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A First Investigation of Abhayākaragupta’s Madhyamakamañjarī

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Hong Luo

Center for Tibetan Studies of Sichuan University


Abbreviations and Sigla

Primary Sources in Sanskrit

AA Maitreyanātha’s Abhisamayālaṃkāra Stcherbatsky & Obermiller 1970

HB Dharmakīrti’s Hetubindu Steinkellner 2016

MMK Nāgārjuna’s Mūlamadhyamakakārikāḥ de Jong 1977; Ye 2011

MSA Asaṅga’s Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra Lèvi 1907

PV Dharmakīrti’s Pramāṇavārttika PV I: Gnoli 1960 PV II-IV: Miyasaka 1971/1972

Sāṅkṛtyāyana 1953


 
This is a revised version of my paper presented during a panel at the 2012 Beijing Seminar on 1 Tibetan Studies, August 1 to 5, my deep appreciation to colleagues who commented on my early drafts, as well as to the China Tibetology Research Center (中国藏学研究中⼼) for supporting my studies over years. The last phase of my research on this topic was funded by Sichuan University in the context of the project 2018hhs-61 and Sichuan University Research Cluster for Regional History and Frontier Studies in the context of the project xkqzd2018-06.


A First Investigation of Abhayākaragutpa’s Madhyamakamañjarī
Dharmakīrti’s Pramāṇaviniścaya PVin I-II: Steinkellner 2007
ŚālSū The Āryaśālistambasūtra Vaidya 1961: 100–106
SSŚ Jñānaśrīmitra’s Sākārasiddhiśāstra Thakur 1987: 367–513
SSS Jñānaśrīmitra’s Sākārasaṃgrahasūtra Thakur 1987: 515–578
TS Śāntarakṣita’s Tattvasaṃgraha Krishnamacharya 1984
Viṃś Vasubandhu’s Viṃśikākārikāḥ Lévi 1925
YṢ Nāgārjuna’s Yuktiṣaṣṭikā Lindtner 1982: 100–119; Li & Ye 2014


Miscellaneous Signs

cf. confer D sDe dge edition of the Tibetan Tripiṭaka ed. the (preferred) published edition of the text quoted fn(s). footnote(s) k(k). kārikā(s) nt. note P Peking edition of the Tibetan Tripiṭaka


Editorial Signs

{ } contain akṣara(s) or daṇḍa deleted by means of stroke(s) * virāma


avagraha | daṇḍa/shad || double daṇḍa/nyis shad string-hole
As an account of the first stage in the study of Abhayākaragupta’s Madhyamakamañjarī (henceforth, MM), the present article is aimed at providing the following information: 2
1 a general review of the study on Abhayākaragupta and his writings, which provides the background for further study on the MM.
2 a brief introduction of the text, which provides the quotations so far identified. 3

As a first investigation of the manuscript of an important philosophical work from the last period of Indian Buddhism, a work only transmitted in Sanskrit, the present survey may provisionally fill a gap. The imperfections and errors would hopefully be remedied and corrected during the course of further studies.
        
Three kinds of sources are available for tracing Abhayākaragupta’s life and career, his own 4 works composed in Sanskrit, that were rendered into Tibetan and incorporated in Tanjur, perhaps with the exception of the MM, which seems to be only transmitted in a codex unicus preserved in Tibet and for unknown reason left untranslated, and of the Varṣāpaṇavidhi, a short ritual text which seems to be unknown in Tibetan sources, the colophons of the Tibetan translation of his 5 works, and the hagiographic accounts by Tib
For a description of the physical and paleographical features of the codex unicus of 2 Abhayākaragupta’s MM, see Luo 2018: 16–17. For a critical edition and annotated English translation of the opening and concluding verses of 3 MM, see Luo 2018. Lee 2003: 21.4 See below.5 Mori (2009: 3) also takes the commentary on the Vajrāvalī and Niṣpannayogāvalī by lCang 6 skya I (17th century) into consideration.

As for Abhayākaragupta’s works, Bühnemann (1992: 123–125) has provided a list of the title and bibliographical information of 25 works. Without listing the titles, Skorupski (1994: 7 236) counted 24 works. Kapstein (2001: 414 note 1) gave 22 works. Lee 2003(: 45–46) listed 27 works. Tomabechi & Kano (2008: 22–23) counted 26 works by Abhayākaragupta and listed the works edited in Sanskrit: the Niṣpannayogāvalī, the Vajrāvalī, the Jyotirmañjarī, the Ucchuṣmajambhalasādhana, and the Svādhiṣṭhānakramopadeśa; and those the Sanskrit manuscript of which is known to be extant: the Pañcakramatātparyapañjikā Kramakaumudī, 8 the Kālacakrāvatāra, the Abhayapaddhati, the Āmnāyamañjarī, the Munimatālaṃkāra and the 9 Madhyamakamañjarī. The different opinions with regard to the authenticity of these works were summarized by Mori (2009: 4), who accepted 24 works and further classified them into six 10

 
A s h a s b e e n p o i n t e d o u t b y M o r i ( 2 0 0 9 : 4 , f n . 1 6 ) , t h e 7 Vajramahākālakrodhanātharahasyasiddhibhavatantra (dPal rdo rje nag po chen po khros pa’i mgon po gsang ba dngos grub ’byung ba zhes bya ba’i rgyud (D. No. 0416, P. No. 0062) is not a writing by Abhayākaragupta. The wrong attribution may be due to the misinterpretation of the colophon:

dpal mgon po chen po khros1 pa’i mgon po gsang ba mngon par ’byung ba’i rgyud kun gyi rtsa bar gyur pa bstan padzin pa | bstan pa skyong ba | bstan pa bsrung nges pa | gsang ba bdud dpung ’dul bar byed pa’o || dpal mgon po chen po dngos grub ’byung ba’i rgyud kun gyi snying por gyur pa gdod nas grub pa’i bla ma yin no rdzogs so || rgya gar gyi mkhan po ma hā paṇḍi ta a bha yā ka ra gup ta2 pā da’i zhal snga nas dang | bod kyi lo tstsha ba mkhas pa chen po khe’u rgad ’khor lo grags kyis bsgyur cing zhus pa’o || yang slad nas mkhas pa chen po sangs rgyas grags pa’i spyan sngar kre bo3 shes rab dpal gyis kyang zhu tig bgyis pa’o || [D292r4][P126r8]
1. khros D: ’khrus P 2. a bha yā ka ra gup ta D: a bhya ā ka ra gup ta P 3 kre bo D: ke bo P

Perhaps, Abhayākaragupta was the supervisor or co-translator. = The Candraprabhā.8 The only extant Sanskrit manuscript is kept in the Asiatic Society of Bengal, cf. CASB, pp. 9 161-62. Bühnemann & Tachikawa 1991, Isoda 1984, and Bhattacharyya 1949 were mentioned.10

categories. The present author provided a brief description of 28 works, what follows is a 11 12 summary of the writings and related bibliographical information. 13


Tantric works:


1 The Abhayapaddhati+ This is a comprehensive commentary on the Buddhakapālatantra, four Sanskrit manuscripts are extant. According to the colophon of the Sanskrit manuscript preserved in the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, it was written in the 25th year of Rāmapāla’s reign at Vikramaśīla monastery. A cooperative project of editing and translating the Sanskrit text of the Abhayapaddhati between the Center for Tantric Studies at Hamburg University and the China Tibetology Research Center is about to be accomplished. The edition is based upon four Sanskrit manuscripts and to be published in three volumes in the Sanskrit Texts from the Tibetan Autonomous Region series: Chapters 1–5: Yang} forthcoming (STTAR 12), Chapters 6–8: Isaacson & Li forthcoming (STTAR 13), Chapters 9–14: Luo 2010 (STTAR 14). Chog Dorje (2009) published an edition of the Abhayapaddhati based upon two incomplete Sanskrit manuscripts and the Tibetan translation. 14


2 The Āmnāyamañjarī+ A complete manuscript of this work is preserved in Tibet. A small fragment was edited and 15 translated by Tomabechi & Kano (2008). A bilingual (Sanskrit and Tibetan) manuscript of the Āmnāyamañjarī is found, the first half was published, the whereabouts of this manuscript, 16 however, remain unclear.
3 The Vajrāvalī+ Mori 2009.

4 The Jyotirmañjarī+
 
Mori 2009: 5–6. Lee 2003(: 49-50) offers another way to categorize Abhayākaragupta’s works.11 Luo 2018: 15–16.12 Those which are available in Sanskrit are marked with +, those with published edition(s) are in 13 boldface, those the authorship of which is uncertain are marked by *. Chog Dorje 2009: xvii.14 Luo Zhao 1985: 199–200.15 BWY 2015.16

Okuyama 1983, Okuyama 1986, the edition is based upon one incomplete Sanskrit manuscript preserved in the Cambridge Library; there is another Sanskrit manuscript kept in the National Archives, Kathmandu. Based upon Okuyama 1983, 1986 and the Peking edition of the Tibetan 17 translation, Skorupski (1994) provides a complete English translation of this text. 18


5 The Niṣpannayogāvalī+ Bhattacharyya 1949, Lee 2004.
6 The Kālacakrāvatāra+ 19
7 The Kālacakroddāna
8 The Cakrasaṃvarābhisamaya
9 The Svādhiṣṭhānakramopadeśa+ Okuyama 1993.
10 The Pañcakramatātparyapañjikā Kramakaumudī+ It is also called the Candraprabhā, Tomabechi Toru has edited this text, based upon one Sanskrit manuscript preserved in Tibet.
11 The Abhiṣekaprakaraṇa
12 The Bodhipaddhati
13 The Gaṇacakravidhi
14 The Jñānaḍākinīsādhana
15 The Mahākālakarmasambhāra
16 The Mahākālastotra
17 The Nāthakākayonitarpaṇavidhikrama
 
Bühnemann 1992: 124.17 Skorupski 1994: 232.18 Newman 1987: 93, fn. 57.19


18 The Raktayamāntakaniṣpannayoga
19 The Śrīdevīkālīstotra
20 The Ucchuṣmajambhalasādhana+ Bhattacharyya 1925.
21 The Upadeśamañjarī
22 The Vajramahākālābhicārahoma
23 The Vajrayānāpattimañjarī 24 The Varṣāpaṇavidhi+ Based upon two manuscripts kept in Tokyo composite, Péter-Dániel Szántó has edited this text.
Works on non-tantric mahāyāna Buddhism:
1 The Bodhisattvasaṃvaragrahaṇavidhi
2 The Madhyamakamañjarī+
3 The Marmakaumudī
4 The Munimatālaṃkāra+ The Tibetan translation was studied by Isoda (1984, 1987, 1991, 1998). The Sanskrit manuscript of the Munimatālaṃkāra has been reported and studied in Li 2013a, 2013b, Kano & Li 2013, 2014, Li & Kano 2015.

Colophons are also important materials for studying Abhayākaragupta. A collated text, based upon the sDe dge and Peking Tanjur versions, of the colophons in the Tibetan translation of all writings by Abhayākaragupta as well as the Tibetan translation of the opening and concluding verses of those writings the Sanskrit original of which is so far unknown is a desideratum. 20
Lee (2003: 49–63) provides a brief summary of the content of each work by Abhayākaragupta, 20 but without editing the colophons and the opening and concluding verses.

First Investigation of Abhayākaragutpa’s Madhyamakamañjarī
        
The hagiographic narratives regarding Abhayākaragupta’s life and works are arranged in chronological order: 21

1 Ratnarakṣita’s (12th century): Slob dpon a bha yā ka ra gupta’i lo rgyus 22
2 Bu ston’s (1290–1364) Chos ’byung
3 gZhon nu dpal’s (1392–1481) Deb ther sngon po
4 dPa’ bo gtsug lag phreng ba’s (1504–1566) lHo brag chos ’byung mkhas pa’i dga’ ston
5 Padma dkar po’s (1527–1592) Chos ’byung bstan pa’i pad ma rgyas pa’i nyin byed
6 Tāranātha’s (1575–1634) bKa’ babs bdun ldan gyi rnam thar (written in 1600)
7 Tāranātha’s rGya gar chos ’byung (written in 1608)
8 Pan chen Blo bzang chos kyi rgyal mtshan’s Slob dpon Abhayākara’i rtogs pa brjod pa tshangs pa’i dbyangs snyan (completed in A.D. 1641), published in Bireshwar 1968: 189–192.
9 Sum pa mkhan po Ye shes dpal ’byor’s (1704–1788) dPag bsam ljon bzang (written in 1748)
        
Abhayākaragupta, a contemporary of king Rāmapāla, was born in north-eastern India in a 24 Kṣatriya or Brāhmaṇa family and flourished from the late eleventh to the early twelfth
Bühnemann (1992: 120) and Yonezawa (2001: 7) listed some of the items.21 A biography of Abhayākaragupta by his disciple Ratnarakṣita. It is registered as No. 017176 in 22 ’Bras spungs Catalog (p. 1523). The manuscript consists of 5 folios. According to the colophon of Abhayākaragupta’s biography by Pan chen Blo bzang chos kyi 23 rgyal mtshan, Zhang Lo tsā ba Grub pa dpal (Phur pa skyabs, d. 1273?), a disciple of Abhayākaragupta’s disciple Legs spyod ’byung gnas (Sucaritākara), wrote a biography of Abhayākaragupta, cf. Bireshwar 1968: 192. Three places are held to be his birth place, Jarikhaṇḍa, Gauḍa and Magadha, all of them locate 24 in north-eastern India, cf. Bühnemann 1992: 120–121. Bireshwar 1968: 181–182.25



century. His root guru, according to Tāranātha, is Ratnākaragupta. He succeeded 26 27 Prajñākaramati as the abbot of Vikramaśīla monastery. Seyfort Ruegg (1981: 103) defined 28 29 Abhayākaragupta as ‘a leading later representative of’ the Madhyamaka-Prajñāpāramitā synthesis, ‘as well as of the Yogācāra-Svātantrika-Madhyamaka school in general and of the Madhyamaka-Vajrayāna synthesis’. 30
        
In his Abhayapaddhati, for example, he quotes Nāgārjuna’s Bodhicittavivaraṇa to clarify that the doctrine of the Vijñānavādins is soteriologically useful only on the conventional level. 31 In the same work, he also asserts that the Way of Mantra (mantranaya) is superior to the Way of Perfections (pāramitānaya), but at the same time, that the Way of Perfections is absolutely essential for obtaining enlightenment. The related passages find literal parallels in the 32 Āmnāyamañjarī by the same author. 33
        
Abhayākaragupta wrote three works on rituals, the Niṣpannayogāvalī, the Vajrāvalī and the Jyotirmañjarī, they are known as the ‘Garland Trilogy (phreng ba skor gsum)’. In the Vajrāvalī, Abhayākaragupta mentions no less than nine times Nāgabuddhi’s
 
Bireshwar 1968: 188, Seyfort Ruegg 1981: 114, Bühnemann 1992: 121–123. Following the 26 Re’u mig appended to the Bod rgya tshig mdzod chen mo, Newman (1987: 92, fn. 57) gives 1125 as the year when Abhayākaragupta passed away. Chattopadhyaya 1970: 434. Bireshwar (1968: 182) states that Abhayākaragupta was initiated 27 into Buddhist order by Ācārya Ratnākaraśānti. In Tāranātha’s history, Ratnākaraśānti is reported as being later than Abhayākaragupta, cf. Chattopadhyaya 1970: 313–314. This is certainly wrong. S.C. Das, however, accepted it. Bireshwar (1968: 182, fn. 32) pointed out this mistake, but at same time wrongly asserted that ‘All Tibetan sources agree that Ratnākaraśānti ... and preceded Abhayākaragupta.’ Kapstein 2001: 394.28 Vairocanarakṣita, who lived ‘some time in the 11th and 12th century’, probably received 29 instruction from Abhayākaragupta, see Kano 2008: 344–345, fn. 9. See also Seyfort Ruegg 1981: 114–115. Abhayākaragupta uses Maitreyanātha’s 30 Abhisamayālaṃkāra and the Sampuṭatantra as a basis for harmonizing the mahāyanic Buddhism and the tantric traditions accumulated till his time, see Lee 2003: 63–70. Luo 2010: 28, 91.31 Luo 2010: 37–38, 102–104.32 Tomabechi & Kano 2008: 29, 35–36.33



Śrīguhyasamājamaṇḍalaviṃśatikavidhi, which is certainly one of the sources of Abhayākaragupta’s ritual compendiums. 34
        
Most probably, Abhayākaragupta was intellectually indebted to Ratnākaraśānti. For example, on commenting the Boddhisattva stages, he may follow Ratnākaraśānti’s Sāratamā, 35 and his explanation of the verses quoted from Dīpaṅkarabhadra’s Maṇḍalavidhi in 450 verses echoes Ratnākaraśānti’s Śrīguhyasamājamaṇḍalavidhiṭīkā, a commentary on the same work. 36 37
        
It is well known that Abhayākaragupta often refers to his own works. Bühnemann (1992: 123–124) summarizes Abhayākaragupta’s self cross-references in his writings. This summary was later improved by Lee (2003: 47–48). What follows is a list of Abhayākaragupta’s cross references, mainly based upon Lee’s summary with new information from the Madhyamakamañjarī supplied:

The Abhayapaddhati refers to the Āmnāyamañjarī, Kālacakrāvatāra and Vajrāvalī.
The Āmnāyamañjarī refers to the Vajrāvalī.
The Jyotirmañjarī refers to the Āmnāyamañjarī and Vajrāvalī.
The Munimatālaṃkāra refers to the Āmnāyamañjarī.
The Niṣpannayogāvalī refers to the Cakrasaṃvarābhisamaya and the Vajrāvalī.
The Upadeśamañjarī refers to the Niṣpannayogāvalī, the Cakrasaṃvarābhisamaya and the Vajrāvalī.
The Vajrāvalī refers to the Āmnāyamañjarī, the Cakrasaṃvarābhisamaya (possibly), the Jyotirmañjarī, the Niṣpannayogāvalī.
 Mori 2009: 12–13, see also Lee 2003: 29, which refers to Mori 1997: 26. In his 34 Upadeśamañjarī, Abhayākaragupta also mentions Nāgabuddhi several times: P. vol. 87, yu, 189v7, 191v3 and 192r6, see Lee 2003: 29. Tomabechi & Kano 2008: 24–25.35 D. 1871, P. 2734.36 Mori 2009: 16.37



        
In the Madhyamakamañjarī, Abhayākaragupta refers twice to the Munimatālaṃkāra, in the Munimatālaṃkāra, he refers four times to the Madhyamakamañjarī. 38
        
Another important feature of Abhayākaragupta’s writing is his employment of a pramāṇic style, this is particularly true in the case of the Madhyamakamañjarī. 39
        A
ccording to the information provided in the colophons of the Tibetan translation of Abhayākaragupta’s writings, nine of them were translated in cooperation with Tibetan translators. He also cooperated with Tibetan translators in translating other works, mainly 40 sādhanas. According to ’Gos gzhon nu dpal’s Deb ther sngon po, cooperating with sNur Dar 41 ma grags, he translated Candrakīrti’s Śūnyatāsaptativṛtti at Nālandā. Perhaps he also 42 supervised the copying of a collection of Sanskrit palm-leaf manuscripts in Tibetan dBu med script. Together with Śāntākaragupta, Śākyarakṣita and Vidyākaraśānti, he participated in the 43 revision of the Saddharmasmṛtyupasthāna (’Phags pa dam pa’i chos dran pa nye bar gzhag pa).


       
The manuscript of MM was transliterated by the present author from 2008 to 2009, following the publication of the opening and concluding verses of MM in 2018, this paper is aimed to present the so far identified quotations in MM. The quotations are uncritically presented, variants between the quotations and the published editions of the texts quoted are set in italics.

Silent quotation from Jñānaśrīmitra’s Sākārasiddhiśāstra tathā hi vicitrānādivāsanāvaśāt prabodhakapratyayaviśeṣāpekṣayā vikalpaḥ kenacid ākāreṇopajāyamāna eva bahirmukhapravṛtyanukūlam arthakriyāsmaraṇābhilāpādiprabandham
 
Tomabechi & Kano 2008: 22, fn. 5. One of them was identified by Kapstein (2001: 413).38 Kapstein 2001: 394.39 Mori 2009: 6. The Abhiṣekaprakaraṇa, Shes rab dpal; the Āmnāyamañjarī, Sangs rgyas grags 40 pa (rTsa mi / Tsa mi of Mi nyag, see Newman 1987: 84, fn. 39); the Kālacakrāvatāra, Dharmakīrti; the Marmakaumudī, Shes rab dpal; the Munimatālaṃkāra, dPang zho gSal ba grags; the Ucchuṣmajambhalasādhana, Tshul khrims rgyal mtshan; the Vajramahākālābhicārahoma, Sin dha ba/Sang rgyas grags pa; the Vajrāvalī, ’Khor lo grags; the Vajrayānāpattimañjarī, Sangs rgyas grags pa. Mori 2009: 6.41 Seyfort Ruegg 1981: 115, fn. 371.42 Yonezawa: 2001: 8.43


ādhatte | tataḥ puruṣasyārthakriyārthino bahirarthānurūpāṇi pravṛttinivṛttyavadhīraṇāni bhavanti | pṛthagjanasantānajñānakṣaṇānām* tādṛśo hetuphalabhāvasya niyatatvāt* | [5v3-

aniścitārthasambandhavikalpakāle pi sadasatānirṇayādipravṛtiprasavaḥ | tatra yad ubhayathāpravṛttisādhanasāmarthyam asya svahetubalāyātam ayam eva pravṛttiviṣayavastvāropo dhyavasāyādyaparanāmā | yathā candrādijñānasya bhrāntasyābhrāntasya vā taddarśanāvasāyajananam eva grahaṇavyāpāraḥ svavid apīyam arthavid eva kāryato draṣṭavyeti nyāyāt* | tathā śabdādiyojanānimittakasya vikalpasyāpy agnir atretyādinākāreṇotpadyamānasya pravṛttyākṣepakatvam eva bāhyādhyavasānan nāma | yathā ca nirvikalpasya candrādyākārataiva tathāvasāyasādhanī | evam avasāyasyāpi tādṛśākārataiva viṣayāntaravimukhapravṛttisādhanī | [5v6-6r1]
tad ayam atra paramārthaḥ, vividhānādivāsanāvaśāt prabodhakapratyayavi ś e ṣāpek ṣ ay ā
 
vikalpaḥ kenacid ākāreṇopajāyamāna eva bahirmukhapravṛttyanukūlam arthakriyāsmaraṇābhilāpādiprabandham ādhatte | tataḥ puruṣasyārthakriyārthino bahirarthānurūpāṇi pravṛtinivṛttyavadhīraṇāni bhavanti | pṛthagjanasantānajñānakṣaṇānāṃ tādṛśo hetuḥ bhāvasya niyatatvāt | aniścitārthasambandhavikalpakāle ’pi sadasattādinirṇayādipravṛttiprasavaḥ |

tatra yad ubhayathāpravṛtte sādhanasāmarthyam asya svahetubalāyātam ayam eva pravṛttiviṣayavastvāropo ’dhyavasāyāparanāmā, yathā candrādijñānasya bhrāntasyābhrāntasya vā taddarśanāvasāyajananam eva grahaṇavyāpāraḥ | svacid apīyam arthavid eva kāryato draṣṭavyeti nyāyāt, tathā vikalpasyāpy agnir atretyādinākāreṇotpadyamānasya pravṛttyākṣepakatvam eva bāhyādhyavasānam | yathā ca nirvikalpasya candrādyākārataiva tathāvasāyasādhanī, evam avasāyasya api tādṛśākārataiva viṣayāntaravimukhapravṛttisādhanī | (SSŚ II, Thakur 1987: 393.10–21)

Asaṅga’s Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra ... tathā ca sūtrālaṅkāre | na cāntaraṃ kiñcana vidyate nayoḥ sadarthavṛttyā śama⦿janmanor iha | tathāpi janmakṣayato vidhīyate śamasya lābhaḥ śubhakarmmakāriṇām iti | [7r4]
na cāntaraṃ kiṃcana vidyate ’nayoḥ sadarthavṛttyā śamajanmanor iha | tathāpi janmakṣayato vidhīyate śamasya lābhaḥ śubhakarmakāriṇāṃ || (MSA: VI.5, Lèvi 1907: 23)


Nāgārjuna’s Yuktiṣaṣṭikā



yuktiṣaṣṭyāñ ca | nirvāṇañ ca bhavaś caiva dvayam etan na vidyate | bhavasyaiva parijñānam* nirvvāṇam iti kathyata iti | [7r5]
nirvāṇaṃ ca bhavaś caiva dvayam etan na vidyate | parijñānaṃ bhavasyaiva nirvāṇam iti kathyate || (YṢ: 6, Lindtner 1982: 104; Li & Ye 2014: 14-15)
Jñānaśrīmitra’s Sākārasaṃgrahasūtra tathā ca sākārasiddhau advaitaśikharārohe na pravṛttinivṛttayaḥ | tā eva saṃsāra iti taddhetuḥ katham iṣyatām ity uktam | [7r7]
advaitaśikharārohe na pravṛttinivṛttayaḥ | tā eva saṃsāra iti taddhetuḥ katham iṣyatām ||

(SSS: II.7 Thakur 1987: 529)

Though this quotation is ascribed to the Sākārasiddhiśāstra, it turns out to be the seventh verse of the second chapter (Dharmakāyasvarūpacintāparyantapravacanam āryāsaṅgayuvarājoktinirṇayaḥ) of Jñānaśrīmitra’s Sākārasaṃgrahasūtra.

Maitreyanātha’s Abhisamayālaṃkāra abhisamayālaṅkāre pi paramārthato niḥsvabhāvatvenaivoktam | svapnopamatvād dharmāṇāṃ | bhavaśāntyor akalpanetyādikam | [7v1-2]
svapnopamatvād dharmāṇāṃ bhavaśāntyor akalpanā | (AA: IV.60ab, Stcherbatsky & Obermiller 1970: 26)
Silent quotation from Dharmakīrti’s Pramāṇavārttika etad evoktam* | yathā phalasya hetūnāṃ śadṛśātmatayodbhavāt* | heturūpagraho loke ’kriyāvastve pi kathyata iti | [10v5-6]
yathā phalasya hetūnāṃ sadṛśātmatayodbhavād | heturūpagraho loke ’kriyāvattve ’pi kathyate || (PV II.309, Miyasaka 1971/1972: 82)
dadhānaṃ tac ca tām ātmany arthādhigamanātmaneti nyāyāt* | [12v4]


dadhānaṃ tac ca tām ātmany arthādhigamanātmanā || (PV II.307cd, Miyasaka 1971/1972: 82)
This verse is also attested in Dharmakīrti’s Pramāṇaviniścaya (PVin I.36cd, Steinkellner 2007: 32)
ata eva sahopalambhaniyamād abhedo nīlapītayor evoktam ācāryeṇa na tu nīlapītayoḥ samvittiniyamo nāsti bhinnayor nnīlapītayor ity ukteḥ | [22v5-6]
saṃvittiniyamo nāsti bhinnayor nīlapītayor || (PV II.389cd, Miyasaka 1971/1972: 92)
It is noteworthy that Abhayākaragupta, when quoting Dharmakīrti, never mentioned his name. In this case, only the honorific title: Ācārya, is used.
tathā coktam* | dharmmadharmivyavasthānam* bhedo bhedaś ca yādṛśaḥ | asamīkṣitattvārtho yathā loke pratīyate taṃ tathaiva samāśritya sādhyasādhanasaṃsthi … baddhadbhir avakalpyate tasmi … parikalpyedaṃ pranāśasya lakṣaṇam iti | [27r6-7]

dharmadharmivyavasthānaṃ bhedo ’bhedaś ca yādṛśaḥ | asamīkṣitatattvārtho yathā loke pratīyate ||
taṃ tathaiva samāśritya sādhyasādhanasaṃsthitiḥ | paramārthāvatārāya vidvadbhir avakalpyate || (PV III.85-86, Miyasaka 1971/1972: 128)
Śāntarakṣita’s Tattvasaṃgraha uktañ cācāryaśāntarakṣitena | vijñānapariṇāmo yaṃ kṣititejojalādikaḥ | ātmā tadātmakaś ceti saṅgirante pare punar iti | [26r3]
nityajñānavivartto ’yaṃ kṣititejojalādikaḥ | ātmā tadātmakaś ceti saṅgirante ’pare punaḥ || (TS: 328, Krishnamacharya 1984: 123)
Vasubandhu’s Viṃśikā etc. sammatatvāc ca vasubandhuprabhṛtīnāṃ | na ca svataṃtrahetau parācch{e}ādānurodhaḥ | prasaṅgabādhanatve ca viparyayaparyavasānāt sādhyavirodhaḥ | na ca viṃśikādau na tad ekaṃ na cānekaṃ viṣayaḥ paramāṇuśa ityādi bāhyeṣu prasaṅgabādhanatvaṃ … [31r2]
na tad ekaṃ na cānekaṃ viṣayaḥ paramāṇuśaḥ | (Viṃś 11ab, Lévi 1925: 1)

The title of the text is given as Viṃśikā in MM. This confirms the conclusion drawn by Kano (2008: 345; 350, a.) that the title Viṃśikā seems to be original.
Nāgārjuna’s Mūlamadhyamakakārikāḥ ata evoktaṃ mūlamadhyamake | na saṃbhavaḥ svabhāvasya yuktaḥ pratyayahetubhiḥ | hetupratyayasaṃbhūtaḥ svabhāvaḥ kṛtako bhavet | svabhāvaḥ kṛtako nāma bhaviṣyati punaḥ kathaṃ | akṛtrimaḥ sva … [43r7-43v1]

na saṃbhavaḥ svabhāvasya yuktaḥ pratyayahetubhiḥ | hetupratyayasaṃbhūtaḥ svabhāvaḥ kṛtako bhavet ||
svabhāvaḥ kṛtako nāma bhaviṣyati punaḥ katham | akṛtrimaḥ svabhāvo hi nirapekṣaḥ paratra ca || (MMK XV.1-2, de Jong 1977: 19; Ye 2011: 236)
āryanāgārjunapādaiś coktaṃ | na svato nāpi parato na dvābhyāṃ nāpy ahetutaḥ | utpannā jātu vidyante bhāvāḥ kvacana kecaneti | [39v3]

na svato nāpi parato na dvābhyāṃ nāpy ahetutaḥ | utpannā jātu vidyante bhāvāḥ kva cana ke cana || (MMK I.1, de Jong 1977: 1; Ye 2011: 12)
The Āryaśālistambasūtra tathā coktam āryaśālistambasūtre | so yam aṅkuro na svayaṃkṛto na parakṛto nobhayakṛto nāhetusamutpanna iti | [39v3]
Two parallels are found in Vaidya’s edition of the Āryaśālistambasūtra:
atha punaḥ satsu eteṣu pratyayeṣu bīje nirudhyamāne aṅkurasyābhinirvṛttir bhavati | evaṃ yāvat puṣpe sati phalasyābhinirvṛttir bhavati | sa ca aṅkuro na svayaṃkṛto na parakṛto nobhayakṛto neśvarakṛto na kālapariṇāmito na prakṛtisaṃbhūto [na caikakāraṇādhīno] nāpy ahetusamutpannaḥ | (ŚālSū, Vaidya 1961: 102.1–4)
sa ca nāmarūpāṅkuro na svayaṃkṛto na parakṛto nobhayakṛto neśvarakṛto na kālapariṇāmito na prakṛtisaṃbhūto na caikakāraṇādhīno nāpy ahetusamutpannaḥ | (ŚālSū, Vaidya 1961: 104.33– 105.1)


Abhayākaragupta’s Munimatālaṃkāra tathā cācalādibhūbhujeniravadhidhātutrayīṃ prati parimāṇu paśyantīti pravaca⦿nam udbheditam asmābhir munimatālaṅkāre ity alam atra nirbandhena | [31r5]

sarvvadharmāṇāñ ca niḥsvabhāvatvam eva tatvam anyat sāṃvṛtaṃ rūpaṃ tadapekṣayaiva ca kalpitaparataṃtrapariniṣpannavyavasthādvikaṃ bhagavatā sphuṭaṃ prakāśitam iti pravacanenaiva vipañcitam asmābhir munimatālaṅkāre iti nātra pratanyate | [45r1-2]


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