only quote the Dharmas of good and evil below:
The 11 Goodnesses are:
- 1. Belief
- 2. Shame
- 3. Bashfulness
- 4. Absence of hatred
- 5. Absence of Covetousness
- 6. Absence of Ignorance
- 7. Energy
- 8. Repose of Mind
- 9. Vigilance
- 10. Equanimity
- 11. Non-injury.
All these Dharmas should be practiced with ones whole heart. Among the 37 Bodhis which Lord Gautama taught, among the four right diligences it is emphasized in the second two that the good Dharmas which one has not done should be done, and that those which one has done should be increased, the more the better.
The 6 Root-Evils:
The 20 Branch Evils:
- (1) Anger
- (2) Enmity
- (3) Concealment
- (4) Affliction
- (5) Envy
- (6) Parsimony
- (7) Deception
- (8) Fraudulence
- (9) Injury
- (10) Pride
- (11) Shamelessness
- (12) Non-bashfulness
- (13) Restlessness
- (14) Low spiritedness
- (15) Unbelief
- (16) Sloth
- (17) Negligence
- (18) Forgetfulness
- (19) Distraction
- (20) Non-discernment.
Among the 37 Bodhis there are four kinds of diligences, the first two are that (1) One should not do evil and that (2) If it has been done, one should cut any further evil off completely. The other two I have mentioned above.
- 1. killing,
- 2. stealing,
- 3. adultery,
- 4. speaking falsehood,
- 5. taking intoxicating liquors and drugs.
- 1. non-covetousness,
- 2. non-hatred,
- 3. non-ignorance,
- 4. not-killing,
- 5. not-stealing,
- 6. non-adultery,
- 7. non-lying,
- 8. non-double tongue
- 9. non-coarse language
- 10. non-filthy language.
He said, "There is one way for the Bodhisattva to annihilate all sufferings of samsaric existence. It is this: from day to night to remember constantly the good Dharmas, think of them and make observation of them so that their impressions becomes stronger and stronger in the mind and not the least evil thought can have a chance to mingle therein. Such a practice will enable one to free oneself forever from evil deeds, to complete the work of good Dharma, and to have frequent opportunities to be in the presence of Buddhas."
II. To Distinguish Right from Wrong
John Morley (1838-1923) said, "It is not enough to do good; one must do it the right way." One should have passionate love of right and burning hate of wrong. Buddha has helped us to distinguish right from wrong. He has set up the eight-fold right path which we should follow without any doubt or procrastination. One should not say one thing and do another. Below are the eight paths quoted:
1. Right view, 2. Right thought, 3. Right speech, 4. Right conduct, 5. Right livelihood, 6. Right zeal, 7. Right remembrance and 8. Right meditation. Certainly these eight right paths are based upon the 10 goodnesses and all the identified vinayas The opposite wrong paths are caused by the 26 evils. For instance, if one does not kill any animal, one would not work for a restaurant to daily kill fish, chickens, doves and ducks. One will choose some good job such as a teacher, book seller, doctor, and the like. Thus one may be said to be living in a right livelihood.
Many scriptures of Hinayana and Mahayana teach us about all those Dharmas; some are good and right and one should follow them, some are evil and wrong and one should forbid them. Thought and action should be identified.
The above two stages concerning the good and the right which may be followed are according to the scriptures and the vinaya and are without any kind of concentration. But if one wants to control the mind and be enabled to sweep away inner distractions and delusions, if one wants to develop concentration therein with which one may meditate on the truth and discover ones potentialities, then one has to bring the mind to be trained under the nine steps of Samatha which will be discussed below. Thus comes the third stage as follows:
III. To Distinguish the Concentrated Mind from the Disturbed Mind and Seriously Train the Sixth Consciousness with Certain Methods
Consciousness is said to be of six kinds in Hinayana, eight in Mahayana, and nine in Vajrayana, just like the nervous system which consists of different parts of nerves but which is in itself only one whole. No matter whether the division of consciousness is into a greater or lesser number, the most important function thereof is the mind which is usually called the sixth consciousness.
Western scholars as well as Eastern ones regard the mind as a very important subject. Milton (1608-1674) said: "The mind is its own place and in itself can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven." Napoleon (1769-1821) said, "There are but two powers in the world, the sword and the mind. In the long run the sword is always beaten by the mind." Plato (428-347 B.C.) said: "Mind is the ruler of the universe." Burlamaqui (1691-1748) said: "The human understanding is naturally right and has within itself a strength sufficient to arrive at the knowledge of Truth and to distinguish it from error." Menander (342-291 B.C.) said: "Our mind is God."
Both the Western scholars and the Eastern scholars emphasize that ones mind should be brought under control. Horace (65-8 B.C.) said: "Rule your mind, which if not your servant, is your master. Curb it with a bit; bind it with a chain." Publius Gyrus said: "A wise man will be master of his mind, a fool will be its slave." Marcus Aurelius (121-180) said: "The mind, unmastered by passions is a very citadel for a man no fortress more impregnable wherein to find refuge and be untaken forever." William Hazlitt (1778-1830) said: "The mind of man is like a clock that is always running down and requires to be as constantly wound up." But they do not know how to train the mind, how to rid it of its disturbance, sleepy spirit and worldly delusions.
A bit may control an entire horse, a chain may restrain a mad lion. But they could do nothing to the mind which has no form. A stopping clock may be wound up but the mind when it becomes sleepy cannot be wound up without awakening. It is a matter of religion or yoga, not only a matter of ethics. All religions have more or less some methods to train the mind, but Buddhist Samatha is the best among them. The following nine steps should be practiced until certain achievement is attained.
- Inward Abiding to be able to draw back the mind from pursuing outward evil thoughts and settle it well on the inward sight.
- Continuous Abiding to be able to make the mind continually abide on the inward sight.
- Well abiding if thought falls away from the inward sight, it is well fixed again upon the inward sight.
- Near the good abidingall the outward thoughts are on the inward sight.
- Overwhelm the outward thoughts have been overwhelmed by the inward sight.
- Silence the mind has been pacified and kept in Silence.
- Deep Silence the sleepy mind and the distracted mind are overwhelmed by the deep silence.
- One pointed attention the mind always pays attention to only one point that is the inward sight, without even moving a little or ceasing for a short time.
- Equal Abiding the mind itself is always equally abiding everywhere and without any forceful compulsion.
Regarding the inward sight, there are many points along the median nerve, whether between the two eyebrows or on the tip of the nose, or between the two breasts or on the inside of the navel or on the inside of the bladder, which may be chosen as the inward insight point. He whose mind is often sleepy should choose a point in the upper part of the body; he whose mind is easily distracted should choose a point in the lower part. Whatever is chosen, one should keep it within one practice time of concentrationg which the point should not be moved up or down. Usually the point inside the navel is a very good one which is emphasized not only by Buddhism but also by Taoism and Hinduism.
A disturbed, sleepy or low-spirited mind can never meditate on any kind of truth. The history of thought of all mankind, whether philosophy or science or literature, whether Socrates, Plato, Newton or Shakespeare, has never approached the ultimate Truth due to lack of Samatha practice. Their minds were never trained. According to Buddhist opinion, all the worldly knowledges are nothing but only delusions of ignorance.
After the training of Samatha is accomplished, all kinds of the truth may be meditated upon with this clear and pure mind which is the real Samapatti. Though Hinduism and Taoism and some other religions have more or less something like Samapatti, yet they are not free from egoism and egotism and the prejudice thereof which is like the snake in the grass. A great lie is said by each of them, for example, Jesus said, "I am the King of Israel," Jehovah said, "I am the creator," Brahma said, "I am the only God of this world." Hence they never touched the ultimate truth. Buddhism, on the other hand, is free from the obstacles of Samatha which is the instrument through which it is possible to see the truth clearly and purely, and on the other hand, Buddha has told of his own personal insight, what the real truth he has seen is, without egoism and any obstacle to Samapatti. The following are the kinds of truth which the practitioner should gradually come to know and the teachings of Buddhas own experiences and experiments.
IV. To Know the Consciousness Thoroughly and Distinguish Its True Nature From Its False
First of all, one should know the consciousness in its whole system which has been divided into nine parts according to its different functions.
- The Ninth Consciousness which is emphasized by the Tantra contains all the virtues or potentialities of Buddhahood. When one is fully enlightened, this consciousness becomes the totality of wisdom with no more sense of consciousness.
- The Eighth Consciousness which is emphasized by Mahayana contains every kind of seed, some good, some bad, from which the other seven kinds of consciousness are fathered.
- The Seventh Consciousness which holds the eighth consciousness as ones self is an object which should be meditated away by the Sunyata Samadhi.
- The Sixth Consciousness is equal to the scientific term of "mind" which in Hinayana is the main consciousness including the seventh and the eighth. That is why Hinayana does not admit any other further consciousness.
- The first five consciousness consist of the five senses, i.e. the eyes consciousness, ears, noses, tongues, and bodys.
Usually in the Idealist School there are considered three transformations of consciousness. Actually this word transformation is a term in error. The auditory nerve or optic nerve is not transformed from the solar plexus. They all belong to one nerve system. Consciousness is not a form, hence it should have no transformation, but it does have different functions. Thus there are six functions as it is divided into by Hinayana, eight by Mahayana, and nine by Vajrayana; all for the sake of convenience of describing the different functions.
- The eighth consciousness is called the king of the consciousness from which subjectively one thinks of some Dharmas as objective. The former consciousness is subjective, the latter Dharma is objective. Human beings usually hold steadfast to the objective Dharma whether it is love or hate, but forgets that the consciousness holds only subjective views. Hence many sorrows occur.
- All the outside objects are held by subjective views and they become very confirmed and the Dharmas of form which are called matter seem to the human being as outward things. Actually without mentalization, there is nothing at all. It is just like Confucius said, "When the mind is not present, we look and do not see, we hear and do not understand, we eat and do not know the taste of what we are eating."
- When forms are pursued and the lovely object cannot be gotten, and the disliked object cannot be left, human beings not only get sorrow but also take some actions which again gather some seeds of good or evil and keep them transmigrating in the field of consciousness. When those seeds get a chance to grow up, they become other conduct which may bear good or bad result: hence the seeds of transmigration have no end.
Both the only cure for the bad seeds and the only way to stop the journey of transmigration is the practice of five-fold Samapatti of the real nature of consciousness and to let the false delusions be destroyed.
- The first stage of this five-fold meditation is getting rid of the delusions from outside objects and keeping the real consciousness inside. Delusions occur from any outside objects, such as lovely girls, beautiful flowers, enchanting music, and delicious food. As much as one meets these one should only think that without ones mentalization through ones real consciousness, all those things are nothing. One should not pursue them any more. Let them pass over.
- The second stage of this meditation is to further rid oneself of the mentalizations within ones mind and to keep the view of consciousness that it is the master who makes up the mentalization will be vanished. For instance, when one remembers the taste of good food, this is not the real outside food but only the mentalization reflected in ones remembrance which may also cause the person to pursue good food again. When one keeps ones view only on the truth, one would not pursue good food gain.
- The third stage of this meditation is to be rid of both the two parts, the mentalization objects inside the consciousness and also the view of subjective master, and keep only the entity of consciousness which is in its natural totality without the function of those two parts. When the mentalization objects inside the consciousness are meditated away and the view of subjective master returns to the entity of consciousness, one is absorbed in it and gets the real self witness to the true consciousness. One would then have no more obstacles caused by a false function of the mind.
- The fourth stage of this meditation is to be rid of the self-witness, and keep only the king of consciousness in its pure nature without either any kind of self-witness or any thought arising from the pure consciousness. When one is in the meditation of the entity of consciousness, one still has some doubt whether it is or it is not and one is troubled by the self-witness. One has to be rid of it by only keeping the pure kind of consciousness.
- The fifth and the last stage is to be rid of all of the two natures, imaginary nature and independent nature, and keep only the ultimate nature of pure consciousness in its perfect attainment. The self-witness and the proof of self-witness both lose their usage of function. There is only the pure and perfect nature of consciousness which remains. Hence the Idealist Schools meditation is fully achieved. The only work which remains is to know that this pure consciousness itself is Sunyata. One thus comes to the Sunyata school meditation. Without meditating on Sunyata there is not any wisdom of Buddhahood available.
All religions emphasize that there is a soul or high-self or spirit or consciousness which is the master of a being who sometimes descends into hell, sometimes ascends up to heaven. It has not death and it is the master of transmigration when it descends and may unite with the God of its religion when it ascends. Buddhism admits this only in the eighth consciousness. But above this eighth consciousness, when it is sublimated through the meditation of non-egoism, that is Sunyata, it is not the soul at all. Thus when Buddhism uses the phrase "no soul," it means that in Buddhahood there is no soul; but the common person has a changeable soul which carries their life to wander in transmigration. This should be called the eighth consciousness in Buddhism and should be meditated away by Sunyata Samadhi. Thus it will become the wisdom of Buddhahood. Hence, when one is skilled in destroying false delusions and finds out the true nature of consciousness, he should take his practical progress into the Sunyata meditation. This is the fifth important stage of transmutation.
Regarding the Sunyata characteristics, there are two aspects. One is its nature which is like a mirror; the other is its manifestations which are like the different shadows in the mirror. To the accomplished Bodhisattvas or Buddhas, these are two in oneness; they are like two sides of the same piece of paper. But the novice who has not got the realization of oneness should practice them separately.
One should not worry any more about ones consciousness or mind or the objects outside the mind. Everything inside the mind and that outside the consciousness are both Sunyata themselves. They neither need thorough mentalization nor need thorough physical analysis. By this method the consciousness is sublimated into Buddhist wisdom in nature. After this sublimation is meditated upon, there are only some functions of wisdom to follow. One has to lay great stress on knowing the truth of Sunyata theoretically and practicing these methods diligently until the abstract Sunyata becomes concrete realization.
1. Meditate on the Four Negatives.
In the Mahaparinirvana Sutra Buddha taught the four negative phrases. One should only use trained mind (i.e., the well-trained mind in Samatha) in its right posture and carefully, clearly meditate with the following negatives.
Take any thing or being to examine its or his ego or origin, such as a flower. Is this flower containing a self or an ego or an origin? If so, in which part of it? Is it in the seed? But when it is open we cannot see its seed until it starts fading! Is it the bud or calyx, but before the bud started growing, what was its ego? Thus the flower has no self at all. Is the flower produced from the earth or mud? Why has another place full of earth or mud not grown such a flower? Thus the flower is not born just by other things outside itself. Is the flower born both from itself and from something else outside? If each of the two could not produce a flower separately, their totality cannot produce one, for one zero added to another zero makes zero. However, we know as a matter of fact that a flower is born. There must be some conditions which make its life possible. So everything is gathered by some conditions and when it is destroyed it also has some conditions to show it is finished or vanished. Hence a flower is born from a seed, from earth, from water, sunshine, and with the help of a gardener. Whenever any one of these conditions is lacking, the flower cannot exist. The conclusion therefore is that nothing has a self. Non-egoism is the truth of Sunyata. It is either nothing at all or a thing with ego. This is the meaning of Sunyata. When one knows that the nature of everything is Sunyata, one would not love or hate anything because oneself and the loved or hated objects are both of Sunyata.
In a period of meditation, one should concentratedly carefully think over this truth with ones Samatha. Whenever it seems that some realization of truth is appearing and the current of meditation seems to stop, one should just clearly look on it and do not think about it again so that no delusion but only Samapatti arises. One has to bring ones meditation back to the truth again. If ones Samatha has been well developed, such a case will not happen frequently. If it does one has to leave his meditation and do some other good practice such as worshiping and confession at this time, and try again next time.
2. Meditate on the Eight Negatives
After one meditates on the first pair, one knows the original nature of every Dharma is Sunyata. One then meditates on the appearance of every Dharma which seems to be existing for the time but actually is changing at every minute. There is no Dharma which is permanent. As it is not permanent, so it is also not annihilated (second pair).
When one has meditated on a single Dharma like this, then one tries to meditate on more than a single Dharma. Are there two Dharmas united or diverse? As their own natures are both Sunyata, their quantity or totality are also Sunyata. Unity or diversity are both impossible (third pair). After their quantity is recognized, one then meditates on the action of every Dharma and one finds out that their actions of either coming or going are all in vain. Thus the action or function of every Dharma is also Sunyata (fourth pair).
For instance, the birth and death of a girl is neither a production of her parents nor an extinction by Yama, the God of Death, for if her own consciousness did not come into the womb of her mother, even though her mothers ovum had been met by her fathers semen, the girl could not have been conceived. Yama is always waiting but the girls life might be maintained by some other conditions and before those conditions are gone, Yama could not take her life away.
A girls beauty changes daily and eventually she will be old and lose her beauty. One can find many examples of this in ones own family and neighbors. When a girl is married, it seems she is united with her husband; but when they divorce, it seems they are diverse. Even when they are living together on their honeymoon, they may sometimes seem to love each other completely, all in all, and sometimes fight or quarrel with each other. It is not possible to find so nice a couple who love each other in every moment, at every place, and on every occasion.
When a girl is loved by her lover who waits at night in the wilds for her, even the shadow of a bamboo, moved by wind in the moonlight seems to her lover that she is coming. After they are married their love no longer remains the same, and even if she is in the same room, she has gone from her husbands remembrance. Does the shadow which appears in a mirror come into the mirror; when it disappears, is it going out from the mirror? Both are delusions. Hence every action of every Dharma has neither a coming nor going.
B. Meditate on the Sunyata Conditions
1. The Ten Mysterious Gates
There are ten gates of wonderful manifestations as taught by the Hwa Yen School. I have omitted four of them which duplicate other ones. One may meditate on the six gates of mystic manifestations as follows:
(a) The mysterious gate of perfect yoga of the co-relation and co-existence of all things both in space and in time. As the nature of all Dharmas are Sunyata, every condition of every Dharma relates freely, moves freely, is united freely and plays freely. It is just like a great plain which does not belong to any ego-centered individual, and every person may play there. Hence the mystic circus brings their lions, elephants, horses, monkeys, bears and dogs with their girl and boy members to play there freely. So in the great Dharmadhatu which is of the great Sunyata, all Dharmas may play together and the space of four or ten directions and the time of the three periods may be united or separated, interlocked or interwoven at the meditators will since his mind has been sublimated by the Sunyata.
(b) The mysterious gate of sovereign power in connection with all the Dharmas. As oneself is Sunyata so are those other than self; as a being lacks self so does a thing lack self. Whenever the self is void where the power of the mysterious gate or rooms are opened, one is in all and all may be in one, too; one behind all, all may be behind one, too; small in great, great may be in small; low in high, high may be in low also. Thus all elements of beings and things are mutually identified. A universal identification forms an unlimited and ultimate freedom. Those American hippies who ask for more freedom by laziness onlybeard may be unshaven, clothes may be unwashed, girls may be sexually enjoyed without being married, drugs to enhance sex may be taken often, school lessons may be left but picnics should be frequently takensuch freedom is only a kind of suicide. One who really wants the great freedom should lay more stress on this meditation.
(c) The mysterious gate of performance of manifestations of either appearance or disappearance. When something appears, it appears in the Sunyata; when it disappears, it disappears into the same Sunyata. When the atom was only a potential, scientists treated it as superstition but Buddhists knew it could be broken up, 3000 years before the scientists. When the atom was made up into the atomic bomb it was not a new thing to the Buddhists. The atom and atomic bomb are one thing, but the former holds the potentiality of its disappearance, while the latter its appearance. Both form the complement of the whole entity of truth.
(d) The mysterious gate of sovereign power in different and opposite formswide or narrow (2nd gate), one or many (3rd gate), subtle or gross (6th gate). These pairs may interpenetrate one another commutably, freely, and uninterruptedly. Is not the finger narrower than a mountain but sometimes when held in front of ones eye it may hide a mountain in the distance. Is not the atomic bomb powerful and can destroy gross or great matter but it is invisible, as subtle as a spirit, when it is not split. Buddhists found out this truth approximately 3000 years earlier than the scientists. Are not the lungs 600 square feet larger than the body when they are extended; but they occupy only one small part of the body! Are not there 200 billion nerve cells in only one small brain? These examples are common things. If by the power of Sunyata, the mysterious and supernatural maya becomes much more inconceivable, yet it may actually be realized through this meditation.
(e) The mysterious gate of the various performances of separated Dharmas in the ten periods. Each of the past, present, and future also contains three periods. To the whole one, if these nine are added, it will make up the ten periods. By the speed of gnostic light, Buddha sees the things of the future and remembers things of the past. Time seems to go in reverse which is known by the theory of Einstein in these days, only Buddha knew it 3000 years earlier. Such a vertical connection completes the interconnection and interlocking of the separate beings along the nine periods. The precious five gates are mutually penetrated in the horizontal plane. When their vertical connection of time is added, it becomes four dimensions, which was known to Buddhists almost 30 centuries earlier than Einstein.
Two dimensions may be symbolized by a plane. Three dimensions by a cube. Four should be symbolized by a ball fully encircling a cross. But there is the fifth dimension when it is added causes a mysterious penetration, and this may be symbolized by this signcrossed vajra non-limitation of time and of space. Things only occur with length and width in mathematics, materials adding height are solid geometrical materials. Adding time again are durable materials, yet they are physical. With the addition of the Sunyata mystic emergence it then becomes metaphysical. Hence philosophically length, width, height, duration and Sunyata emanation form a fifth dimension, as I newly make this term.
(f) The mysterious gate of completion of virtues of the master and family working together harmoniously and brightly. If any one of the Dharmas or persons is taken as the chief one, all other Dharmas or persons might work agreeable as his retinue. For instance when the practitioner is practicing Ahimsa, all his neighbors follow his good example and out of great compassion send birds to their natural state from their cages, fishes to the ocean from their tanks, doves to the sky from their prisons. Remote neighbors follow their close neighbors, the village follows the remote neighbor, the town follows the village, the city and the whole nation and whole globe will follow one by one and the third world war will not happen. No matter how the facts really appear, one should meditate like this as if it is so fortunately becoming true. By the addition of the time dimension, the three periods may unite as one whole, so here and there, all persons of the whole world will eventually become kind, merciful and peaceful once and for all.
As Sunyata has no ego, it enables oneself to be united with all others. When one practitioner, Mr. A., takes one person as the master, all other persons of the ten Dharmadhatus, may be his family. At the same time, another practitioner, Mr. B., C., D. or so on may take someone in the family of Mr. A as his master and all other persons other than that master may be his family. Thus, master yet family, family yet master, they all have the philosophic emanation. Wonderful and inconceivable incarnations would happen without limitation. Again one master has his inner family and outer family, small family and big family, appeared family and disappeared family, small family in the big family, big family in the small family. Their transformations are at the will of the master without any confinement.
Alas! Very few persons know that Sunyata is not negativism. A philosophic, mysterious positive potentiality is within it. Still very, very few practitioners or scholars know the discriminations between the ten goodnesses and six paramitas which I am going to deal with below.
2. To Distinguish the Six Paramitas from Ten Good Conducts and Diligently Practice the Former Ones
(a) The liberatable way of charity. To give alms to the poor even frequently in an amount more than the whole world can contain is goodness which may get one a good rebirth in heaven, but to be liberated from heaven or earth one should give alms with the Sunyata which has no giver, non-giving, and non-objects of giving. In doing this liberatable charity, one is able to approach the liberation of Buddhahood. Buddha taught it in the Dragon Palace with the following stanza:
- "Give all things till the ego remains,
- Give the ego till others remain,
- Give the others till Dharmas remain,
- Give Dharmas till Buddha to attain."
- Holding the Silas not depend upon
- Body, speech and mind, or depend upon
- Three periods, two sides, or depend upon
- Delusions, or awareness but by none
- Dependence is precepts holding the precepts on.
(c) The liberatable way of patience. To be patient on the occasion of misery or to the harmful person or at difficult work does good which is not sufficient to be liberated by the paramita. He who practices this should follow the main meaning of the stanza taught by Buddha on the same occasion:
- Patience never knows there is I or you
- Neither keep the idea of mine and yours
- All men, things and views should be purified
- When all Dharmas become pure its patience.
(d) The liberatable way of diligence. To exert ones energies to do good and to leave no stone unturned to forbid evil, these are profane merits by which alone one does not reach the thither shore of Nirvana, but following the teaching below one does:
- As men are in their nature so am I
- As Dharmas are in nature so is my
- Lord, knowing there is no thing to gain
- It is the real diligence so high
(e) The liberatable way of concentration. Sitting straight, thinking of nothing, neither sleepy nor disturbed in ones mind, this is a common attitude of a religious person. One does not abide in the truth unless one can follow the stanza taught by Buddha Gautama correctly:
(f) The liberatable way of wisdom. Even one who is wise as a serpent or as Solomon and can see as far through a brick wall as anybody but sees no Sunyata, gets no realization thereof. One would not be liberated at all. Hence the ultimate Prajnaparamita should be practiced under the guidance of the following stanza:
- All Dharmas are so plain
- Has neither goal nor vain
- There is view without sight
- But not view it as light
- No request no volition
- Pity on fools is real wit.
The wise one does know that the Sunyata does not stand alone. The ancients called those persons who had little recognition of Sunyata and mistook it as a thing of voidness separate from everything else as men of dry wisdom. Hence one should develop five kinds of Bodhicitta.
a. Bodhicitta of Will
When one is still in the Course of Hinayana, one finds out that he is in transmigration and suffers many kinds of pain and one then has pity on those who are suffering with the same pains. A strong sympathy arises in his mind. He might think that if I were a Buddha I might save them. So he keeps such a good will to become a Buddha for the sake of saving mankind and every sentient being trapped within the same transmigration. Every day he should frequently think like this. He might write down his special good wills in some ten provisions or more. Every day he should repeat them and practice every good Dharma for their accomplishment and ask his Protector to help him until this aim is reached.
b. Bodhicitta of Conducts
When the above mentioned wills are developed, one must perform with the six paramitas many myriad conducts of goodness to carry on all the good wills and actually benefit all sentient beings. Thus all the eight right paths of Hinayana and the six paramitas of Mahayana and all the Vajrayana precepts thereof under this guide or basis will be fulfilled.
c. Bodhicitta of Victorious Signification
To get rid of the volition of Bodhicitta, to flee from the demon of compassion, one has to develop the victorious signification which is thoroughly fixed with the Sunyata of nature. One of my stanzas on Bodhicitta may be introduced below:
- The best significant Bodhicitta
- Is without any kind of work or data
- There is no real mind to arise it
- Nor is there volition to hold it.
There is neither pleasure nor pain, neither sufferer nor enjoyer, neither agreement nor sympathy, neither I nor he. One may know this well but one has to have some Bodhicitta to pity them who do not know that the Bodhicitta and the person who has been pitied are both of Sunyata. One is still in the Sunyata.
When one has passed the study of exoteric doctrines and starts to learn Vajrayana, ones Bodhicitta is no longer confined to mentalization but always keeps ones mind identified with the materiality. Thus Bodhicitta is symbolized by the moon. One must visualize ones Bodhicitta as a bright moon which is situated in ones heart and on a lotus in the middle of the heart. From the moon many rays of great compassion are emitted to sentient beings through all of transmigration.
When one has studied Tantra and gets progress in the Anuttarayoga, one is enabled to practice the vajra love. One then has to develop this kind of Bodhicitta of Kunda which is the gnostic semen containing both the Sunyata of nature and the great compassion and great pleasure. Through the good karmas held in the lotus of the Dakini, the ultimate salvation may be fulfilled. This is the final and highest, deepest Bodhicitta.
Under the first two kinds of Bodhicitta, adding thoughts of impermanence and the pains of transmigration, one may practice again great compassion toward sentient beings and things or Dharmas. Adding the Sunyata meditations, through the third Bodhicitta of Victorious Signification, one practices the great compassion of the same entity with all sentient beings and things and that of non-condition. That is, without any particular connection with others, one should have great compassion towards every being and every thing.
Thus the human mind which was acting in a self-centered psychical sphere now is sublimated by the Bodhicitta and great compassion and becomes the mind of a Bodhisattva who is the prince of Buddhas and acting in the accumulation of Holy Karmas.
VI. To Distinguish Esoteric Doctrines and Resultant Methods from the Exoteric Doctrines and Causal Methods, Letting the Highest Right View that is Non-Dualism of Mind and Matter be the Motive of the Practitioner to Practice the Meditation of Vajrayana
From the above five Bodhicittas, one should know that the last two belong to the doctrines of Tantra and are under the guide of the highest Right Viewnon-dualism of mind and matter. For instance, heart is matter but it may be visualized as a lotus which is mind; the moon is matter, but it may be also visualized as a symbol of Bodhicitta which is mind. Anger is mind but when the blood comes to the face and the latter becomes red, it is matter. Things through the ignorance of human nature have been separated into categories for the convenience of study which is the fundamental error usually and frequently made by scientists.
For the accomplished practitioner, every thing is connected with the total truth which is harmonized by its own nature. Consciousness cannot play alone without the elements of matter. Consciousness is not mind alone, any other than that the consciousness is not matter alone. Everything is mind yet matter, matter yet mind, mind and matter have no differentiation at all.
When one is getting the initiation from the Guru Vajradhara, ones potential wisdom of Buddha has been awakened in which there is no room for human consciousness to remain and within the wisdom of Buddha there is no dualism. Hence the body of Buddha is not flesh but wisdom and the mind of Buddha too is not spirit but wisdom.
Passing through the courses of Hinayana and Mahayana when one is practicing the Evolutional Yoga and Perfect Yoga of Anuttara Tantra, one is bound to indulge in the deepest and highest right view of identification of body and consciousness. All those methods of the Consequence position of Buddha or Heruka which I dealt with in the transformation of the body in my Booklets New Nos. 75 and 76, may be practiced as well in this practice of transmutation of consciousness.
The whole course of Vajrayana is just like a crystal ball; from any point of any side one can see its opposite point clearly and transparently. When one practices the vajra body on that side, one can accomplish the vajra consciousness in wisdom as well as in the practice on this side.
The practitioner is able, or at least trying, to see every man like his Yidam, every woman as the Dakini; every sound, as incantation; every food as the nectars of Samadhi; every smell as sacred and secret fragrance; touch as the smooth and soft feelings of Samatha; the cloud in the sky is seen as Dharma or phenomenon and the object of his great love is the Dharmadhatu; great anger is the only enemy of his own self or egoism; of great ignorance is the Vidya, great pride is the Characteristic of Buddhahood, of great doubt is the Hua Tou of Chan. In his field of consciousness, there is no thought of profanity or of mortality or of manhood.
He may, or at least try, to see every form like the appearance of the Sunyata and approach the wisdom of profound insight or Pratyaveksanajnana, to feel every sensation like the manifestation of truth and approach the wisdom of equality of Samatajnana, to think every conception like the awakeness of full Enlightenment and approach the wisdom of the likeness of a great round and perfect mirror or Adarsanajnana, to act every conduct like the Holy Karma of salvation and approach the wisdom of fulfillment or Krtyanusthana-jnana. Finally his consciousness may be thoroughly transmuted into the wisdom of the Buddhist vastest universe or Dharmadhatu-prakritijnana. However the yoga of transmutation of the consciousness lays most stress on the mentality. There are some deepest and fastest paths of mentality which should be practiced as follows.
B. Through the practice of Mahamudra one finds the Enlightened Entity in his realization on the occasion of the Fourth Initiation. He then recovers the Sunyata in his meditation not by thinking but by realization. Based upon this realization of Enlightened Entity, he meditates on this and practices the first stage of Mahamudra which is called "Concentrical Yoga." Whenever he finds out there is some volition on the concentration of Enlightened Entity, he must leave it and practice the second stage of Mahamudra which is called "Leave Play-Words Yoga." When this yoga is matured or accomplished, he not only in his meditation actually leaves the play words but also on every occasion in his daily life does the same. Then he comes to the third stage which is called "One Taste Yoga." There is no dualism between any opposites. He no longer remains in concentration by sitting but in every kind of action he is still in the one taste yoga. When he is very skillful in this yoga and his practice becomes habitual without exertion, he attains the "Yoga of Non-Practice" which is the fourth and final yoga of Mahamudra.
C. Through the particular profound right view of the Great perfection imparted by the Nyingmapa School, one views every thing as perfect by nature. There is nothing to be liberated, nothing to be bound. Hence the practitioner needs neither practice nor pass the four stages of Mahamudra. He reaches the goal without walking. It is more or less like the Chan School teachings of China.
- All Good Fulfillment. When the practitioner has got the realization of Great Perfection, he sees everything as Sunyata, he hears, smells, tastes, touches everything and all is like Sunyata and all are good. Hence his five consciousness of the give organs are becoming wisdom. He knows the quality of good or bad and quantity more or less of each thing but never is moved or cheated by them. Good things cannot make him lustful, having less things cannot make him stingy. His five consciousness have been transmuted into the wisdom of perfecting the Holy Karma.
- Sacred Fulfillment. He lives with a Dakini in a cave or under a single old tree, his mind is occupied by Sunyata without leaving any lustful actions between them. Whenever there is the pleasure, there he finds his Sunyata. His sixth consciousness is transmuted into the wisdom of profound insight.
- Enlightened Forbidden Fulfillment. He always is naked, and, accompanied by the Dakini, passes over every mountain and village, wears all kinds of ornaments made from skulls as the Heruka used, without any shame. He seems to see or meet no one different from himself. To him there is no others or self in his conception. His selfish ego or the seventh consciousness has been transmuted into the wisdom of equality.
- Mad-like fulfillment. He is like a mad man passing through the city, market, theater and brothel, and he always sings, dances, plays, laughs and fights without any shame. He treats every one like his own shadow in the Sunyata mirror of brightness. His eighth consciousness is transmuted into the wisdom of the great and round mirror.
- Victorious Conqueror Fulfillment. He conquers food and may take poison as nectar. He conquers energy and may fly to wherever he wishes. He conquers the directions and every opposite. Samsara and Nirvana to him have no differentiation. His ninth consciousness has been transmuted into the wisdom of Dharmadhatu, or Universe in the Buddhist sense.