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- Five Turbidities (Five Corruptions, Five Defilements, Five Depravities, Five Filths, Five Impurities)
- 1. the defilement of views, when incorrect, perverse thoughts and ideas are predominant
- 2. the defilement of passions, when all kinds of transgressions are exalted
- 3. the defilement of the human condition, when people are usually dissatisfied and unhappy
- 4. the defilement of the life-span, when the human life-span as a whole decreases
- 5. the defilement of the world-age, when war and natural disasters are rife.