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Bodhipakkhiyadhamma

From Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
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In Buddhism, bodhipakkhiyā dhammā (Pali, variant spellings include bodhipakkhikā dhammā and bodhapakkhiyā dhammā; Skt.: bodhipakṣa dharma) are qualities (dhammā) conducive or related to (pakkhiya) awakening (bodhi).

In the Pali commentaries, the term bodhipakkhiyā dhammā is used to refer to seven sets of such qualities regularly mentioned by the Buddha throughout the Pali Canon. Within these seven sets of Enlightenment qualities, there is a total of thirty-seven individual qualities (sattatiṃsa bodhipakkhiyā dhammā).

These seven sets of qualities are recognized by both Theravada and Mahayana Buddhists as complementary facets of the Buddhist Path to Enlightenment.


Seven sets of thirty-seven qualities

In the Pali Canon's Bhāvanānuyutta sutta ("Mental Development Discourse," AN 7.67), the Buddha is recorded as saying:

'Monks, although a monk who does not apply himself to the meditative development of his mind may wish, "Oh, that my mind might be free from the taints by non-clinging!", yet his mind will not be freed. For what reason? "Because he has not developed his mind," one has to say. Not developed it in what? In the four foundations of mindfulness, the four right kinds of striving, the four bases of success, the five spiritual faculties, the five spiritual powers, the seven factors of enlightenment and the Noble Eightfold Path.'

Elsewhere in the Canon, and in numerous places in the Āgamas of other early schools, these seven sets of thirty-seven qualities conducive to Enlightenment are enumerated as:

Four frames of reference (satipatthana, S. smṛtyupasthāna)

  1. Contemplation of the body (kayanupassana, S. kayānupasthāna)
  2. Contemplation of feelings (vedananupassana, S. vedanānupasthāna)
  3. Contemplation of consciousness (cittanupassana, S. cittanupasthāna)
  4. Contemplation of mental qualities (dhammanupassana, dharmanupasthāna)

Four right exertions (sammappadhana, S. samyakprahṇa)

  1. Exertion for the non-arising of unskillful states
  2. Exertion for the abandoning of unskillful states
  3. Exertion for the arising of skillful states
  4. Exertion for the sustaining of skillful states


Four bases of power (iddhipada, S. ṛddhipāda)

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  1. Will (chanda, S. chanda)
  2. Energy (viriya, S. virya)
  3. Consciousness (citta, S. citta)
  4. Discrimination (vimamsa or vīmaŋsā, S. mimāṃsā)

Five faculties (indriya, S. indriya)

  1. Faith (saddha, S. śraddā)
  2. Energy (viriya, s. virya)
  3. Mindfulness (sati, S. smṛti)
  4. Concentration (samadhi, S. samādhi)
  5. Wisdom (panna, S. prajñā)

Five powers (bala, S. bala)

  1. Faith (saddha, S. śraddā)
  2. Energy (viriya, s. virya)
  3. Mindfulness (sati, S. smṛti)
  4. Concentration (samadhi, S. samādhi)
  5. Wisdom (panna, S. prajñā)

Seven factors of Enlightenment (bojjhanga, S. bodhiyaṅga)

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  1. Mindfulness (sati, S. smṛti)
  2. Investigation (dhamma vicaya, S. dharmapravicaya)
  3. Energy (viriya, S. virya)
  4. Joy (pīti, S. prīti)
  5. Tranquility (passaddhi, S. praśrabdhi)
  6. Concentration (samadhi, S. samādhi)
  7. Equanimity (upekkha, S. upekṣā)

Noble Eightfold Path (Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, S. Ārya 'ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ)

  1. Right View (samma ditthi, S. samyag-dṛṣṭi)
  2. Right Intention (samma sankappa, S. samyak-saṃkalpa)
  3. Right Speech (samma vacca, S. samyag-vāc)
  4. Right Action (samma kammanta, S. samyak-karmānta)
  5. Right Livelihood (samma ajiva, S. samyag-ājīva)
  6. Right Energy (samma vayama, S. samyag-vyāyāma)
  7. Right Mindfulness (samma sati, S. samyak-smṛti)
  8. Right Concentration (samma samadhi, S. samyak-samādhi)

Forty-three qualities

In the Pali Canon's Netti discourses 112 and 237, forty-three bodhipakkhiya dhammas are enumerated which include the aforementoned thirty-seven plus:

  1. impermanence (aniccasaññā)
  2. suffering (dukkha)
  3. non-self (anatta)
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In the Pali literature

The technical term, bodhipakkhiyā dhammā, explicitly referring to the seven sets of qualities identified above, is first encountered in the Pali commentaries; nonetheless, the seven sets of bodhipakkhiya dhammas are themselves first collated, enumerated and referenced in the Sutta Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka.


Sutta Pitaka

In the Digha Nikaya's famed Maha-parinibbana Sutta (DN 10), which recounts the Buddha's last days, in the Buddha's last address to his assembly of followers he states:

"Now, O bhikkhus, I say to you that these teachings of which I have direct knowledge and which I have made known to you — these you should thoroughly learn, cultivate, develop, and frequently practice, that the life of purity may be established and may long endure, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well being, and happiness of gods and men.
"And what, bhikkhus, are these teachings? They are the four foundations of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four constituents of psychic power, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven factors of enlightenment, and the Noble Eightfold Path. These, bhikkhus, are the teachings of which I have direct knowledge, which I have made known to you, and which you should thoroughly learn, cultivate, develop, and frequently practice...."

In the Majjhima Nikaya's "Greater Discourse to Sakuludāyin" (MN 77), when asked why his disciples venerated him, the Buddha identified five qualities he possessed: highest virtues (adhisīle ... paramena sīlakkhandha); highest knowledge and vision (abhikkante ñāṇadassane); highest wisdom (adhipaññāya ... paramena paññākkhandha); his explanation of the Four Noble Truths (ariyasaccāni); and, his identification of numerous ways to develop wholesome states. The Buddha's elaboration of the last item included the seven sets of thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya dhammas which are enumerated individually in this discourse.

In the Samyutta Nikaya, the fifth division's first seven chapters are each devoted to one of the bodhipakkhiya dhammas. While there is a great deal of repetition among these chapters' discourses, these seven chapters include almost 900 discourses.

In the Anguttara Nikaya's "Upajjhāyasuttaṃ" (AN 5.6.6), the Buddha recommends five things for a monk to overcome spiritual hindrances: control mental faculties; eat the right amount of food; maintain wakefulness; be aware of merit; and, develop the bodhipakkhiya dhammas throughout the day.

In the Khuddaka Nikaya, the bodhipakkhiya dhammas are mentioned at Iti. 82, Th. 900, and Nett. 31, 112, 197, 237, 240 and 261.


Abhidhamma Pitaka

The bodhipakkhiya dhammas are mentioned in several passages of the Abhidhamma, such as at Vbh. sections 571 and 584 .


Commentaries

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In the Visuddhimagga, Buddhaghosa enumerates the seven sets of bodhipakkhiya dhammas along with a relevant Suttapitaka discourse (Vism. XXII.33), describes each set (Vism. XXII.34-38), and describes their existence in the consciousness of an arahant (Vism. XXII.39-40). In addition, Buddhaghosa factors the 37 qualities in a manner so as to describe fourteen non-redundant qualities (Vism. XXII.40-43); thus, for instance, while nine qualities (zeal, consciousness, joy, tranquility, equanimity, intention, speech, action, livelihood) are mentioned only once in the full list of 37 qualities, the other five qualities are mentioned multiple times. Table 1 below identifies the five qualities spanning multiple bodhipakkhiya-dhamma sets.


  7 SETS OF QUALITIES
  4
Frames of
Reference
4
Right
Exertions
4
Bases of
Power
5
Faculties
5
Powers
7
Bojjhanga
Noble
Eightfold
Path
5
 
Q
U
A
L
I
T
I
E
S
 
Faith
 
      saddha saddha    
 
Energy
 
  4
samma-
padhana
viriya viriya viriya viriya samma
vayama
 
Mindfulness
 
4
sati-
paṭṭhānā
    sati sati sati samma
sati
 
Concentration
 
      samadhi samadhi samadhi samma
samadhi
 
Wisdom
 
    vimamsa panna panna dhamma
vicaya
samma
ditthi
Table 1: Five qualities mentioned 28 times across seven sets of qualities conducive to Enlightenment (based on Vism. XXII.41-43).

In terms of other Pali commentaries, the bodhipakkhiya dhammas are also mentioned in Dhammapada-atthakatha (DhA i.230), Suttanipata-atthakatha (SnA 164), and Jataka-atthakatha (J i.275, iii.290, and v.483).

Source

Wikipedia:Bodhipakkhiyadhamma