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Blue Annals: Part 10 (Kalachakra)

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 BOOK X. THE KĀLACAKRA.
I shall (now) relate the story of the origin of the Śrī Kālacakra-Tantra (dpal dus kyi 'khor lo'i rgyud) and its pre?cepts.

SECRET MANTRA IN JAMBUDVĪPA

Now the general account of the propagation of the Mahāyāna Guhyamantra ([[theg pa chen po [gsang sngags]]) in Jambudvīpa: In the beginning, in the East, king Pradyota candra (rab gsal zla ba) and others obtained the Yoga-Tantras, such as the Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha and others, and preached them. Then the ācārya Nāgārjuna and his disciples obtained the Yoga-Tantras, including the Guhyasamāja and others, and preached them. They spread from the South. After that from the West Śrī Kambala (dpal la ba pa) and others discovered the Yoginī-Tantras (rnal 'byor ma'i rgyud) in the country of Oḍḍīyāna. They also spread towards Madhyadeśa.

After that, there appeared from the realm of Śambhala commentaries (on the Kālacakra-Tantra) composed by Bodhisattvas, such as the Śrī Kālacakra (%buddhist diety?) and others. They spread towards Madhyadeśa.

DATE OF THE KĀLACAKRATANTRA

In the Vimalaprabhā it is said: Here the fixing of chronological calculations (byed pa la nges pa): In 600 years from the time of the Tathāgata-the period of Manjuśrī (jam dpal); in 800 years from that time- the era of the Mlecchas; by lower?ing the era of the Mlecchas by 182 years, (one obtains) the {R 754} time of rigs ldan rgyal dka', during which Kulika Durjaya introduced the "lesser" chronology (mentioned in the Kālacakra). This date should be regarded as a correct calculation based on the era of the Mlecchas.
"The past Prabhāva year, etc. " mean the cycles of sixty years of which the first was the Prabhāva (rab byung) year (me yos, Fire-Hare year, 1027 A.D.) and which (are designated) as ?Prabhāva and others."

Each period of sixty years, which preceded the present years (were called) the "past Prabhāva." Basing themselves on the above quotation, most of the later scholars maintained that the time of the appearance of the Kālacakra in Madhyadeśa corresponded to the beginning of the first cycle (rab byung) of the "past" years ('das lo). But it seems to me that the Kālacakra had appeared in Āryadeśa long before that time, for in the Sahajasaṃvar sādhana composed by the mahāsiddha (Vajra)ghaṇṭapāda is found the second śloka of the introductory (1a) verse of the Vimalaprabhā: "(He) was impressed by the Bhagavatī Prajnā, which though formless, yet has a form." (rnam par bcas kyang rnam med bcom ldan 'das shes ?rab ma ste de yis 'khyud).

Also because after Ghaṇṭapāda (came) rus sbal zhabs. He (transmitted it) to dza lan dha ri pa; the latter to Kṛṣṇapāda (nag po pa); the latter to Bhadrapāda (bzang po zhabs); the latter to Vijayapāda (rNam rgyal iabs); the latter to Tilli-pa; the latter to Nā-ro-pa. Thus from Ghaṇṭapāda) till Nā-ro-pa there have been eight teachers in the Line. Also {R 755}

because Nā-ro-pa and Kālacakrapāda, father and son, were contemporaries. Further, because it is said in the gshin rje gshed kyi 'khor lo'i gsal byed, composed by Śrī Virūpa, that he had written the text basing himself on the Kālacakra.
Also because, when relating the story of tsi lu pa's search for the Kālacakra, it was said that the ācārya had read (it) in the vihāra of Ratnagiri (rin chen ri bo) which had been left undamaged by the Turuṣkas, and was of the opinion that, in general, for the (attainment) of Enlightenment the Mahāyāna Guhyamantra (gsang sngags) was necessary, and that the text had to be studied with the help of the commentary by the Bodhisattvas. Accordingly he proceeded in search of the Kālacakra. Thus it has to be admitted that the system of Kālacakra seems to have reached Āryadeśa at an early date, and that (the system) became known to many people in the time of Kālacakrapāda, father and son.
The statement by glan bang so ba and others that the first translation (of the Kālacakra) into Tibetan was that of gyi jo, seems too be correct, because the coming of the paṇḍita Somanātha (zla ba mgon po) took place in the later life of gra pa mngon shes, who said that in his youth he had heard the Kālacakra from (his) uncle.

TRANMISSION IN TIBET :

rwa lo and ?bro?s transmissions bu ston) and dolpa pa) were the two great expounders of the Kālacakra in the Land of Snows. These two first obtained it from the spiritual descendants of rwa lo tsā ba), but later they studied it according to the tradition of 'bro lo tsā ba. Thus rwa and 'bro have been the chief (expounders of the Kālacakra in Tibet). In connection with this, the followers of the tradition of 'bro used to say that: Kālacakrapāda, the Eldest (dus zhabs chen po) obtained it from Kulika (rigs Idan). Then Kālacakrapāda the Junior (dus zhabs pa chung ngu), Somanātha (zla ba mgon po), sgom pa dkon mchog bsrungs, sgro ston gnam la brtsegs, yu mo, his son Dharmeśvara, the scholar [[nam mkha' 'od, se chen nam mkha]' rgyal mtshan]], the Dharmasvāmin [['jam dbyangs gsar ma], kun mkhyen chos sku 'od zer, kun spangs thugs rje brtson 'grus, byang sems rgyal ba ye shes, kun mkhyen yon tan rgya mtsho]], and the Dharmasvāmin kun mkhyen chen po. The followers of the rwa lo tradition state as follows: Kulika (rigs Idan), tsi lu pa (Celuka), Piṇḍopa, Kālacakrapāda the Eldest (dus zhabs che ba), Kālacakrapāda, the Junior]] (chung ba), Manjukīrti, the Nepālese Samantaśrī, rwa chos rab, rwa ye shes seng ge, [[rwa] 'bum seng, the Venerable rje btsun rgwa lo, rong pa shes ?rab seng ge, and the bla ma rdo rje rgyal mtshan. The latter taught (the system) to bu ston rin po che.

Further, skyi ston 'jam dbyangs obtained it from rong pa shes rab seng ge, kun mkh?yen chen po obtained it from him. bu (ston) and dol pa pa, the two, obtained the system according to the tradition of rwa lo tsā ba. Later they, obtained many precepts according to the tradition of 'bro lo tsā ba and others. The accounts about the teacher in whose time the Kālacakra had been obtained from Kulika (rigs ldan) in Āryadeśa, and the (first) disciples on whom it was bestowed, are at variance. According to the rgyud la 'jug pa'i man ngag rin po che za ma tog kha 'byed pa by glan bang so ba chos kyi dbang phyug, a disciple of tre po mgon po: By the words handed down from the siddha and his followers it is meant that it had continued in a regular succession.

(THE FIRST) KĀLACAKRA LINEAGE Now the Lineage: king pad ma dkar po, a manifestation of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara, who was indicated in the last śloka of the prophecy (given by Buddha about the kings of Śambhala), taught (the system) to the ācārya Kālacakrapāda.
This ācārya belonged to the kṣatriya caste of Madhyadeśa in (2b) India, and was born after his royal parents had performed the rite ensuring the birth of a noble son (kulaputra). He was learned in the five branches of knowledge, and was known to be a manifestation of Ārya Ma?juśrī. He was blessed by the Venerable Tārā, whose face he saw clearly. After he had acquired all the "lower perfections," the Venerable
{R 757}

One once told him: In the Northern Śambhala there exist many Tantras and commentaries taught and prophesied by the Buddha. Go in search of them and listen to them! He then thought of going there.

In the opinion of some scholars he had joined a caravan of merchants, and proceeded there. Some said that he was guided there by a phantom monk. Again some said that the Venerable Tārā herself helped him. Again some said that when he decided to proceed to Śambhala, and was preparing (for the journey), he visited Śambhala in his vision, and obtained the doctrines from Ārya Avalokiteśvara himself (rigs ldan pad ma dkar po). This last statement should be accepted. When he was residing in Madhyadeśa, tsi lu pa preached the system to five paṇḍitas: Piṇḍo ācārya, 'dul ba 'byung gnas blo gros, thar pa 'byung gnas? sbas pa, seng ge rgyal mtshan, and mtha' yas rnam par rgyal ba. When they had mastered it, he journeyed to Puṣpahari, and stayed there preaching the system to na ro pan? chen and others.
PIṆḌO

Though all of his disciples were endowed with excellent qualities, one named Piṇḍo ācārya especially distinguished himself. This was due to the fact that in a former existence he had been a shortwitted monk, and had performed a sādhana in order to improve his intellect.
After receiving a prophecy by a deva in his dream, he made out of coral an image of Kurukullā and inserted it into the mouth of a dead woman. He sat cross-legged on the corpse and meditated for seven days. Then (the dead woman) looked up at him and uttered: What do you want? At that time if he would have said that he wished to get by heart whatever had been seen by him, he would have obtained it. But being disappointed with his intelligence, he asked: I wish to be able to commit to memory all that which has been written by me. And so ?t happened, and he became known as paṇḍita Piṇḍo ācārya. He became known in Madhyadeśa {R 758} as Vāgiśvarakīrti, and was attended by twelve junior paṇḍitas. He heard the Doctrine from the ācārya Kālacakrapāda (dus zhabs pa), and was able to memorize the whole text after listening to it once.

KĀLACAKRAPĀDA SENIOR AND JUNIOR

The holder of his Spiritul Lineage (was) one named dge bsnyen byang chub. His son was a very great paṇḍita who studied under his father's brother dgon pa ba. He obtained (the system) together with Nā-ro-pa from Kālacakrapāda, the Senior, and became known as Kālacakrapāda, the Junior.
Moreover differences in the views impressed by the "father" and "son". These "father" and ?son" having once said while residing in Madhyadeśa that One who does not know the Kālacakra, would not know the Vajrayāna, caused dis?pleasure among paṇḍitas, who having gathered in Madhyadeśa, prepared seats at Vikramaśīla and held a debate. jo bo chen po could not be defeated. Then all rose from their seats, and he placed his foot on their heads. Except Dā-bodhisattva, all obtained instruction in the Kālacakra from him. He became also known as dus? 'khor ba and propagated widely the system.

SOMANĀTHA

At that time there was in the country of Kāśmīra an excellent brāhmaṇa scholar named bzang po of Sūryaketu, when he was teaching the Doctrine to Paṇḍita Sonasati, Lakṣmīkara, Dānaśrī, Candrarāhula, Somanātha, and others, the Paṇḍita Vinayākaramati ('dul ba 'byung gnas blo gros) sent the Sekoddeśa and the Sekaprakriyā, and he having given them to read to the paṇḍitas, all were filled with wonder.
In particular, the Teacher Somanātha of Kāśmīra was filled with great faith, and having discontinued his studies there, proceeded in search of that system. In Madhyadeśa he met dus 'khor ba and asked him for instruction in the Kālacakra. The latter having given him instruction, he became an accomplished scholar in the complete commentary of the Tantra, in the Tantra itself, the precepts, and in the initiation rite.
This Teacher belonged
{R 759}
to a Brahmin family and till the age of ten he studied his father's doctrine, and was able to memorize sixteen ślokas after reading them once. After that his mother introduced him to Buddhism. He having mastered the science of the Kāśmīrī nyi ma rgyal mtshan and Kālacakrapāda, the Junior, became a paṇḍita. He, intending to spread the system in Tibet, proceeded there, and asked gnyos 'byung po: Are you able to translate this book? The latter replied : I am unable to translate it, but there is a way out of it. I shall send a message to the son of the kalyāṇa-mitra Ice pa of bzang yul in g.yor po who will be able to assist you with money. He sent a messenger, after which Ice, father and son, invited him. They requested him, and a proper translation (of the text) was made by him. The great achievement of these 'father' and `son' was that, in general, they were endowed with a proper reverence, and attended on all translators and paṇḍitas, and, in particular, they possessed a great knowledge of the Mahāyāna Guhya?mantra.

They used to spend all their wealth for the sake of religion. When they first met the great Kāśmīrī teacher (Somanātha), they presented him with three golden srangs, a complete set of garments, including a mantle, and begged him to stay. After that they saw him off as far as Chu śul and furnished him with thirty loads of wine. a zha rgya ?gar rtsegs also acted as translator, and for a whole year he fed thirty men and horses. (When they had finished the translation of the text), he presented him as remuneration thirty golden srangs, as well as another thirty srangs on various occasions. In all he presented him sixty golden srangs, and pleased him.
After that the lo tsā ba and the paṇḍita were invited by 'gar ston of the Northern Upland, the kalyāṇa?-mitra gra pa, and the scholar rdo rje rgyan of skar chung to their residences. While they were receiving instruction in the Tantra itself and its commentary, the kalyāṇa-mitra lce, father and son, also listened to it. After that the Kāśmīrī Somanātha proceeded to India to present offerings to (his) 96 (% why is this here?- ZMR) {R 760} Teacher and the Vajrāsana. When he had offered a great quantity of gold, he removed his doubts concerning (the Kālacakra) assisted by his former brother in initiation (snga? ma'i mched po) 'dul da'i 'byung gnas blo gros and Siṃhadhvaja (seng ge rgyal mtshan). When he (Somanātha) again returned to Tibet, lce, father and son, obtained once more the Kālacakra from him.

There appears to have existed a later translation (of the text) by ?bro lo tsā ba. lce, father and son, taught it to the bla ma 'go chen po of dol, named nyi ma. The latter preached it to the great scholar klubs Saṇghakīrti. The latter to his son. The latter to glan, the Great (glan chen po).

SECOND LINEAGE
Again, according to the second Lineage: When the Great Kāśmīrī Teacher (Somanātha) arrived in Tibet for the second time, he was pleased by the reverence and service, paid to him by the kalyāṇa-mitra dkon mchog bsrung of 'phan? yul and his disciple, who attended on him for a considerable time. He therefore bestowed on them the explanation of the Tantra itself, its commentary (Vimalaprabhā), together with the precepts, which he had not given to other Tibetan scholars. They (dkon mchog bsrung dpon slob gnyis) bestowed them on the Venerable (rje btsun) yu mo, the Great. From him the great scholar tre bo mgon po, the Great, and the Master of the Doctrine se received them. The great scholar (mkhas pa'i skye bo tre bo mgon po) taught (the system) to glan. He taught it also to klubs jo sras. The latter to glan chos kyi dbang phyug.

THIRD LINEAGE
Again, according to the third Lineage: dus kyi' khor? lo ba, the Last, and Śrī Nā-ro-pa (transmitted it) to Ma?jukīrti (4b) and Abhayākara. These two taught the Tantra and commentary (Vimalaprabh?) to the bla ma gnyan lo tsā ba and rgwa lo tsā ba, who expressed the desire to study the Tantra only. The Venerable 'gos also studied under these two teachers, and thus till the Master (mnga' bdag, se chos kyi mnga? bdag).

FOURTH LINEAGE
Again, according to the fourth Lineage: Abhaya and his {R 761} brother taught it to the paṇḍita Samantaśrī, the lo tsā ba and paṇḍita. The latter to klubs. Further, Anupamarakṣita, Sādhuputra, Dharmākaraśānti, and Vikśāntadeva. The latter to the great Kāśmīrī paṇḍita Śākyaśrībhadra, matchless on the surface of the Earth. He to glan, 'father' and 'son' --so it is said. According to the dus kyi 'khor lo'i bsdus don, com?posed by the bla ma bsod nams od zer ba:
Thus in the Realm of Śambhala exists the Kālacakra-Tantra together with its commentary and precepts, but in the Āryadeśa of India, (the Kālacakra) was first obtained in Śambhala from a mani?festation of a Bodhisattva by an Indian named the monk bsod snyoms pa, the Great (Piṇḍo-pa). It is not known what Bodhisattva manifested himself in him. The latter (taught it) to the Southern brāhmaṇa Dārikapā(da). The latter to tsi lu pa. The latter to Kālacakrapāda. The latter to dus 'khor ba, the Great. The latter to two of his disciples ?Bodhibhadra and Sādhuputra. Bodhibhadra had three disci?ples: the guru Abhaya, tsa mi ba, the Great (tsa mi sangs ?rgyas grags pa), and Abhiyukta.

Sādhuputra had two disciples: Dharmākara and Bhāskara. The ācārya se lo tsā ba said that he had listened (to the exposition of the Kālacakra) once by the guru Abhaya, twice by tsa ?mi, then (to the exposition of) the first part (of the text) by Abhiyukta, and once by Bhāskara. From him gnyos 'od ma obtained it, who said that he had studied it for three years. Then the teacher se lo tsā ba proceeded to dbus. In his absence he (gnyos 'od ma) marked with white the passages in the text that were not understood by him. On his (se lo's) way from dbus to India, gnyos 'od ma asked about these passages, and when se lo was coming to India all his doubts were removed. He then obtained the exposition of all the texts, together with their initiation rites and precepts, and all his doubts were removed. bkra shis rin chen and gnyos sgom obtained it from 'od ma. The latter meditated on the precepts and obtained the signs of spiritual realization. He also obtained the permission (lung) to preach the text, but {R 762}

he did not Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. well. bkra shis rin chen listened to it for 12 years, and knew it, as well as 'od ma himself, and thus be?came like a well-filled vase. He also. obtained the teachings of rwa, ?bro, gyi jo, and others, and used to say that 'there was no one better than himself'. The ācārya dus 'khor ba ob?tained it from him on thirty-two occasions, and mastered it in the manner of a vase filled to the brim. The scholar (mkhas grub) famous by the name of Bhikṣu Ratnaśrī and u rgyan pa obtained it from him. I obtained the system from the latter.

ANOTHER LINEAGE

Again, according (to another) Lineage: the ācārya Kālacakrapāda, the Senior, was the son of a yoginī who took him with her to Śambhala. (There) a monk of an extremely beautiful appearance, blessed him, and he developed the ability of committing to memory a thousand ślokas every day. After that the boy heard the Mūla-Tantra, the Sa?caya-Tantra and the commentary recited by the monk who was a manifestation of Avalokiteśvara. He committed these texts to memory and then proceeded to Madhyadeśa. This boy on being ordained, became known as tsi lu pa; he was also known by the name of tshim ?bu ba.
When the ācārya tsi lu pa was residing (at the court) of the king of ka ta ka, he had three disciples, who made the request that the Tantra and the commentary might be wr?tten down in the form of a book. So he wrote it down, and the books were entrusted to the three disciples. One (of them) became a paṇḍita, another became an adept, but the third was unable to pro?gress beyond the stage of an ordinary human being.

Then the troops of a foreign king invaded the country. They (the disciples) hid the Tantra and its commentaries in a pit, and fled away. After the war was over, they returned, and searched for the (hidden books). (They discovered) that the last paragraphs of the two lesser commen- {R 763}
taries were missing. The disciples again requested him to write down (the missing portions), but he declined, saying : the dākinīs have hidden them, and therefore it is improper to write them now.

After tsi lu pa proceeded towards the East to Kusum?pura (me tog khyim). Upāsakabodhi obtained the system from him. This disciple Bodhi used to say that If he does not understand the Kālacakra, the Doctrine, and especially the Guhyamantra (gSang sngags) cannot be understood by him. All the paṇḍitas having assembled, said: This is incorrect! Let us debate it! They conducted a debate at Vikramaśīla. The Master (Bodhi) asked them about the contradictions in the upper and lower sections of the different Tantras from the stand-point of the Kālacakra, but they did not dare (to debate on the subject). They all begged his forbearance, and asked the Master to instruct them in the Kālacakra, and in this manner the doctrine spread. The Master's name became dus kyi 'khor lo ba. khams pa zhu lo obtained the system from his disciples Ma?jukīrti and Abhayākara. gnyan lo also obtained it. The bla ma 'gos obtained it from these two. DISAGREEMENTS IN LINEAGE ACCOUNTS There exists a slight disagreement as to the origins of the Lineages of rwa and ?bro between the accounts given by bu rin po che in his gces pa'i lde mig, by glan chos dbang, by the scholar bsod nams 'od zer? ba, and in the account of the Lineage of gnyan lo tsā ba.

In particular, the one who was called Piṇḍo-ācārya was stated by some to have been the Teacher of Kālacakrapāda, the Senior, and again by others to have been the disciple of Kālacakra?pāda. Some maintain that he (Piṇḍo) was identical with ngag gi dbang phyug grags pa. They seem to imply that he was ngag gi dbang phyug, one of the four gate-keepers (of Vikra?maśīla), but this does not seem to be possible. Because in the treatise yan lag bdun ldan, composed by him, he expressed many different views on the fourth initiation, but never mentioned the system of Kālacakra.
{R 764}
On the other hand it can be said about the Kālacakra-sādha?nagarbhālaṃkara, composed by the ācārya bsod snyoms? pa (Piṇḍo) that the very name of the śāstra shows that it (6a) deals with the Kālacakra. Even if one were to accept as true the statement of the rwa pas (followers of rwa) that prior to Kālacakrapāda, the Great, there had existed two teachers of the Kālacakra, it would not be a contradiction to say that Kālacakrapāda had received a blessing from Kulika (%ZMR buddhist diety?) himself, who taught him the Tantra. Because, as stated by nyi ma dpal, Vajradhara himself, assuming the form of Ava?dhūti-pa (%), had bestowed the precepts of the Sadaṅga-yoga (yan ?lag drug) on the ācārya Anupamarakṣita (dpe med 'tsho), and because others also maintained that Tilli-pa, a disciple of Vijayapāda (rnam rgyal zhabs), who was the last of a numer?ous Lineage of teachers of the Cakrasaṃvara Cycle, was a direct disciple of Vajradhara. The ācārya Anupamarakṣita could not be later than the ācārya Nā-ro-pa, since Nā-ro-pa in his Sekoddeśa-ṭikā quoted his teaching.

In general, even some of the accounts by Indian teachers, can be unreliable, for instance in the commentary on Śūnyaśrī's Sadaṅ?ga-yoga translated by dpang (blo gros brtan pa), Śūryaśrī (nyi ?ma dpal) is stated to have been a disciple of chos 'byung zhi ba, but, according to a statement of the Pre?cious mahā-paṇḍita (Śākyasr?bhadra), Śūryaśrī (ni ma dpal) had been the teacher of Dharmākaraśānti (chos 'byung zhi ba). The Commentary on the Sadaṅga-yoga though stated to have been the work of Śūryaśrī, seems to have contained, as indi?cated by the title, notes written down by one of his disciples. In two Indian books, consulted by me, the very same state?ment is made.

The statement that the concluding para?graphs of the Hevajra-Tantra (brtag gnyis) and of the Saṃvara?ṭikā had been hidden away by ḍākinīs, is unreliable, because it is certain that the sizes of these books translated into Tibetan were the same as those of the original books composed {R 765}
by the Bodhisattva, for in the Vajragarbhatika the above commentary on the Saṃvara-Tantra is described as a conmmen?tary on the twelve and half ślokas (of the Mūla-Tantra), and the entire commentary on these ślokas is extant in Tibetan, and because in the Saṃvara commentary itself it instated that the Mūla-Tantra and the "topics of the Six Extremities", as expounded in the ṭippaṇī, composed by the Bodhisattva, should be studied by one proceeding to a country, situated South and North (since they have been lost in Madhyadeśa), and further, because in the Vajragarbhaṭīkā it is stated; (6b) by this the last chapters, such as the chapter on conduct, are meant.

Though there exist various accounts which agree and disagree, they all agree (in stating) that Abhaya, who belonged to the line of gnyan and se lo tsā ba, Ma?jukīrti, who belonged to the line of rwa lo, and Somanātha, who belonged to the line of ?bro pa, have been direct disciples of Kālacakrapāda, the Junior. They also agree in that Kālaca?krapāda, the Junior, was a direct disciple of Kālacakrapāda, the Senior, and therefore one is not to be troubled by it. It is somewhat difficult to accept the statement that the first of the "past" years ('das lo) of the period of 403 years (me? kha rgya mtsho) corresponds to the year of the introduction of the Kālacakra in Madhyadeśa, for Abhaya had composed the Introduction to the Kālacakra which says that about 60 years must have elapsed since the appearance of the Kālacakra (when he was composing the book). In the account of chag lo tsā ba it is stated that Ratnarakṣita had said that not sixty years had passed, but 45 years. If we were to synchronize this date with the dates given by Tibetan teachers, (we would see) that it corresponds to the sixteenth year of mar pa and gra pa mngon shes, and {R 766}
that at that time the Kālacakra had already appeared in Tibet. It seems to me that Śrī Bhadrabodhi, the father of Kālacakra?pāda, the Junior, was the person who had translated the Kāla?cakra with gyi jo. It is also stated that one Nālandā-pa, a disciple of Kālacakrapāda, the Junior (dus zhabs pa chung ba), had on one occasion visited Tibet, etc.

KALĀCAKRA IN TIBET

The Kāśmīrī Somanātha was able to commit to memory 16 ślokas after reading them once, and was endowed with a pure perfection of con?trolling the acyuta-bodhicitta (byang sems 'dzag med). Besides the Kālacakra, he preached in Tibet the secret meaning of the sgron gsal, as well as taught the rtsa ba shes rab. I had seen the text which was transmitted in his Lineage. Having mastered the Tibetan language, he made an excellent translation of the don dam bsnyen pa. Later he journeyed to mnga' ris, and it was said that lie had also translated the Great Commentary on the Kālacakra.
Ice, father and son, obtained the Kālacakra from Somanātha. From them 'gro nyi ma obtained the system. Again it is known that they (lce, father and son) had also obtained it from glan lo tsā ba and other teachers. yu mo was also a disciple of his, but the stream of his teaching (of the Kālacakra) seems to have been interrupted.

sgom pa dkon ?mchog bsrungs having disposed of his entire property, realized six golden srangs for it, and having tied a silk scarf to his neck placed it in the hand of the paṇḍita, and thus offered him his own body, speech and mind. The Teacher bestowed on him the exposition of the commentary on the Tantra together with its complete precepts. Having heard it (recited) in the translation of ?bro, he had to accept ?bro as his Teacher. Thus when enumerating the Lineage, he used to say Somanātha, ?bro lo tsā ba, and sgom pa dkon mchog bsrungs. sgro ston gnam rla brtsegs was a scholar who in his early {R 767} life had studied the Piṭakas, and when he grew older came to Somanātha, who said to him: If you take my belongings to man yul, on my return to Tibet I shall bestow on you the system. Some of his other friends told him: one cannot buy the system from the paṇḍita, you had better ask our sgom pa for it. Following this advice, he requested sgom pa dkon mchog bsrungs to bestow on him the commentary on the Tantra together with the precepts. The Teacher bestowed the complete system on him, and he practised it, and achieved excellent results.

Later, when the paṇḍita (Somanātha) came again to Tibet, he went to meet the paṇḍita, who said to him: I shall now give you the system. snam la brtsegs replied: When I was young, you did not wish to bestow it on me. But now, when I am old, I shall not ask for it.
The paṇḍita said you are satisfied with the precepts of dkon mchog bsrungs. If not from me, from whom else did they originate? and saying so, he thrashed him. snam la brtsegs replied: Yes, yes, it is due to the grace of the great Teacher! Then the paṇḍita asked him: What did he give you? He replied: This and that. The paṇḍita said: I do not possess more than this! Now take an'oath that you will not preach it to others, saying so, the paṇḍita placed his rosary on his neck. gnam la brtsegs replied: This was not preached by you, Teacher! (why then should I take an oath?) --O wicked one! exclaimed the paṇḍita, and threw a handful of sand at his head.
After that the paṇḍita said: Well, now you may preach it to others, but you should preach the complete text, from end to end (mgo lus). In this manner he obtained (7b) the permission.

In the same manner, when yu mo made a similar request to the paṇḍita, the latter said, pointing at his luggage Carry this to Nepāl! I shall give it later. After asking the advice of his friends, he asked sgro ston for it. The latter bestowed on him the commentary on the Tantra together with the precepts, as well as the Pradīpodyotana (sgron gsal) with its precepts. After that he 97 (%) {R 768}

went to 'u yug, and practised meditation, and obtained realization (siddhi). He had excellent disciples, and passed away at the age of 82. His disciples known as wa brag dkar ba and one known as gnyal pa gro spent a considerable time immured ('dag 'byar) practising the bka' gdams doctrine. Later they came to yu mo and practised the precepts, and on the very first day they obtained all the (ten) signs (of meditation). They realized that the Kālacakra was the best pith and meditated (according to the system). They were endowed with a great faculty of prescience.
gnyos sgyi khung pa: when he had reached the age of 70, he met bla ma chen pa (yu mo). He preached to ngor rje. The latter taught (the Kālacakra) to dol pa 'gas ston dbang phyug grub. The siddha Dharmabodhi has been a discip?e of yu mo tre po mgon po having obtained all the precepts and the basic text, taught them extensively. His Lineage had many branches.

The scholar Dharmeśvara was the son of the Great Teacher (yu mo), and was born in the latter's 56th year. He taught the Sekoddeśa when he was twelve. At the age of 16, he taught the Great Commentary on the Tantra. He debated (on the Doctrine) with numerous scholars, such as rgya gling pa and others, and defeated them. His disciple khang gsar pa nam mkha' 'od was learned in the Piṭakas, such as the rigs tshogs drug, and other texts. He taught the Great Commentary On the Tantra (the Vimala?prabhā) and was endowed with an excellent mystic trance. Dharmeśvara's daughter jo 'bum : in her childhood she was influenced by her mother, practised magic, and caused the death of many enemies. After that she practised medita?tion (according to the method) of the Sadaṅga-yoga (yan lag drug gi rnal 'byor) and in this actual life she became an ārya, (8a) equal to a natural yoginī.

Her brother se mo che ba nam mkha' rgyal mtshan: in {R 769} his childhood he suffered from a deficient hearing and speech, and therefore there was not much hope (for him). Later he attended on khang gsar pa nam mkha' 'od and mastered the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā). He prac?tised the Sadaṅga and the "Six doctrines" of Nā-ro, and obtained a perfect mystic trance. He was able to recollect clearly (his) numberless former existences. Because he resi?ded at se mo che, he became known as the siddha se mo ?che ba. His disciple 'jam sar shes rab 'od zer: his native place was Upper myang. He attended on gnyal zhig and others, and became very learned in numerous Piṭakas. For many years he purified his body performing austerities. For a consider?able time he propitiated Vajrapāṇi and felt confident, think?ing none among gods and demons are able to transgress my command.
When he was going to preach at rkyang 'dur, and was fording the gtsang po river, on the road leading towards the residence of se mo che ba, at the hermitage of grong chung, some asuras caused a shower of stones to fall, but he burst into a song saying that he having become indiffer?ent towards the eight mundane dharmas, did not know fear.

At the feet of se mo che ba he mastered the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) together with its branches, and the initiation rite (of the Kālacakra). He practised medita?tion of the sampannakrama degree and within one day obtained the (ten) signs (of meditation), and thus became a Master of Yoga (rnaI 'byor gyi dbang phyug).
He had great faith in precepts, and used to say : If these precepts would have been accompanied by diligence towards meditation possessed by the great ascetics of the dwags po bka' brgyud sect, then this country (Tibet) would have been filled with siddhas.
Later he had a vision of the face of Munīndra and his retinue, and offered the Sapta-aṅga.
{R 770}

The rite was first described in the Āryabhadracaryāpraṇidhāna?rāja. Having removed all his doubts in regard to the Cause, Path and Effect of Enlight?enment before the Buddha, I did not request him to expound the Doctrine, said he. When preaching the Piṭakas, he used to teach it abiding in a state of perpetual trance (mnam par bzhag bzhin). In his dreams he visited nume?rous paradises, such as Sukhāvatī and others. He established meditative schools in hermitages and maintained them with (8b) the help of his precepts. He thus obtained the power of preaching and meditating.

His disciple the bla ma chos sku 'od zer: he was a natural son of gser sdings pa gzhon nu 'od and was born in the year Wood-Male-Dog ('shing pho kyi ?1214 A.D.), which follows on the year Water-Female-Hen (chu mo bya 1213 A.D.), during which the kha che pan ?chen returned to Kāśmīra. chos sku 'od zer's story (rnam thar) was briefly told in the Chapter on the school of the Guhyasamāja-Tantra. (Here I shall tell) in detail about his meeting with the Dharmasvāmin 'jam gsar. He was told by gser sdings pa to go there, because he had a karmic connection (las 'brel) with ?jam gsar ba. So he visited him, and while he was listening to the initiation rite of Yamāntaka, he was the Teacher as Yamāntaka. He also listened to the exposition of all the scrip?tures, philosophy and precepts. When he was listening to the initiation rite of the Kālacakra, he saw the Teacher as rdo rje ?shugs, and reported the matter to the Teacher, who replied: I also feel proud thinking ?Am I not rdo rje shugs?? We, Teacher and disciple, should not be handicapped by hindrances. When he entered the maṇḍala (during his initiation), he saw a clear vision of the j?ana-maṇḍala. At the time of {R 771}

obtaining the fourth (initiation), as soon as the Teacher had said: Now you should assume a posture like me, and keep your Mind free from thoughts (mi rtog pa), the fluctuations ('gyu ba) of his Mind, big or small, came to an end, and he was able to transform them into the mystic trance of the Great Bliss (bde stong chen? po). Later while practising meditations in his meditative cell (sgom khang), he suddenly achieved success, and the Dharmasvāmin told him that he had reached the final stage of 'clearness' (gsal ba).

He taught at this monastic college the Doctrine, such as the Pramanāviniścaya and other subjects. The Dharmasvāmin praised him highly. When he came to se mo che ba to get from him an Introduction to the Doctrine (chos 'brel), the latter said: You two ('jam gsar ba and chos? sku 'od zer) through many existences have been Teacher and disciple. From him chos sku 'od zer heard the complete Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) with its branches. He benefited others by bestowing initiations, preaching the Tantra and precepts.

(KUN SPANG AND THE FOUNDING OF MONASTERY AT JO NANG)

His disciple kun spangs (the ascetic) thugs rje brtson? 'grus : he was born at dab phyar spang sgang in Northern la stod, in the year Water-Female-Hare (chu mo yos 1243 A.D.). (9a) In his youth he mastered the Piṭakas. He also looked after numerous monks at the monastic college of rkyang 'dur, and was famous as a proficient debater. On one occasion during his studies, he listened to the complete exposition of the Kālacakra by the All-Knowing (kun mkhyen) chos sku 'od zer. He obtained precepts, and while he practised meditations, he opened many samādhi-dvāras (gates of trance).
Once, when an accident endangered his life, {R 772}

kun mkhyen pa (chos sku 'od zer) perceived it, and came by himself (without being called). kun mkhyen pa said: If you would have died this time, you would have obtained the four "bodies, and saying so, he removed the dangers threatening his life. After that he left his work as a student and preacher, and concentrated exclusively on medita?tion, and became, known as kun spangs pa. He heard the different exposition of the Sadaṅga-yoga (of the Kālacakra), whatever were found in Tibet. He transferred his residence to the mountains of the North, and while meditating, he subdued by the power of his concentrated Mind many demons. He was invited to jo nang by jo mo nags rgyal, and he promised the goddess to come there after three years. When the time came, he journeyed there, founded a monastery, and looked after nu?merous disciples to whom he imparted both teachings and hidden precepts. Among them: byang sems rgyal ba ye shes, la stod pa dbang rgyal, mun me brag kha ba, and son pa kun rgyal are known as the "Four Sons of kun spangs pa".

byang sems rgyal ba ye shes: he was born in the year Fire-Female-Serpent (me mo sbrul 1257 A.D.). In his child?hood, kar ma pa pa shi pa accepted him (as disciple) against his father's will, taught him the kar ma pa doctrines, and looked after him (by supplying him) with (his) worldly needs. Later he proceeded to bo mo nan and listened to (the exposition) of all the basic texts of kun spangs pa, the latter's hidden precepts, and practised (meditation) according to them. la stod pa dbang rgyal: he practised meditation and attained remarkable results. During the same time he also composed a guide-book on the teachings of (his) Teacher, beginning with the "bar du dge ba", or second section. {R 773}

He improved the meditations of many (disciples) and removed their handicaps. mun me brag kha ba grags pa seng ge: he was born in the year Wood-Female-Hare (shing mo yos 1255 A.D.) at rgyal te thang kar in Northern gyas ru. He belonged to the glan clan. In his youth he was ordained by the phro phu rin po che bsod nams seng ge, and received the name of grags? pa seng ge. Later he received the final monastic ordination in the presence of the same upādhyāya dbu ma pa ser 'bum acting as ācārya, and bu stong seng ge 'od acting as Secret Preceptor. From phya ru ba seng ge dpal of sa skya he heard the rnam 'grel, the Treatises of Maitreya, the "Six Treatises al Nāgārjuna ' and the Tantra class were perfectly mastered by him. However he was of the opinion that meditation represented the Essence of the Doctrine, and therefore he asked kun spangs pa and byang sems rgyal ye at jo mo nang for guidance in the Sadaṇga-yoga (sbyor ba yan lag drug), and asked. them to expound the Tantra. They said to him: Go to Rong! He then heard the Commentary on the Tantra together with its precepts from Akara?siddhi, the youngest son of rgwa lo tsā ba. He, held in high esteem meditation at the hermitage of gya' lung. Subsequent?ly he helped many disciples by preaching (to them) the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) and by giving them guidance. Later in the year of the Tiger (stag lo 1338 A.D.), when a great snow-fall happened in the kingdom, lo ?be ba kun bzang acted as (his). supporter, and settled him at
{R 774}

brag kha. He stayed there in seclusion and recited the mantra of the Kālacakra 10,000,000 times, made 1,000,000 ablutions, and many wonderful signs took place, as for example flames assuming the form of precious stones, etc. Every day he practised meditation on the utpannakrama and sampannakrama degrees, besides the six āsanas (lus sbyong drug) of the body. He named as his four chief guide-books: the sbyor? drug (Sadaṇga), the dmar khrid, the gcod, and the gzer lnga, and mainly followed their prescriptions. During the summer seclusion, he spent most of his time in the continuous practice of gcod (rgyun gcod).
He used to send all the property which came into his, hands to the monastery of his Teacher. He was endowed with the faculty of prescience, and all his prophecies concerning the future events at sa skya came true. He passed away at the age of 89 in the year Water?-Female-Sheep (chu mo lug 1343 A.D.) amidst wonderful (10a) signs. After the cremation (of his remains), his body was transformed into a heap of relics.

His disciples were the Dharmasvāmin bla mo dam pa and the dka' bcu pa gzhon nu seng ge blo gros, wang mo zhu ba gzhon nu dpal, and many others. From sron pa chos dpal, a disciple of sron pa kun? rgyal, brag nag pa chos skyong dpal obtained the system of sron. The bka' bcu pa gzhon nu seng ge obtained it from him. sron pa kun dga' rgyal has been the zu gur che of the Mongol Emperor, and was ordained by bla ?ma 'phags pa, who introduced him to the study of the Piṭaka. Later he obtained guidance from kun spangs pa, and obtained perfect results (in his meditation). He met Avalokiteśvara and sha ba ri dbang phyug. His precepts which were known as the "Method of sron" (sron lugs), slightly differed from others, and through them he benefitted others. dpal ldan bla ma obtained the "Method of sron" (sron lugs) from the following three: sron pa kun dga' rgyal, his disciple chos dpal, and the mahā-upādhyāya bsod nams grags pa. In this manner kun? spangs pa laboured for a long time for the welfare of others, {R 775} and then entrusted the abbotship to byang sems rgyal ye. He passed away at the age of 71, in the year Water-Female Ox (chu mo glang 1313 A.D.). JO NANG AFTER KUN SPANGS PA byang sems rgyal ba ye shes, aged 57, occupied the abbot's chair of jo nang in the year Water-Female-Ox (chu mo glang 1313 A.D.).

Many kalyāṇa-?mitras, such as the bla ma kun bsod pa and others, and many great men, such as the great official byang rdor and the great official yon btsun, and others, became his disciples. He used to, say: Most of those who had received my guidance, have obtained perfect results. At least there had been none who did not complete the (ten) signs (of medita?tion). He occupied the chair for eight years, and then passed away at the age of 64 in the year Iron-Male-Ape (lcags pho spre'u 1320 A.D.). He being an extraordinary man, the story of his life was written by the Dharmasvāmin rang byung rdo rje.

mkhas btsun yon tan rgya mtsho, a disciple of byan?g sems pa: he was born in the year Iron-Ape (lcags spre (10b) 1260 A.D.). At the age of 61, he occupied the abbot's chair. He handed over the chair in the year Fire-Male?Tiger (me pho stag 1326 A.D.), and died at the age of 68 in the year Fire-Female-Hare (me mo yos 1327 A.D.). His native place was speng pa of mdog. In his childhood he followed on numerous scholars at sa skya, such as 'jam? dbyangs pa and others, and studied well the Piṭaka. He journeyed to the Imperial Palace in the retinue of 'jam dbyangs ?pa. With 'jam dbyangs pa's, permission, he soon returned to dbus and gtsang. Having come to jo mo nang, he thoroughly absorbed the initiation rite (of the Kālacakra system), and the Tantra from both kun spangs pa and byang sems pa, and received their guidance. His Mind concentration acquired a lofty character, and he became the object of worship of all living beings.

SHES RAB RGYAL MTSHAN

kun mkhyen shes rab rgyal mtshan, 98
{R 776}
who had become his disciple: he was born in the family known as ban tshang of dol pa. In his youth he became a disciple of skyi ston 'jam dbyangs pa, uncle and nephew. He studied the Piṭakas, such as the bka' chen bzhi and others, also the Tantras, such as the initiation of Vajramālā (rdo rje phreng ba) and others. He especially studied the exposition of the Kālacakra after the method of rwa by both the uncle and nephew ('jam dbyangs pa). He preached the bka' bzhi at sa skya from his youth. Inspite of the fact that others did not like him doing so, he also added the Bodhicar?yāvatāra, and preached it.
He visited the monastic colleges of dbus and gtsang, took part in debates and became known as a good scholar. He studied extensively with many teachers. At jo mo nang he obtained the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) together with its hidden precepts from mkhas btsun yon tan rgya mtsho. After having practi?sed the precepts, he experienced an incomparable result.

At the age of 35 he occupied the chair. Till his death he used to preach and meditate (bshad sgrub). He erected the sku? 'bum mthong grol chen mo. Following his orders, two of his disciples ma ti pan chen and the lo tsā ba blo gros dpal revised (11a) in the year Wood-Male-Dog (shing pho khyi 1334 A.D.) the translation of the Kālacakra. The Great All-Knowing (kun mkhyen chen po, shes rab rgyal mtshan) having taken as basis this translation, composed an abridgement (bsdus don? piṇḍārtha) on the Great Commentary on the Tantra (rgyud? 'grel chen mo) and notes.

Further, he composed numerous short treatises (śāstras) on initiations and meditation, on astrology, etc. After the erection of the sku? 'bum chen mo, a new kind of meditation was produced in him. He said: It seems to me, that having created Mount Meru, the Ocean gushed forth. {R 777}
He composed learned treatises on the doctrine of gzhan stong, such as the nges don rgya? mtsho, the bsdus don (its Summary), and sa bcad (its analy?sis), a commentary on the Uttaratantra (rgyud bla ma), the Abhisamayālaṃkāra, a Commentary on the General Doctrine (bstan pa spyi 'grel), the bka' bsdu bzhi pa, and others, which filled dbus and gtsang.

When many scholars, disagreeing, with his theory (grub mtha'), came to discuss the matter with him, their refutations were melted similar to snow when reaching the ocean.

Having installed the lo tsā ba on the abbot's chair, he proceeded to dbus, took up residence in lha sa and taught the guide-book on the Sadaṅga-yoga. The territory of lha sa became filled with (monks) practising ritualistic dances (nyams ?skyong ba'i gar).

Later he proceeded to dpal jo mo nang, and at the age of 70 in the year Iron-Female-Ox (rags mo glang ?1361 A.D.) proceeded to Sukhāvatī. His disciples kun spangs chos grags dpal bzang po, phyogs las rnam rgyal, nya dbon kun dga' dpal, and many others were learned men, who practised the Sadaṅga-yoga. They filled all the mountain valleys and lands of dbus and gtsang with adepts (sādhaka) practising the Sadaṅga-yoga. This Meditative Lineage spread greatly in khams also. Even nowadays there appear to exist numerous adepts (sādhakas) observing the rule of the periods of three half-months and three years on the banks of the rma chu.

(PHYOGS LAS RNAM RGYAL)

Now the Dharmasvāmin phyogs las rnam rgyal (bo dong phyogs las rnam rgyal): He was a native of mnga' ris and was {R 778}
born in the year Fire-Male-Horse (me pho rta 1306 A.D.). In his youth he proceeded to dbus and studied at chos? 'khor gling the Sūtra piṭaka, such as the Praj?apāramitā, the Nyāya, and other branches of knowledge. He became a great scholar. He also took part in debates in both dbus and gtsang. Once when he was taking part in a debate, he met the Dharmasvāmin kun mkhyen chen po shes rab rgyal mtshan, and was filled with faith. He took up residence at jo nang proper, and obtained from kun mkhyen chen po the exposition of the Tantra and the initiation rite of the Kālacakra, together with the hidden precepts, as well as many other doctrines. He practised the precepts, and an excellent mystic trance was produced in him. He regarded kun mkhyen chen po as the chief among his teachers. kun mkhyen chen po's disciple byang? pa ta'i dban pa after consulting kun mkhyen chen po, and his disciple, founded the monastery (chos sde) of ngam rings. kun mkhyen chen po spent some time there. Then he entrusted (the monastery) to phyogs las rnam rgyal, and himself proceeded to jo mo nang proper. phyogs las rnam rgyal taught the Piṭakas for a considerable time, in particular the Praj?apāramitā class and Logic. He gathered round himself many clever disciples. Later he handed over the chair to bstan pa'i rgyal mtshan, and at the age of 49 became abbot of jo mo? nang. After five years he handed over this monastery also, and proceeded to dbus.

At 'tshal dbus gling (%) he preached to a large congregation of disciples the initiation rite of the Kālacakra-Tantra and the hidden precepts. After that he journeyed towards yar klungs.

When he was residing at rngor, the lo tsā ba byang chub rtse mo heard from him the higher initiation (mchog dbang) of the Kālacakra. Having come to yar klungs, he stayed at khra 'brug (%) and other places, and established numerous disciples on the virtuous path. After that he pro?ceeded to gtsang and took up residence at se mkhar chung. (%)

His life: he was born in the year Fire-Male-Horse (me pho? {R 779} rta 1306 A.D.) and lived to the age of 81, in the year Fire-Male-Tiger (me pho stag 1386 A.D.).
(?GOS GZHON NU DPAL?S? TEACHER, SANGS RGYAS RIN CHEN PA) My Teacher sangs rgyas rin chen pa obtained (the Doctrine) from him. He was born in the year Earth-Female-Hare (sa mo yos 1336 A. D.) at sne'u mkhar as son of mkhas grub chos dpal pa, holder of the Lineage of scholars and meditation. Possessed of the spiritual heritage (gotra) of the Mahāyāna, in his child?hood he never quarrelled with his playmates. From his youth, he listened to the exposition of numerous secret doctrines (gter? chos) of his ancestors, such as the exposition of the Hevajra?-Tantra (brtag gnyis) according to the method of rngog, the (Vajra)kīla (phur bu), and Hayagriva Cycles of the "Old" believers (rnying ma), the bla ma gsang 'dus, and other texts.

After that he journeyed to rtses thang and attended on chos seng pa, the Great, and the ācārya 'od zer ?dpal pa, studied the Praj?apāramitā, and took part in philoso?phical debates. After that he took up the study of the Pramānavārtika. While he was memorizing the Commentary, he felt a desire to hear the (exposition) of the Kālacakra. He then obtained from the lo chen byang chub rtse mo on one occasion the complete text of the Great Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā), and on another occasion half of the text. He obtained the complete text on two occasions from the lo tsā ba nam mkha' bzang po. From the Dharmasvāmin phyogs pa the complete initiation of the Kālacakra, and twice the exposition of the Great Commentary of the Tantra, as hidden precepts the Sadaṅga-yoga, and the Sevasādhana (u? rgyan bsnyen sgrub). From the Dharmasvāmin phyogs pa's disciple rtogs ldan sngo nal ma ye shes rgyal mtshan he obtained the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) together with notes by phyogs las rnam rgyal. From the ācārya 'jam sgeg he obtained the Śrī Paramārthasevā and the lta 'dod mdor bstan. From yar? 'brog kha ba lung pa zhang ston bsod nams grags pa he obtained the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) together with notes by kun mkhyen chen po. From ri ston blo chen 'od {R 780} he obtained the translation of the Commentary on the Tantra by lo brags pa, which was handed down from man lungs pa and the lo tsā ba grags pa rgyal mtshan, and the Sekoddeśa?ṭikā of Nā-ro-pa.

When kun mkhyen then po came to lha ?sa, he took up the final monastic ordination in his presence, and obtained from him several of the lesser doctrines. Among these he held in high esteem the method of phyog las rnam? rgyal. After that he consecrated himself to meditation.

During his practice of the Sadaṅga-yoga, he suffered during nine years from a disease and felt the upper and lower parts of his body burning as if scorched by glowing charcoal. However he did not interrupt his meditation. Having been relieved of his affliction, his meditation greatly improved. He preached the exposition of the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā). He constantly gave guidance to numerous disciples in the practice of the Sadaṅga-yoga, who included priests and laymen, males and females. During a considerable time he laboured for the welfare of others. He passed away at the age of 86 in the year Wood-Male-Dragon (shing pho? 'brug 1424 A.D.). He attended on the Blessed Maitreya in the Abode of Tuṣita, which had been the abode of his former incarnations. I obtained from him the complete initia?tion rite of the Kālacakra, as given in the book on the maṇḍala (12b) rites composed by kun mkhyen chen po (shes rab rgyal mtshan). I also obtained the text of the Great Commentary on the Tan?tra (Vimalaprabhā), the guide-book on the Sadaṅga-yoga, the Sekoddeśa with the commentary by Nā ro pa, as well as other commentaries (on the Kālacakra) by Bodhisattvas.

The rin po che bsod bzang ba also studied thoroughly the Kālacakra with its branches and secret precepts under the Dharmasvāmin phyog las rnam rgyal and the scholar nya dbon. During a considerable time he looked after disciples by bestowing on them guidance, expositions and initiations. He also composed a text-book on initiation rites (dbang sgrub). {R 781}

and became the Teacher of all great men. The Dharmasvāmin de bzhin gshegs pa and mthong ba don ldan also became his disciples. This yogeśvara who had attained the stage of a scholar and a siddha, passed away at the age of 93 in the year Water-Female-Ox (chu mo glang 1433 A.D.). His disciple the dka' bcu pa pad ma bzang po ba expounded on many occasions the commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā), as well as composed a large commentary on the Vimalaprabhā. Further, the Dharmasvāmin chos bzang nyi ma, a disciple of rin po che bsod nams bzang po, founded the hermitage of g.ya' snang, and upheld the Doctrine by preaching the Kālacakra, as well as by meditation. There appeared many adepts (sādhakas) who concentrated solely on the practice of the Sadaṅga-yoga. Again, 'jam dbyangs chos kyi mgon po ba, a disciple of kun mkhyen chen po, took over the chair of g.yag sde pan chen,(%) and for a long time preached the Kālacakra. He had many learned disciples, including jam dbyangs rin rgyal ba and others. Having come to the monastic college of rtses thang, he preached the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) to many piṭakadharas, of whom the best student (gsan pa po) was the mahā-upādhyāya rin po che rgyal mtshan bzang po. (

RGYAL MTSHAN BZANG PO)

He was born in the year Iron-Male-Tiger (lcags pho stag 1350 A.D.), when bu ston rin po che was 61, He studied all the Piṭakas, and especially the "Four Books" (bka' bzhi), at gsang phu and rtses thang. He was greatly attached to the' practice of the Pratimokṣa, and possessed an excellent bodhicitta. He studied under 'jam dbyangs chos mgon po, and having become learned in the Kālacakra, he used to say (jokingly) that all the passages (in the Vimalaprabhā) uttered by Avalokiteśvara, which said (that the rest of the text) was easily understood, represented a prophecy indicating him (for he had understood them without difficulty).

He benefitted a multitude of people by preaching to them. He composed in verses a ritual book on the utpannakrama degree of the Kālacakra, and made the Kālacakra the object

{R 782}
of his constant meditation. He heard the hidden precepts of the Sadaṅga-yoga from sangs rgyas blo gros pa, the mahā-?upādhyāya of the tshogs chen mo bas (%). He was of benefit to others by preaching to them, and passed away at the age of 76 in the year Wood-Female-Serpent (shing mo sbrul 1425 A.D.).

(STUDENTS FOLLOWING SHES RAB RGYAL MTSHAN)

My Teacher Sakyaśrī was a disciple of 'jam dbyangs chos mgon po, and had studied extensively the Kālacakra. He also listened to its exposition by the mahā-?upādhyāya rin po che rgyal bzang ba and the rin po che bsod bzang ba. He also listened to the exposition of most of the Kālacakra works of bu ston by a bla ma known as dbang rin pa, who resided at rgyal lha khang, ('phan po), a direct disciple of bu ston rin po che.
The mahā-?upādhyāya las kyi rdo rle revealed to him that he had been in a previous life a kalyāṇa-?mitra of snar thang (%) learned in the Kālacakra. In a dream he saw himself climbing a long stairway, and when he had reached the bum pa (the spherical part) of a caitya, he saw in the corner of a shining maṇḍala of Kālacakra the Dharmasvāmin kun mkhyen chen po. Since he saw himself being blessed by dol po pa, he used to say that he had understood many doctrines. He proceeded to Sukhāvatī at the age of 80 in the year Earth-Male-Dragon (sa pho 'brug 1448 A.D.).

Further, the ?upādhyāya of je rdzin tshogs pa, named rin? chen tshul khrims, obtained the Kālacakra system together (13b) with its hidden precepts from the Dharmasvāmin kun mkhyen chen po. He practised meditation and attained great wisdom.
His disciple [zho lung mtsho chen po)] benefitted numerous living beings with the help of precepts of the Sadaṅga-yoga. The disciple of rin chen tshul khrims pa, the Dharmasvāmin bsod nams rgyal mtshan possessed a perfect knowledge of the Sadaṅga-yoga and guided numerous disciples.
Again, the disciple of kun mkhyen chen po, 'jam dbyangs blo gros rgyal mtshan, known as sman ?chu kha pa, looked after many disciples with the help of {R 783} initiations, by preaching to them the Tantra, by expositions, and hidden precepts. His dis

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