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A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms-001

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A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms

by William Edward Soothill

and Lewis Hodous


Preface to the Digital Edition

Why Digitize Soothill?

Status of the Digital Document and Treatment of its Contents


Professor Sooothill's Preface

Professor Hodous' Preface


Preface to the Digital Edition

Why Digitize Soothill?

Like all other graduate students for the past generation or so who chose to embark on a professional career in the study of East Asian Buddhism, I was, in my early days of study, strictly warned by my mentors against relying on the Soothill and Hodous' Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms as a primary research tool. There were two main reasons for this. First, the dictionary is an extremely

dated work, having reached completion during the mid 1930's, several decades before a serious profession of Buddhology had formed itself in the West. Western language information on Buddhism available to its compilers was extremely limited, and even in East Asian there were few reliable and comprehensive lexicons available. Thus the understanding of the philosophical terminology coming out of such systems as

Mādhyamika and Yogācāra—which had only barely come to be understood in the West, tended to be simplistic, if not completely erroneous. It was a time in the history of the discipline when "Hīnayāna" was still considered to be something of a distinct historical Buddhist tradition. Beyond this, even concepts contained in the dictionary that were adequately understood were often expressed in archaic terms.

The second reason for pushing graduate students away from this work is related to the necessity of getting them involved as quickly as possible in dealing with resources from the original Asian traditions—in this case, the original texts and secondary resources from China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Beyond this, the constraints imposed by the printing technology of the 1930's have always made the dictionary somewhat difficult to use, with many of the entries in the dictionary being embedded inside other entries. There is also the difficulty brought about by the usage of vertical bars to indicate the repetition of Chinese characters. There is also somewhat of a dearth of useful indexing.

Despite these shortcomings, the fact is that just about every serious scholar of East Asian Buddhism has a copy of the Soothill/Hodous dictionary in her/his personal library (perhaps stashed somewhere next to a copy of Mathew's). This is an indication of an important fact about the

dictionary: there is a large amount of information contained within it that can't readily be found elsewhere. Most notably information on Indian and [[Wikipedia:Central Asian|Central Asian]] place names, personal names, temple names and so forth, but also lots of information on hybrid Sanskrit and transliterations that one will not find in any other dictionary, East Asian or otherwise.

I made the decision to digitize the dictionary upon finding out that it had fallen into the public domain, coupled with the realization that its content could do much to supplement that of my own long-term Buddhist lexicographical project, the Digital Dictionary of Buddhism [DDB (]. Obtaining a grant from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science [JSPS] I spent, along with a number of assistants, two years in the task of digitizing this material and adding it to the DDB.

I became, in the process of this task, quite likely the only other person besides Soothill, Hodous, and their editorial staff, to read the dictionary in its entirety, and as a result of this concentrated exposure to it, I was led, as a fellow lexicographer, to come away with an immense respect for efforts of its compilers. Very early in the age of attempts at mixed Chinese-Roman typesetting, and several decades before the advent of copy machines, these two men, working on different continents, sent their handwritten manuscript back and forth by ship over the Atlantic ocean no less than four times.

Serious scrutiny has led me to the conclusion that the work is, at least in terms of its translations from Chinese sources, fairly sound. Using modern computing technology in the process of adding this material to the DDB, we were able to benefit from the presence of digitized versions of the Fanyi mingyi ji and the Ding Fubao, which were checked (along with a wide range of other digitized resources) on the addition of each entry. This allowed us to add a good amount of information to the DDB from these sources that Soothill and Hodous—no doubt in the interest of economy—

left out. This also allowed us to see clearly that both men held a very solid command of classical Chinese. Their renderings from these sources are accurate, insightful, and nuanced. They also extensively and paintakingly consulted the other reference works that were available to them at the time, such as the lexicons by Eitel and Monier-Williams (see Soothill's Preface for a discussion of sources). Making extensive use of Eitel, they were able to add a sizeable amount of geographical location information for place names contained in the various travel records of Chinese monks who went to India and [[Wikipedia:Central Asia|Central Asia]].

As noted above, the most obvious area of difficulty in terms of content was that concerned with Buddhist philosophy. They were not aware at all of the complex nature of the relationship between the "Paramarthan" and Xuanzang Yogācāra (the "schools of Idealism"), but more telling (and historically, interesting) is the fact that they had not yet even sufficiently grasped the distinctions between Yogācāra and Vajrayāna, as

these two traditions are conflated in a number of places. Also, not surprising for the time period in which they worked and their backgrounds, much of their thinking was informed by Christian theology, and this is sometimes reflected in their renderings of Buddhist concepts. On the other hand, since Soothill was one the early translators of the Lotus Sutra, it is not surprising to note that there is a strong presence of Lotus and Tiantai related terminology in this work, most of it rendered with sufficient accuracy.

===Status of the Digital Document and Treatment of its Contents===

I started this project with only the intent of absorbing its data into the DDB in a supplementary fashion, and it was not until halfway through the process of digitization that it occurred to me that a separate digital version of the dictionary made publicly available on the internet could be of sufficient value to merit paying attention to the proper preservation of its original format. Thus, unfortunately, during the early stages, almost all

attention was paid to devising the most efficient strategies for preparation of the material for entry into the DDB. This preparation included the changing of Chinese transliterations into Pinyin, as well as correction of Sanskrit diacritics, and amendments in diacritical style according to the modern norms used the DDB. However, even this was not done with consistency, as sometimes these changes were made in the Dictionary source files, and sometimes only after they had been added to the DDB.

The major format change one will see in this version is that of the places where Soothill/Hodous had included numerous entries under a single entry heading. For ready absorption into the DDB using computer programming, these were broken down into separate entries. As it turns out, it makes the dictionary much more readable, so I don't see that this will be a problem. Also, our replacement of the vertical bars with the actual Han characters they were used to indicate will make for much easier reading than in the printed original.

Most corrections to the material are usually only found in the equivalent DDB entry. Since we have already gone through the correcting and editing process once while adding the material to the DDB, it does not seem worth it, for our purposes, to go back and try to return to Soothill material to its precise original format. But if someone would like to do that job, they are certainly welcome to do so. There is little doubt that the addition of the material to the DDB in a more readily accessible, searchable format is something that Profs. Soothill and Hodous would have themselves happily welcomed. Prof. Soothill's attitude toward the usage of his work in future projects is well expressed as follows:

Lack of time and funds has prevented our studying the Canon, especially historically, or engaging a staff of competent Chinese Buddhist scholars to study it for the purpose. We are consequently all too well aware that the Dictionary is not as perfect or complete as it might be.

Nevertheless, it seems better to encourage the study of Chinese Buddhism as early as possible by the provision of a working dictionary rather than delay the publication perhaps for years, until our ideals are satisfied—a condition which might never be attained.

We therefore issue this Compendium—for it is in reality more than a Dictionary—in the hope that many will be stimulated to devote time to a subject which presents so fascinating a study in the development of religion.

The basic digital document is structured in XML, using the recommendations for print dictionaries provided by the Text Encoding Initiative [TEI]. This will allow for its transformation into various formats for implementation on the Web, and elsewhere. While the major portion of the work of development of the structure in the usage of TEI2 was done by Charles Muller, a significant housecleaning of this structure was done by Michael Beddow in the process of final production. The XSLT transformation was done based on the TEI style sheets developed by Sebastian Rahtz.


The work of digitizing A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms was made possible by a research grant from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. The scanning and OCR work was done in its entirety by Yasuko Suzuki. Ms. Suzuki also did almost all of the editing and correction of Chinese characters contained in the text. Proofreading of the English text, and especially the insertion of diacritical marks was done by Heather Blair, Juhn Ahn, Amanda Goodman, Gina Cogan, James Mark Shields, and Thomas Dreitlein. Please note that due to certain processes of the project, not all of these corrections appear in the present text, but are reflected in their entirety within the Digital Dictionary of Buddhism.

Charles Muller

Tokyo, March 2003


AS compilers of the first Dictionary of Chinese Mahāyāna Terms, we are far from considering our attempt as final. Our desire has been to provide a key for the student with which to unlock a closed door. If it serves to reveal the riches of the great Buddhist thesaurus in China, we will gladly leave to others the correction and perfecting of our instrument. It was Dr. E. J. Eitel, of The London Missionary Society, who over sixty years ago, in 1870, provided the first means in English of studying Chinese Buddhist texts by his Handbook for the Student of Chinese Buddhism. It has been of great service; but it did not deal with Chinese Buddhist terminology in general. In form it was Sanskrit-Chinese-English, and the second edition unhappily omitted the Chinese-Sanskrit Index which was essential for the student reading the Chinese Sutras. [Note:

1. A reprint of the second edition, incorporating a Chinese Index, was published in Japan in 1904, but is very scarce.

Lacking a dictionary of Chinese Buddhist terms, it was small wonder that the translation of Chinese texts has made little progress, important though these are to the understanding of Mahāyāna Buddhism, especially in its Far Eastern development. Two main difficulties present themselves: first of all, the special and peculiar use of numerous ordinary Chinese terms; and, secondly, the large number of transliterated phrases.

In regard to the first difficulty, those who have endeavoured to read Chinese texts apart from the apprehension of a Sanskrit background have generally made a fallacious interpretation, for the Buddhist canon is basically translation, or analogous to translation. In consequence, a large number of terms existing are employed approximately to connote imported ideas, as the various Chinese translators understood those ideas. Various translators invented different terms; and, even when the same term was finally adopted, its connotation varied, sometimes widely, from the Chinese term or phrase as normally used by the Chinese. For instance, kleśa undoubtedly has a meaning in Sanskrit similar to that of 煩惱, i. e. affliction, distress, trouble.

In Buddhism affliction (or, as it may be understood from Chinese, the afflicters, distressers, troublers) means the passions and illusions; and consequently fan-nao in Buddhist phraseology has acquired this technical connotation of the passions and illusions. Many terms of a similar character will be noted in the body of this work.

Consequent partly on this use of ordinary terms, even a well-educated Chinese without a knowledge of the technical equivalents finds himself unable to understand their implications.

A difficulty equally serious is the transliteration of Sanskrit, a difficulty rendered far greater by the varied versions of many translators. Take, for instance, the word "Buddha" and its transliteration as ; 佛陀; 浮陀, 浮圖, 浮頭, 勃陀, 勃馱, 部陀, 母陀, 沒馱, and so on. The pages of the Chinese canon are peppered with such transliterations as these from the Sanskrit, in regrettable variety. The position resembles that of

Chinese terminology in Modern Science, which was often transliteration twenty or thirty years ago, when I drew the attention of the Board of Education in Peking to the need of a regulated terminology for Science. Similarly, in pages devoid of capitals, quotation-marks, or punctuation, transliterated Sanskrit-into-Chinese may well seem to the uninitiated, whether Chinese or foreign, to be ordinary phrases out of which no meaning can be drawn.

Convinced, therefore, that until an adequate dictionary was in existence, the study of Far Eastern Buddhist texts could make little progress amongst foreign students in China, I began the formation of such a work. In 1921 I discovered in Bodley's Library, Oxford, an excellent version of the 翻譯名義 集 Fan I ming I Chi, i.e. Translation of Terms and Meanings, composed by 法雲 Fa-y n, circa the tenth century A.D. At the head of each entry in the volume I examined, some one, I know not whom, had written the Sanskrit equivalent in Sanskrit letters. These terms were

at once added to my own card index. Unhappily the writer had desisted from his charitable work at the end of the third volume, and the remaining seven volumes I had laboriously to decipher with the aid of Stanislas Julien's M thode pour d chiffrer et transcrire les noms sanscrits qui se rencontrent dans les livres chinois, 1861, and various dictionaries, notably that of Monier Williams. Not then possessed of the first edition of Eitel's Handbook, I also

perforce made an index of the whole of his book. Later there came to my knowledge the admirable work of the Japanese 織田得能 Oda Tokunō in his 佛教大辭典; and also the Chinese version based upon it of 丁福 保 Ding Fubao, called the 佛學大辭典 in sixteen volumes; also the 佛學小辭典 in one volume. Apart from these, it would have been difficult for Dr. Hodous and myself to have collaborated in the production of this work. Other dictionaries and vocabularies have since appeared, not least the first three fascicules of the H b girin, the Japanese-Sanskrit-French Dictionary of Buddhism.

When my work had made considerable progress, Dr. Y. Y. Tsu called upon me and in the course of conversation mentioned that Dr. Hodous, of Hartford Theological Seminary, Connecticut, U.S.A., who had spent many years in South China and studied its religions, was also engaged on a Buddhist Dictionary. After some delay and correspondence, an arrangement was made by which the work was divided between us, the final

editing and publishing being allotted to me. Lack of time and funds has prevented our studying the Canon, especially historically, or engaging a staff of competent Chinese Buddhist scholars to study it for the purpose. We are consequently all too well aware that the Dictionary is not as perfect or complete as it might be.

Nevertheless, it seems better to encourage the study of Chinese Buddhism as early as possible by the provision of a working dictionary rather than delay the publication perhaps for years, until our ideals are satisfied—a condition which might never be attained.

We therefore issue this Compendium—for it is in reality more than a Dictionary—in the hope that many will be stimulated to devote time to a subject which presents so fascinating a study in the development of religion.

My colleague and collaborator, Dr. Hodous, took an invaluable share in the draft of this work, and since its completion has carefully read over the whole of the typed pages. It may, therefore, be considered as the common work of both of us, for which we accept a common responsibility. It seemed scarcely possible for two men living outside China, separated by 2,000 miles of ocean, and with different mentalities and forms of expression, to work together to a successful conclusion. The risky experiment was hesitatingly undertaken on both sides, but we have been altogether happy in our mutual relations.

To Dr. F.W. Thomas, Boden Professor of Sanskrit, Oxford University, I am deeply indebted for his great kindness in checking the Sanskrit terminology. He is in no way responsible for the translation from the Chinese; but his comments have led to certain corrections, and his help in the revision of the proper spelling of the Sanskrit words has been of very great importance. In the midst of a busy life, he has spared time, at much sacrifice, to consider the Sanskrit phrases throughout the entire work, except certain additional words that have

since come to my notice. As an outstanding authority, not only on the Sanskrit language, but on Tibetan Buddhism and the Tibetan language, his aid has been doubly welcome. Similarly, Dr. Hodous wishes specially to thank, his colleague at Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., Dr. LeRoy Carr Barret, for the generous assistance he rendered in revising the Sanskrit terms in his section of our joint work, and for his well-considered and acceptable comments and suggestions.

Dr. Lionel Giles, Keeper of the Department of Oriental Printed Books and MSS., British Museum, illustrious son of an illustrious parent, has also our special appreciation, for he magnanimously undertook to read the proofs. He brings his own ripe scholarship and experienced judgment to this long labour; and the value and precision of the Dictionary will undoubtedly be enhanced through his accurate and friendly supervision.

Next, we would most gratefully acknowledge the gift of Mrs. Paul de Witt Twinem, of Trenton, New Jersey, UṢ.A. She has subscribed a sum of money which has made the publication of our work possible. To this must be added further aid in a very welcome subvention from the Prize Publication Fund of the Royal Asiatic Society. Such a practical expression of encouragement by fellow-orientalists is a matter of particular gratification.

Our thanks are due to Mr. Zu-liang Yih 葉樹梁, who with accuracy, zeal, and faithfulness has written the large number of Chinese characters needed. To the Hon. Mrs. Wood I am grateful for help in the exacting task of transcribing. As to my daughter, Lady Hosie, I have no words to express my personal indebtedness to her. Without her loving and unflagging aid as amanuensis, I should have been unable to finish my part in this work, which-so the authors hope-will once again demonstrate the implicit and universal need of the human spirit for religion, and its aspirations towards the Light that "lighteth every man that cometh into the world".


Oxford, England, 1934.


After the Dictionary went to press, Professor Soothill died. The work on the Dictionary, however, was completed. For ten years we worked together, he at Oxford and I at Hartford, and the manuscript crossed the Atlantic four times. During his semester in New York as Visiting Professor in Columbia University and on my brief visit to Oxford, we had opportunity to consult together on some outstanding problems. The work of organizing the material and harmonizing the differences was done by Professor Soothill. He was well equipped to undertake the task of

producing a Buddhist Dictionary, having a thorough knowledge of the Chinese language. His Pocket Chinese Dictionary is still in use. He knew Chinese culture and religion. He possessed a keen sense for the significant and a rare ability to translate abstruse terms into terse English. But even more valuable was his profound insight into and deep sympathy with the religious life and thought of another people.

The text and the indexes were again finally revised during his last long illness by Lady Hosie under his supervision. He was able also to appreciate the kind collaboration of Dr. Lionel Giles on the earlier proof-sheets. But his death meant a vastly increased amount of work for Dr. Giles who, on the other side of the Atlantic from myself, has had to assume a responsibility quite unexpected by himself and by us. For two to three years, with unfailing courtesy and patience, he has considered and corrected the very trying pages of the proofs, while the Dictionary was being

printed. He gave chivalrously of his long knowledge both of Buddhism and of the Chinese literary characters. He adds yet another laurel to the cause of Chinese learning and research. And in the same way Professor F.W. Thomas bore the brunt of the Sanskrit proof-reading. We have indeed been fortunate to have had our work checked in extenso by such exacting scholars.

To Sir E. Denison Ross, who kindly looked over the proofs, and added certain welcome corrections, our thanks are due. Also we would wish to acknowledge the help of Mr. L. M. Chefdeville, who, putting his experience of various Oriental languages at our disposal, made many helpful suggestions, especially as regards the Indexes. Nor do we forget the fidelity and careful work of the printers, Messrs. Stephen Austin and Sons, who collaborated with us in every way in our desire to produce a volume a little worthy of its notable subject.

object is well expressed by my late colleague. The difficulties in the production of the book were not small. Buddhism has a long history. Its concepts were impregnated by different cultures, and expressed in different languages. For about a thousand years

Buddhism dominated the thought of China, and her first-rate minds were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. For a period it lagged; but today is in a different position from what it was a generation ago. Buddhism is no longer a decadent religion and in certain countries it is making considerable progress. It is therefore to be hoped that this Dictionary will help to interpret Chinese culture both through the ages and today.


Hartford, Connecticut, 1937.


1. The rule adopted has been to arrange the terms, first, by strokes, then by radicals, i. e.: -

(a) By the number of strokes in the initial character of a term; then,

(b) According to its radical.

Thus will be found under seven strokes and under the 亻 radical; under eight strokes and the 氵 radical; under thirteen strokes and the radical. A page index is provided showing where changes in the number of strokes occur.

2. A list of difficult characters is provided.

3. An index of the Sanskrit terms is given with references to the Chinese text.

4. A limited number of abbreviations have been used, which are self-evident, e.g. tr. for translation, translator, etc.; translit. for transliteration, transliterate, etc.; abbrev. for abbreviation; intp. for interpreted or interpretation; u.f. for used for. "Eitel" refers to Dr. Eitel's Handbook of Chinese Buddhism; "M.W." to Monier-Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary; "Keith" to Professor A. Berriedale Keith's Buddhist Philosophy; "Getty" to Miss Alice Getty's The Gods of Northern Buddhism; B.D. to the 佛學大辭典; B.N. to Bunyiu Nanjio's Catalogue.

5. Where characters are followed by others in brackets, they are used alone or in combination; e. g. in 十善 (正法) the term 十善 may be used alone or in full 十善正法.

6. In the text a few variations occur in the romanization of Sanskrit and other non-Chinese words. These have been corrected in the Sanskrit index, which should be taken as giving the correct forms.

In this Dictionary it was not possible to follow the principle of inserting hyphens between the members of Sanskrit compound words.



eka. One, unity, monad, once, the same; immediately on (seeing, hearing, etc.).

一一 One by one, each, every one, severally.

丈六像 Sixteen 'feet' form, or image, said to be the height of the Buddha's body, or 'transformation' body; v. 丈六金身.

三昧 ekāgra, aikāgrya. Undeflected concentration, meditation on one object; v 一行三昧.

A hall of spread tables; idem一普.

一中一切中 One being recognized as 'mean' then all is of the 'mean'; the three aspects of reality, noumenon, phenomenon, and madhya, are identical in essence; v. 止觀 5.

一乘 ekayāna, One yāna, the One yāna, the vehicle of one-ness.

佛乘 The one Buddha-yāna. The One Vehicle, i.e. Mahāyāna, which contains the final or complete law of the Buddha and not merely a part, or preliminary stage, as in Hīnayāna. Mahāyānists claim it as the perfect and only way to the shore of parinirvāṇa. It is especially the doctrine of the 法華經 Lotus Sūtra; v. 大乘.

乘之珠 The pearl of the One yāna, i.e. The Lotus Scripture.

乘圓宗 The Tiantai, or Lotus School of the perfect teaching, or the one vehicle; v. 天台宗.

乘家 The one-vehicle family or sect, especially the Tiantai or Lotus School.

乘法 (一乘法門) The one vehicle method as revealed in the Lotus Sūtra.

乘究竟教 The One Vehicle in its final teaching, especially as found in the Lotus Sūtra.

乘經乘妙典 (or 一乘妙文) Another name for the Lotus Sūtra, so called because it declares the one way of salvation, the perfect Mahāyāna.

乘菩提 The one-vehicle enlightenment.

乘顯性教 One of the five divisions made by 圭峯 Guifeng of the Huayan 華嚴 or Avataṃsaka School; v. 五教.

九 A Shingon term for Amitābha.

九之生 Future life in the Amitābha Pure Land.

人作虛萬人傳實 One man's untruth is propagated by a myriad men as truth; famae mendacia.

A human lifetime; especially the lifetime of Śākyamuni on earth.

代三段 The three sections, divisions, or periods of Buddha's teaching in his life- time, known as 序分, i.e. the 華嚴, 阿含, 方等, and 般若 sūtras; 正宗分, i.e. 無量義, 法華, and 普賢觀 sūtras; and 流通分, i.e. the 湼槃經; they are known as introductory, main discourse, and final application. There are other definitions.

代五時佛法 The five period of Buddha's teachings, as stated by Zhiyi 智顗 of the Tiantai School. The five are 華嚴, 阿含, 方等, 般若, 法華湼槃, the last two being the final period.

一代教 The whole of the Buddha's teaching from his enlightenment to his nirvāṇa, including Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna teaching.

切位 idem 一門不門.

佛世界 A Buddha-cosmos; a world undergoing transformation by a Buddha.

佛乘 The Mahāyāna, or one-Buddha vehicle, especially the teaching of the Lotus Sūtra.

一佛土 (一佛國土); idem一佛世界 A Buddha-domain; or a one-Buddha region; also the Pure Land.

佛多佛 One Buddha or many Buddhas, i.e. some Hīnayāna Schools say only one Buddha exists in the same aeon; Mahāyāna says many Buddhas appear in the same aeon in many worlds.

佛淨土 A Buddha's Pure Land, especially that of Amitābha.

一來 (一來向) sakṛdāgāmin. Only one more return to mortality, v. 斯 and 四向.

一來果 v. 四果.

個半個 A particle, the very least.

光三尊 Three honoured ones in one light or haloAmitābha, Avalokiteśvara, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta; or Śākyamuni, Bhaiṣajya the 藥王 and 藥上 his younger brother.


兎毛塵 An atom of dust on a hare's down (śaśorṇa). A measure, the 22,588,608,000th part of a yojana.

囘忌 The first anniversary of a death; any such anniversary; also 一周忌.

刀三禮 In carving an image of Buddha, at each cut thrice to pay homage to the triratna. 一筆三禮 and 一字三禮 indicate a similar rule for the painter and the writer.

分家 A school founded by 安慧 Anhui, teaching 心識之一分說 that cognition is subjective.

分菩薩 A one-tenth bodhisattva, or disciple; one who keeps one-tenth of the commandments.

sarva. All, the whole; , , .

一心識 That all things are mind, or mental.

切世尊最尊特身 The most honoured of all the world-honoured; a title of Vairocana; v. 毘.

切人中尊 The most honoured among men, especially Vairocana; v. 毘.

切佛心印 trikona. The sign on a Buddha's breast, especially that on Vairocana's; the sign of the Buddha-mind; it is a triangle of flame pointing downwards to indicate power overall temptations; it is also 一切徧智印 the sign of omniscience.

切佛會 The assembly of all the Buddhas, a term for the two maṇḍalas, or circles; v. 胎藏界 and, 金剛界, i.e. the Garbhadhātu and the Vajradhātu.

切卽一 v. 一.

切如來 sarvatathāgata, all Tathāgatas, all the Buddhas.

切如來定 The highest of the 108 degrees of samādhi practised by bodhisattvas, also called 大空三昧 śūnyasamādhi, i.e. of the great void, or immateriality, and 金剛三昧 vajrasamādhi, Diamond samādhi. A samādhi on the idea that all things are of the (same) Buddha-nature.

切如來寶 The talismanic pearl of all Buddhas, especially one in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala who holds a lotus in his left hand and the talismanic pearl in his right.

切如來必定印 The sign of the assurance of attaining Buddhahood.

切如來智印 A sign of the wisdom of all buddhas, a triangle on a lotus in the Garbhadhātu group.

切如來眼色如明照三摩地 A Vairocana-samādhi, in which the light of the Tathāgata-eye streams forth radiance. Vairocana by reason of this samādhi is accredited with delivering the 'true word' which sums up all the principles and practices of the masters.

切如來諸法本性淸淨蓮華三昧 A lotus-samādhi of Vairocana from which Amitābha was born. It is a Tathāgata meditation, that the fundamental nature of all existence is pure like the lotus.

切如來金剛誓誡 The original oath of every Tathāgata, when as with the roar of a lion he declares that all creatures shall become as himself.

切智 sarvajña; v. , i.e. 佛智 Buddha-wisdom, perfect knowledge, omniscience.

切智地 The state or place of such wisdom.

切智藏 The thesaurus of 一切智; Buddha.

切智人 or 一切智者 Buddha.

切智舟 or 一切智船 The vehicle of 一切智 (Mahāyāna), which carries men to the 一切智地.

切智相 sarvajñatā, omniscience, or the state or condition of such wisdom.

切智經 The 59th chapter of the 中阿含經.

切智智 The wisdom of all wisdom, Buddha's wisdom, including bodhi, perfect enlightenment and purity; 大悲 great pity (for mortals); and 方便 tact or skill in teaching according to receptivity.

切智句 The state or abode of all wisdom, i.e. of Buddha; 句 is 住處.

切智天 薩婆愼若提婆 Sarvajñadeva, the deva (i.e. Buddha) of universal wisdom.


切智心 The Buddha-wisdom mind.

切智慧者 The all-wise one, a title of Vairocana; v. 毘.

切普門身 The one who completely fills all the 'four realms' (dharmadhātu), a doctrine of the 華嚴 School.

切有 sarvabhāva. All things or beings; tr. of the name of Viśvabhū; v. 毘.

切有情 一切衆生 All sentient beings.

切有根本 The Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ, a branch of the Sarvāstivādin sect, which asserted the reality of things.

切有爲 All phenomena, the phenomenal; all that is produced by causative action; everything that is dynamic and not static.

切有部 The realistic School, Sarvāstivādaḥ, a branch of the Vaibhāṣika, claiming Rāhula as founder, asserting the reality of all phenomena: 說一切有部; 薩婆多部; 薩婆阿私底婆拖部; 一切語言部. It divided, and the following seven schools are recorded, but the list is doubtful: — Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ 一切有根本部. Kāśyapīyaḥ 迦葉毘維, also known as Suvarṣakāḥ 蘇跋梨柯部; 遊梨沙部; 蘇梨沙部; and 善歲部. Dharmaguptāḥ 法密部; 法藏部; 法護部. Mahīśāsakāḥ or Mahīśāsikāḥ 摩醯奢婆迦部; 彌喜捨婆阿部; 彌沙塞部; 化地部; 正地部. Tāmraṣāṭīyāḥ. Vibhajyavādinaḥ 分別說部. Bahuśrutīyāḥ 婆收婁多柯 or 多聞部.

切施 sarvadā. 薩縛達 One who gives his all; all-bestowing.

一切法 一切萬法; 一切諸法 sarvadharma. All things; all laws, existences, or beings.

切法界生印 One of the three signs in the maṇḍala of the Shingon School — the sign of producing all things or realms.

切法界決定智印 The 'true word' of assurance of Vairocana and of all the eight classes of beings, as the symbol through which all may attain the sure Buddha-wisdom.

切法界自身表 Buddha's self-manifestation to all creation.

一切法空 sarvadharma-śūnyatā, the emptiness or unreality of all things.

一切無障法印明 A sign for overcoming all hindrances, i.e. by making the sign of a sword through lifting both hands, palms outward and thumbs joined, saying (Hail! Bhagavat! Bhagavat svāhā!)

一切無障礙 Absolutely free or unhindered, e.g. like air; illimitable, universal.

一切皆成 All beings become Buddhas, for all have the Buddha-nature and must ultimately become enlightened, i.e. 一切衆生皆悉成佛. This is the doctrine of developed Mahāyāna, or universalism, as opposed to the limited salvation of Hīnayāna and of undeveloped Mahāyāna; 法華經方便品; 若有聞法者無一不成佛 if there be any who hear the dharma, not one will fail to become Buddha.

切皆空宗 The sects which maintain the unreality of all things; v. 十宗.

切眞言王 All the 'true word' rulers, shown in the Garbhadhātu and Vajradhātu groups.

切眞言心 The first Sanskrit letter 'a'; it is pronounced 'an' by the Shingon School and emphasized as the heart of all wisdom. In India 'a' is the 'name of Vishṇu (especially as the first of the three sounds in the sacred syllable oṃ or aum), also of Brahmā, Śiva, and Vaiśvānara (Agni)' M. W.

切種妙三昧 The samādhi, or trance, which brings every kind of merit for one's adornment.

切種智 see 三智.

切種識 The 8th of the 八識 q.v.

切經 The Tripiṭaka 大藏經 or 藏經, i.e. the whole of the Buddhist Canon. The collection was first made in China in the first year of 開皇 A.D. 581. See B. N.

切義成 Sarvārthasiddha, or Siddhārtha; all wishes realized, name given to Śākyamuni at his birth; v. 悉, .

切萬 一切諸法; 一切物 All things, idem 一切法.

切處 samanta. Everywhere, universal; a universal dhyāna.

切處無不相應眞言 The Shingon or 'True word' that responds everywhere.

切衆生之父 The Father of all the living, Brahmā 梵王.

切衆生喜見佛 Sarvasattva-priya-darśana. The Buddha at whose appearance all beings rejoice. (1) A fabulous Bodhisattva who destroyed himself by fire and when reborn burned both arms to cinders, an act described in the Lotus Sūtra as the highest form of sacrifice. Reborn as Bhaiṣajyarāja 藥王. (2) The name under which Buddha's aunt, Mahāprajāpatī, is to be reborn as Buddha.

切衆生精氣 Sarvasattvāujohārī. Lit. subtle vitality of all beings; the quintessence or energy of all living beings. A certain rākṣasī, wife of a demon.


切衆生離諸惡趣 sarvasattva-pāpa-prahāṇa. A samādhi on a world free from all the evil destinies.

一切語言部 idem 一切有部.

切諸佛 All Buddhas.

切遍智印 trikoṇa. A triangle above a white lotus, apex downward, of pure white colour, representing wisdom as a flame which burns up all passion and overcomes all opposition; the symbol of every Tathāgata. It is specially connected with Vairocana. Also 一切佛心印; 諸佛心印.

v. 掣. A kṣetra, a land, a Buddha-realm or chiliocosm.

刹那 A kṣaṇa, the shortest space of time, a moment, the 90th part of a thought and 4,500th part of a minute, during which 90 or 100 are born and as many die.

The teaching and influence of a Buddha during one Buddha-period; also the teaching of the whole truth at once; also an instantaneous reform.

化五味之教 The Five Tastes or periods of the Buddha's teaching as defined by the Tiantai School, i.e. the 華嚴; 阿含; 方等; 般若 and 法華湼槃 q.v. and v. 五味.

sahasra; a thousand.

一千二百 1,200.

一千二百功德 The 1,200 merits or powers of the organs of eye, tongue, and mind predicted in the Lotus Sutra, but, generally, the merits therein predicted to all six organs.

A seal, sign, symbol.

印會 The sixth of the nine Vajradhātu groups.

一卽一切一切卽一 'One is all and all is one.' Expressing the essential unity of all things; a tenet of the Huayan and Tiantai schools.

卽三 One is (or includes) three; especially the one yāna (the Buddha vehicle) is, or includes the three vehicles, i.e. bodhisattva, pratyekabuddha, and śrāvaka.

卽十 One is ten, or, if one then ten, one being the root or seed of numbers, and containing all the rest. There are many other forms, e.g. 一心卽一切心 and so on.

叉鳩王 Ikṣvāku Virūḍhaka or Videhaka, translated by 甘蔗王 Sugar-cane king, also 日種善生 Sūryavaṃśa, an ancient king of Potala and ancestor of the Śākya line.

A word, or sentence; 一句子 a subordinate or explanatory word or sentence; 句 is also used for .

句投火 For but one sentence of the Truth willingly to cast oneself into the fire.

句道盡 With one word to make clear the whole Law.

合相 An organism, a cosmos, or any combined form, e.g. a man, a world.

One direction, each direction; with single mind, the mind fixed in one direction undistracted; e.g. 一向淸淨無有女人 (The land of that Buddha is) everywhere pure; no women are there.

向宗 The 眞宗 Shin or Pure-land Shin Sect founded by Shinran, in Japan, whose chief tenet is unwavering reflection on Amida (by repeating his name).

向小乘寺 A monastery wholly Hīnayāna.

向大乘寺 A monastery wholly Mahāyāna.

向記 A confirmatory reply to a question, e.g. Do not all die? All die.

v. 一唾.

One, or the same flavour, kind or character, i.e. the Buddha's teaching.

味瀉甁 Completely, exhaustively, e.g. as water can be poured from one bottle to another without loss, so should be a master's pouring of the Law into the minds of his disciples.

一品 (一品經) varga 跋渠; a chapter, or division (of a sūtra).

周忌 Anniversary of a death; also 一周關 and 一囘忌.

一唾一吹 A spit or a puff, i.e. as futile as thinking that a man could puff out a burning world and blow it again into complete existence, or could with a spit or a puff put it out.

一喝 A call, shout, deafening shout.

四句偈 A four-character line of a gāthā, or verse.

四天下 A world of four great continents surrounding a Mt. Sumeru.

一因 A cause; the cause from which the Buddha-law arises.


The one ground; the same ground; the Buddha-nature of all living beings i.e. as all the plants grow out of the one ground, so all good character and works grow from the one Buddha-nature.

坐食 One meal a day taken before noon and without rising from the seat; it is the 5th of the 12 dhūtas.

One region, realm, order, or category.

境三諦 The three axioms in the one category; the three are , , and , which exist in every universe; v. 三諦. It is a principle of the Tiantai 圓教.

境四心 Four different ways of looking at the same thing. Similar to 一水四見 i.e. one and the same reality though seen from different aspects.

A grain of dust, an atom, a particle.

塵法界 The whole in an atom, a universe in a grain of dust, one grain of dust is a microcosm of the universal whole.

一增一減 A kalpa during which a human lifetime increases from ten years to 80,000 years and then decreases back to ten. At the end of the first century the increase is to 11 years; at the end of the second century to 12 years, and so on till a lifetime lasts 80,000 years; then decrease follows in the same ratio till 10 is reached. The whole period of accretion and declension covers a small kalpa, i.e. 16,800,000 years; also called 中刧.

壇構 The setting up of altars before the Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu maṇḍala's, each erected and worshipped separately; also 一檀構.

The summer retreat in India of, 90 days, from the 16th of the 4th moon to the 15th of the 7th; v. .

大三千世 A great chiliocosmos or universe of the three kinds of thousands of worlds. The three 千 are termed 一千; 中千; 大千. A great chiliocosmos is also termed 三千大千世界 q.v.
Each world consists of its central mountain Sumeru, surrounded by four continents, its seas being surrounded by a girdle or wall of iron; 1,000 such worlds make a small chiliocosmos; 1,000 of these make a medium chiliocosmos; 1,000 of these make a great chiliocosmos, or 1,000,000,000 worlds. Later Buddhists increased this number to a figure with 4,456,489 digits. It is a Buddha-universe.

一大宅 The great house, i.e. the burning house (of the world) in the Lotus Sūtra; also 火宅.

一大車 The one great salvation vehicle of the Lotus Sūtra, the Mahāyāna.

一大事 The one great work of a Buddha, universal enlightenment and release; also a life, or lifetime.

一如 The one ru, i.e. the bhūtatathatā, or absolute, as the norm and essence of life. The 眞如 true suchness, or true character, or reality; the 法性 nature of things or beings. The whole of things as they are, or seem; a cosmos; a species; things of the same order. Name of a celebrated monk, Yiru. V. 一眞; 一實.

如觀音 One of the 33 representations of Guanyin ascending on the clouds.

如頓證 Immediate experiential enlightenment by the Tathāgata truth; the immediate realization that all is 眞如 bhūtatathatā.

One word; a magic or esoteric word.

字三禮 Three homages at every word one copies of the sūtras.

字文殊 The 'Single-word Mañjuśrī', the magic word is 齒 M063830; or 體哩呬 淫; or 叱洛呬燄, and is used to avoid difficult parturition and to heal arrow-wounds. The image used is of a youthful smiling Mañjuśrī, wearing the felicitous pearl, with one tress on his head, hence also called 一髻文殊.

字禪 A cryptic single-word reply to a question, requiring meditation for its apprehension; it is a Chan or Zen method.

一字金輪法 (一字金輪頂法) The one word golden-wheel magical method (Shingon), the one word is bhrūṃ; also 一字金輪佛頂法.

家宴 A monasterial family party, i.e. when a monk, on becoming head of a monastery, invites its inmates to a feast.

Yining, a monk who went to Japan in 1299; v. 一山.

The one reality; the bhūtatathatā; idem 一如, 一眞.

實乘 The one method, of salvation, the 一實 School.

實圓乘 The Tathāgata's perfect vehicle, i.e. that of the Lotus Scripture.

實圓宗 The one real and perfect school, i.e. the Tiantai or Lotus School.

實境界 The state or realm of 一實; the realization of the spirituality of all things; it is the 如來法身 the tathāgata-dharmakāya.

實相 The state of bhūtatathatā, above all differentiation, immutable; it implies the Buddha-nature, or the immateriality and unity of all things; 眞如之理無二無別, 離諸虛妄之相; it is undivided unity apart from all phenomena.


實無相 The one reality being indivisible is apart from all transient (or empty) forms, and is therefore styled the formless, e.g. the invisible.

The one precious thing, the spirit, or intelligent nature; the intelligent mind (behind all things).

小劫 A small kalpa; a period of the growth and decay of a universe. See 一增一滅 and .

一山 A hill; a monastery; Yishan, the name of a Chinese monk who voyaged to Japan in A.D. 1299 and who was also styled 一寧 Yining.

An appearance, a lifetime, the period of an individual existence, also 一期 and 一生涯.

One passage, or time, once; on one superficial going.

微塵 A particle of dust; an atom, the smallest particle, a microcosm of the universe.

一心 With the whole mind or heart; one mind of heart; also the bhūtatathatā, or the whole of things; the universe as one mind, or a spiritual unity.

心稱名 With undivided mind to call on the name (of Guanyin).

心三惑 同體三惑 The Tiantai 'three doubts' in the mind of a bodhisattva, producing fear of illusion, confusion through multiplicity of duties, and ignorance, i.e. 見思; 塵沙 and 無明 q.v.

心三智 One mind and three aspects of knowledge. The 別教 separates the three aspects into , , and q.v.; Tiantai unifies them into one immediate vision, or regards the three as aspects of the one mind.

心三觀 The Tiantai insight 一心三智; also simultaneous vision of past, present, and future; also called 圓融三觀; 不可思議三觀.

心金剛寶戒 圓頓戒 The infrangible-diamond rules of all bodhisattvas and Buddhas, a term of Tiantai School, founded on the 梵網經.

一念 A kṣaṇa, or thought; a concentration of mind; a moment; the time of a thought, of which there are varying measurements from 60 kṣaṇa upwards; the Fan-yi-ming-yi makes it one kṣaṇa. A reading. A repetition (especially of Amitābha's name). The Pure-land sect identify the thought of Buddha with Amitābha's vow, hence it is an assurance of salvation.

念不生 Not a thought arising; beyond the necessity of thinking, as in the case of a Buddha.

念三千 In one thought to survey or embrace the 3,000 worlds, or a chiliocosmos with all its forms of existence; to see the universe as a thought; it is a Tiantai mode of meditation.

念業成 At one thought the work completed; karma complete in one thought. One repetition, or sincere thought of or faith in Amitābha's vow, and entrance into the Pure Land is assured.

念萬年 In a moment's thought to obtain a myriad years and no return to mortality.

性宗 Monophysitic or 'pantheistic' sects of Mahāyāna, which assert that all beings have one and the same nature with Buddha.

A breath, i.e. inspiration-cum-expiration; a rest, or cessation.

息半步 Half a step at a breathing on arising from meditation.

恒河沙 (一恒) As one Ganges, i.e. as the sands of one Ganges river.

一成一切成 The Huayan doctrine that the law of the universal runs through the phenomenal, therefore a speck of dust is a microcosmos; also that with the Tathāgata's enlightenment all beings were enlightened in him; in the perfection of one all are perfected; one deed includes all.

Adherence to one Buddha and one sūtra.

A sudden remark, or question, by a monk or master to test a disciple, a Chan (Zen) method.

一指頭禪 The one finger-tip contemplation used by a certain monk to bring to another a conception of the universe. Also a parable in the 楞伽經 Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra. The Chan or Zen sect 禪宗 regard the sūtras merely as indicators, i.e. pointing fingers, their real object being only attained through personal mediation.

揣食 A ball (or handful) of food; one helping; a frugal meal, the sixth of the 12 dhūtas; also called 節量食 and 一摶食.

A sun, or day from sunrise to sunset.

一日一夜 ahorātra. One day one night, a day and night, a division of time.

日三時 The three divisions of a day, morning, noon, evening.


日佛 A one-day Buddha, i.e. he who lives a whole day purely.

日經 A sūtra copied in one day (perhaps by many hands); also styled 頓寫.

ming (i.e. bright, clear, illuminating) is the Shingon word for a dhāraṇī, or magical formula; especially applied to a magical acts.

ekasmin samaye (Pali: ekaṃ samayaṃ); 'on one occasion,' part of the usual opening phrase of a sūtra— 'Thus have I heard, once,' etc. A period, e.g. a session of expounding a sūtra.

A company; a general assembly of monks in a monastery.

月三舟 The one moon represents Buddha, the three boats represent varying ways of viewing him, e.g. according as those in a anchored boat and those in two others sailing in opposite directions see different aspects of the moon, so is it in regard to the Buddha.

月三身 The allegorical trikāya or three bodies of the moon, i.e. form as 法身, its light as 報身, its reflection as 應身; the Buddha-truth has also its body, its light of wisdom , and its application or use , but all three are one, or a trinity; see trikāya, 三身.

A date, fixed time; a life time.

The one ultimate, or finality; ultimate enlightenment; the one final truth or way; the 一實 or Absolute.

A karma; a 業困 karma-cause, causative of the next form of existence.

一機一境 The 機 is subjective; the 境 is objective, e.g. smoke is the objective phenomenon, fire the subjective inference.

段事 The unity or continuity in the unbroken processes of nature; all nature, all being is but one continuous process.

殺多生 To kill one that many may live.

毛端 A hair's tip; the smallest division (of space or time).

水四見 The same water may be viewed in four waysdevas see it as bejewelled land, men as water, hungry ghosts as pus and blood, fish as a place to live in. Cf. 一境四心.

A dharma, or law; an ordered something, a thing, a matter.

法印 The seal or assurance of the one truth or law, see 一如 and 一實; the criterion of Mahāyāna doctrine, that all is bhūtatathatā, as contrasted with the Hīnayāna criteria of impermanence, non-personality, and nirvāṇa.

法句 The one-law abode, i.e. the sum of the 29 particular 句 or states of perfection in the Pure-land śāstra of Vasubandhu.

法界 The bhūtatathatā considered in terms of mind and as a whole; a law-realm; a spiritual realm; a universe.

法界心 A mind universal, above limitations of existence or differentiation.

浮漚 A floating bubble (on the ocean), a man's life, or body.

In one, or the same flow; of the same class.

One burning of incense; a candle, or lamp.

無礙道 The one way without barrier, i.e. the end of reincarnations in nirvāṇa; a meditation on it.

物不將來 A Chan sect idea— not a thing to bring or carry away, empty-handed, i.e. nothingness.

All one's life, a whole life time.

生不犯 Life-long innocence— especially sexual.

生入妙覺 A Tiantai doctrine that Buddha-enlightenment can be attained by any in one lifetime, i.e. the present life.

生所繫菩薩 idem 一生補處菩薩.

生果遂 In this one life to accomplish the three stages for final entry; it is associated with the 20th vow of Amitābha; cf. 三生果遂.

生補處 Eka-jāti-prati-baddha; a name or Maitreya, who is to be the next Buddha in this world. Another definition is— from one enlightenment to attain to Buddhahood.

生補處菩薩像 A 30-armed image of Maitreya.

Unity-cum-differentiation; monism and pluralism; one and many; ekatva-anyatva, oneness and otherness.


白三羯磨 One announcement, or reading, and three responses, or promises of performance (karman); it is the mode of ordaining monks, three responses to the one call of the abbot.

śata. A hundred.

百八 百八 aṣṭaśatam. The 108 kleśa, distresses, disturbing passions, or illusions 煩惱 of mankind, hence the 108 beads on a rosary, repetitions of the Buddha's name, strokes of a bell, etc., one for each distress. Also, one of the Mahārājas, with 108 hands, each holding a different implement.

目多伽 itivṛttaka; stories of the lives of saints, part of the canon; also 一曰多伽.

lakṣana. One aspect, form, or side; ekatva, unity as contrasted with diversity; monism; the bhūtatathatā; the one mind in all things; cf. 一異.

一相一味 The term 一相 is defined as the common mind in all beings, or the universal mind; the 一味 is the Buddha's Mahāyāna teaching; the former is symbolized by the land, the latter by the rain fertilizing it.

相三昧 A state of samādhi in which are repressed hate and love, accepting and rejecting, etc., and in which the mind reaches an undivided state, being anchored in calm and quiet.

相智 The wisdom that all is bhūtatathatā and a unity.

相法門 The unitary or monistic method is interpreted in more than a dozen ways; in general it means to reach a stage beyond differentiation where all is seen as a unity.

相無相 One-ness means none-ness; in ultimate unity, or the unity of the absolute, there is no diversity.

The whole of reality, the universe, the all, idem 眞如; cf. 一如, 一實 bhūtatathatā.

眞地 The state of meditation on the absolute.

眞法界 The dharma realm of the one reality, i.e. of the bhūtatathatā, complete in a speck of dust as in a universe; such is the dharmakāya, or spiritual body of all Buddhas, eternal, above terms of being, undefinable, neither immanent nor transcendent, yet the one reality, though beyond thought. It is the fundamental doctrine of the 華嚴宗. The 法界 is 諸佛平等法身, 從本以來不生不滅, 非空非有, 離名離相, 無內無外, 惟一眞實, 不可思議, 是名一眞法界; see 三藏法數 4.

一眞無爲 The 一眞法界 one reality, or undivided absolute, is static, not phenomenal, it is effortless, just as it is 自然 self-existing.

眼之龜 A sea turtle with only one eye, and that underneath, entered a hollow in a floating log; the log, tossed by the waves, happened to roll over, whereupon the turtle momentarily saw the sun and moon; an illustration of the rareness of the appearance of a Buddha; also of the difficulty of being reborn as a man.

一禿乘 A bald-pated 'vehicle'— an unproductive monk or disciple.

一空 All is empty, or of the void, non-material.

一等 Equal, all equal; of the first stage; a grade, rank, step.

一筆三禮 Three salutations at each (use of the) pen, on painting a picture of the Buddha, or copying a scripture; cf. 一刀三禮.

一筆勾 (一筆勾銷) 'Crossed out' with a stroke of the pen; expunged; forgiven.

一篋四蛇 Four snakes in one basket, i.e. the four passions in one body, cf. 四大.

一箭道 An arrow's flight, two li.

一縷一觸 'A thread, a butt'; the dragon which snatched a thread of a monk's robe and was consequently protected from a dangerous bird; the ox which butted a monk's robe and became a monk at its next transmigration; e.g. the virtue of the robe.

一翳 A film on the eye; a hindrance to enlightenment.

一臈 一臘 The end of the monastic year at the summer retreat; a monastic year; also called 法臈? or 法歲, the religious year; cf. 一夏.

一色 A colour, the same colour; the same; especially a thing, or a form, v. rūpa ; minute, trifling, an atom.

一色一香無非中道 An atom or an odour is a complete microcosm of the 中道 middle way or golden mean; the Mean is found in all things.

一莖草 A blade of grass—may represent the Buddha, as does his image; it is a Buddha-centre.

一葉 A leaf; a palm-leaf or page of a sūtra.


一葉觀音 One of the 33 forms of Guanyin, standing on a lotus leaf.

一蓮 The Lotus-flower of the Pure-land of Amitābha, idem 蓮臺.

一蓮之實 The certainty of being born in the Pure-land.

一蓮托生 One lotus bearing all the living, i.e. the Pure-land of Amitābha.

一蟣 A likṣā, a nit, the 131,712,000th part of a yojana, seven times the smallest atom.

一行 One act (of body, mouth, or mind); holding to one course; devoted. Yixing, A.D. 672-717, a celebrated monk whose secular name was 張遂 Zhang Sui, posthumous title 大慧禪師; he was versed in mathematics and astronomy, a reformer of the Chinese calendar, and author of several works.

一行一切行 In one act to do all other acts; the act which includes all other acts. e.g. the first step; the one discipline which embraces all discipline; the fourth degree of a samādhi.

一行三昧, 眞如三昧, 一相三昧 A samādhi for realizing that the nature of all Buddhas is the same; the 起信論 says all Buddhas and all beings. Another meaning is entire concentration of the mind on Buddha.

一角仙人 Ekaśṛṅga ṛṣi; also 獨角仙人 The unicorn ṛṣi, an ascetic born of a deer; ensnared by a woman, he lost his power, and became a minister of state; he is one of the previous incarnations of Śākyamuni.

一觸 See 一縷.

一訶子 haritaki. A fruit of the yellow myrobolan. Also阿黎勒果 (or 訶黎勒果).

一說部 Ekavyāvahārika 猗柯毘與婆訶利柯 or (Pali) Ekabyohāra 鞞婆訶羅 One of the 20 Hīnayāna schools, a nominalistic school, which considered things as nominal, i.e. names without any underlying reality; also styled 諸法但名宗 that things are but names.

一諦 The doctrine of fundamental unity; an abbrev. for 一實諦 the Mādhyamika fundamental doctrine; also, generally, in the sense of an axiom, or fundamental truth; there are varying definitions of the one fundamental truth.

一識 One sense or perception; the one individual intelligence or soul which uses the various senses, likened to a monkey which climbs in and out of the various windows of a house— a Satyasiddhi and Sautrāntika doctrine. Also, a Vairocana maṇḍala.

一識外道 Followers of the一識 heretical view.

一轉語 A turning word; a fateful word.

一遍 Once, one recital of Buddha's name, or of a sūtra, or magic formula; style of 智眞 Zhizhen, founder of the 時宗 Ji-shū (Japan)..

一道 One way, the one way; the way of deliverance from mortality, the Mahāyāna. Yidao, a learned monk of the Pure-land sect.

一道法門 The 'a' school (Shingon) which takes a as the alpha (and even omega) of all wisdom; the way by which all escape mortality.

一道無爲心 Mind apart from all ideas of activity or inactivity. Also styled, or explained, by 如實一道心, 如實知自心, 空性無境心, 一如本淨心. The third of the ten mental resting places of the esoteric school.

一道神光 Inner light; intuitive wisdom.

一門 The one door out of mortality into nirvāṇa, i.e. the Pure-land door.

一門普門 The one door is the all-door; by entering the one door all doors of the faith are opened.

一間 ekavīcika 翳迦鼻致迦 Still one final stage of mortality before nirvāṇa. Also wrongly styled bījaka 鼻致迦, a seed 一種 which leads to one more reincarnation.

一間聖者 The holy ones who have only one interval, or stage of mortality before nirvāṇa.

一闡提 (一闡提迦) icchantika. Also 一顚迦, 阿闡底迦 One without desire for Buddha enlightenment; an unbeliever; shameless, an enemy of the good; full of desires; 斷善根者 one who has cut off his roots of goodness; it is applied also to a bodhisattva who has made a vow not to become a Buddha until all beings are saved. This is called 大悲闡提 the icchantika of great mercy.

一際 Of the same realm or boundary, i.e. the world and nirvāṇa are one.

一雨 A rain, i.e. a lesson from the Buddha, or his teaching, see Lotus V.

一音教 The one-sound teaching, i.e. the totality of the Buddha's doctrine; a school founded by Kumārajīva and Bodhiruci.


一願建立 The one vow, i.e. the 18th of the 48 vows of Amitābha, on which his sect is established.

一顚迦 idem 一闡提迦.

一食 A meal a day, one of the twelve dhūtas.

一體 Though externally differing, in nature the same; the fundamental unity of the universe. 天地與我同根, 萬物與我一體 Heaven, earth, and myself have the same root; all things are one corpus with me.

一體三分 The trinity of 摩醯首羅 Maheśvara (Śiva), 那羅延 Nārāyaṇa (Viṣṇu), and 梵天 Brahmā. One being in three manifestations.

一體三寶 In the one body of the saṅgha is the whole triratna, Buddha, Dharma, and saṅgha. Also, Mind, Buddha, and the living, these three are without differentiation, 心佛與衆生是三無差別, i.e. are all one.

一體三身自性佛 In one's own body to have the trikāya of the self-natured, Buddha, i.e. by personal surrender to the Buddha.

一體速疾力三昧 A samādhi in which instantaneous powers are acquired.

一髻 A topknot.

一髻文殊 The one topknot Mañjuśrī; there are other representations with 5 and 8; cf. 一字文殊.

一髻羅刹女 The female rakṣaḥ styled 'Single top-knot', wife of a great rakṣaḥ who dwells by a great ocean; on scenting blood, she can fly to it in a night 80, 000 yojanas.

一髻羅刹王菩薩 The four-handed, dark-blue rakṣaḥ with the flame of fire coming out of his head, a bodhisattva in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala.

一麻一米 A hempseed and a grain of rice a day, the scanty diet to which Śākyamuni reduced himself before his enlightenment.

一魔萬箭 One demon a myriad arrows, i.e. to listen to one Māra-temptation opens the way for a myriad Māra-arrows.


sapta, seven.

七七 The period of forty-nine days after death, when masses are said every seventh day till the seventh seventh day.

七七忌 The seventh seventh day of the masses for the dead.

七七齋 Masses for the dead on every seventh day for seven times. During this period the deceased is in the antarābhava or intermediate state, known as 中有 and 中陰; at the end of forty-nine days, judgment having been made, he enters upon his next state. By observing the proper rites, his family may aid him in overcoming his perils and attaining to a happy destiny.

七丈夫 also 七士夫趣; v. 七賢七聖.

七不可避 The seven unavoidables— rebirth, old age, sickness, death, punishment (for sin), happiness (for goodness), consequences (cause and effect 因緣).

七事隨身 The seven appurtenances of a monk— the three garments, bowl, censer, duster (or fly-brush), stool (niṣīdana), paper, and material for washing.

七佛 sapta Buddha. The seven ancient Buddhas, viz. Vipaśyin 毘婆尸, Śikhin 尸棄, Viśvabhū 毘舍婆, ([[[Krakucchanda]])] 拘樓孫, Kanakamuni 倶那含牟尼 or 拘那含, Kāśyapa 迦葉, and Śākyamuni 釋迦. The last four are said to be of the present kalpa.

七佛藥師 The seven healing Buddhas, also 七躬醫王, of whom there are two descriptions, one representing them as at various places in the eastern regions of space; another gives five in the east and two in the south.

七使 The seven messengers, agents, or kleśasdesire 欲愛; anger, or hate 瞋恚; attachment, or clinging 有愛; pride or arrogance ; ignorance, or unenlightenment 無明; false views ; and doubt .

七例句 v. 七轉九例.

七倶胝佛母尊 Saptakotibuddha-mātṛ. The fabulous mother of seven koṭīs of Buddhas; i.e. Marīci 摩利支; also 準提 Cundī, or Cundā; or 準提觀音 Cundī-Guanyin, q.v., who is represented as of whitish color, with eighteen hands and three eyes.


七條 (衣 or 袈裟 ) The outer mantle, or toga, of a monk, composed of seven pieces; the Uttara-sanga, v. 鬱.

七僧 A monastery is supposed to possess the following seven monks: 咒願師 invoker; 導師 leader; 唄師 intoner, or leader of the chanting; 散花師 flower-scatterer; 梵音師 master of sacred words, or Sanskrit; 錫杖師 shaker of the rings on the metal staff, or crozier; 堂達 distributor of missals, etc. Another division is 講師 expounder; 讀師 reader; 咒願師; 三禮師 director of the three ceremonies; 唄師; 散花師; and 堂達.

七僧法會 An assembly of a monasterial fraternity.

七僧齋 A 'western″ term meaning an endowment for a complete monastic fraternity of seven monks.

七八行 The practice of the seven bodhyaṅga 七菩提分, and the 八正道 eight marga or noble paths.

七加行 idem 七方便 .

七勝事 The seven surpassing qualities of a Buddha; v. also 七種無上; they are his body, or person, his universal law, wisdom, perfection, destination (nirvana), ineffable truth, and deliverance.

七十 saptati' seventy.

七十三尊 The 'Diamond world' maṇḍala, or pantheon, of the esoteric sect, containing seventy-three honoured ones.

七十二天 The seventy-two devas, namely, sixty-nine devas, the lord of Tai Shan, the god of the five roads, and 大吉祥天 Mahāśrī .

七十二字 Brahma obtained seventy-two words with which to save the world, but failing he swallowed seventy, leaving one at each side of his mouth 阿 and 漚 , i.e. and things are, things are not, being and non-being.

七十二歳 The age, 72, at which Buddha is reputed to have preached the Lotus Sutra.

七十五 pañcasaptati; '75.

七十五法 The seventy-five dharmas of the Abhidharmakośa-bhāsya, which classifies all phenomena under seventy-five categories or elements, divided into five groups; cf. 五根, 五境, 無表色.

(1) Material 色法 rūpāṇi, 11 .

(2) Mind 心法 cittam, 1.

(3) Mental qualities 心所有法 citta-saṃprayukta-saṃskārāḥ, 46.

(4) Non-mental 心不相應行法 cittaviprayukta-saṃskārāḥ, 14. These are the seventy-two Sarvastivadin divisions (v. Keith, B. I. , p. 201 ). (5) In addition there are three unconditioned or non-phenomenal elements 無爲法 asaṃskṛta dharma, 3 (v. Keith, p. 160) .

七善 The seven exce1lences claimed for the Buddha's teaching good in its timing or seasonableness, meaning, expression, 濁法 uniqueness, 具足 completeness, 淸淨調柔 pure adaptability, and 凡行 its sole objective, nirvana. There are other similar groups.

七喩 The seven parables of the Lotus Sutra.

七垢 The seven defilementsdesire , false views , doubt , pride , arrogance torpor 隨眠, and stinginess; cf. 七使.

七夢 Ānanda's seven dreams, which are explained in the 七夢經.

七大 Earth , water, fire, wind, space (or ether), sight, and perception 地, , , , , , 証識; cf. 大, 五大and 六境; 見大 and 六根; 識大 and 六識.

七如衆 sapta-tathāgatāḥ. The seven tathāgatas whose names are inscribed on a heptagonal pillar (七如來寶塔) in some Buddhist temples. One list 阿彌陀, 甘露飯王, 觀音, 毘耶娑, 色妙身, 羅担納担羅耶and 寶勝. Another list gives Amitābha, Kan-lu-wang, 離怖畏, 廣博身, Miaoseshen, Baosheng (Ratnasaṃbhava) 多寶 (Prabhūtaratna).

七子 The parable in the Nirvana Sutra of the sick son whose parents, though they love all their sons equally, devote themselves to him. So does the Buddha specially care for sinners. The seven sons are likened to mankind, devas, sravakas, pratyeka-buddhas, and the three kinds of bodhisattvas of the , and 別教.

七宗 The seven Japanese sects of Ritsu (or Risshū), 法相 Hossō, 論 Sanron 華嚴Kegon, 天台 Tendai, 眞言 Shingon, and Zen.


七寶 sapta ratna 薩不荅羅的捺 The seven treasures, or precious things, of which there are varying descriptions, e.g. suvarna, gold; rūpya, silver; 鐂璃 vaiḍūrya, lapis lazuli; 玻瓈sphaṭika, crystal; 硨磲 musāragalva, agate; 赤珠 rohita-mukta, rubies or red pearls; 瑪瑙 aśmagarbha, cornelian. Also the seven royal (cakravartin) treasures―the golden wheel; elephants; dark swift horses; the divine pearl, or beautiful pearls; able ministers of the Treasury; jewels of women; and loyal generals.

七寶樹林 The grove of jewel trees, or trees of the seven precious things―a part of the "Pure-land", or Paradise.

七微 The seven atoms composing an aṇu 阿耨; 阿拏, 阿菟色. Eitel's definition is seven atoms of dust, but the definition is doubtful. This molecule is larger than an "atom" , and according to the Sarvāstivāda it is the smallest visible particle. It is also a division of a yojana.

七心界 The seven realms of vijñāna, or perception, produced by eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind, to which is added thought, 根 q.v.

七情 The seven emotions : pleasure, anger, sorrow, joy, love, hate, desire.

七慢 The seven pretensions or arrogances asserting superiority over inferiors and equality with equals, 過慢 superiority over equals and equality with superiors, 慢過慢 superiority over manifest superiors, 我慢 egotism or overweening pride, 增上慢 vaunting assertion of possessing the Truth, 卑慢 vaunting one's inferiority (or false humility), and 邪慢 vaunting lack of virtue for virtue.

七摩怛里 saptamātṛ. The seven divine mothers, or personified energies of the principal deities; they are associated with the worship of the god Śiva, and attend on his son Skanda or Kārttikeya, to whom at first only seven Mātṛs were assigned, but in the later mythology an innumerable number, who are sometimes represented as having displaced the original divine mothers M.W. Their names are given as

(1) Cāmuṇḍā 遮文茶 or 左問拏

(2) Gaurī 嬌吠哩;

(3) Vaiṣṇavī 吠瑟拏微

(4) Kaumārī 嬌麼哩;

(5) Indrāṇī, Aindrī, or Māhendrī 燕捺利 or 印捺哩;

(6) Raudrī 勞捺哩; and

(7) Vārāhī 末羅呬弭; cf. 七母天.

七支 The seven (spreading) branches—three sins of the body and four of speech, 身三 killing, robbing, adultery; 口四 lying, slander, abuse, double-tongue (or vain conversation). These are the first seven of the ten evils 十惡.

七支念誦 A method of invocation in which only seven kinds of signs and magical words are required. It is explained in the 七支念誦隨行法 part of the Vairocana Sutra.

七支業 The karma resulting from the above seven sins.

七方便 (七方便位) (1) The seven "expedient" or temporary attainments or positions of Hīnayāna, superseded in Mahayana by the 七賢 (位) or 七加行 (位) all preparatory to the 七聖 (位) (2) The seven vehicles, i.e. those of ordinary human beings, of devas, of śrāvakas, of pratyekabuddhas' and of the three bodhisattvas of the three teachings , and . (3) Also, 藏教之聲縁二人, 通教之聲縁菩三人, 別教and 圓教之二菩薩; (2) and (3) are Tiantai groups.

七星 Ursa major; Worshipped in Japan as 妙見菩薩 Wonderful Sight Bodhisattva who protects this world.

七曇 Siddham, idem. 悉曇.

七曜 The seven brilliant ones — the sun and moon, together with the five planets which are connected with fire, water, wood, metal, and earth. Their essence shines in the sky, but their spirits are over men as judges of their good and evil, and as rulers over good and evil fortune. The following list shows their names in Chinese and Sanskrit: Sun , 太陽; aditya 阿彌底耶

Moon月, 太陰; soma 蘇摩

Mars火星, 勢惑勞; aṅgāraka 盎哦囉迦

Mercury水星, 辰星; budha 部陀

Jupiter木星, 歳星; bṛhaspati 勿哩訶娑跛底

Venus金星, 太白; śukra 戌羯羅

Saturn土星, 鎭星; śanaiścara 賖乃以室折羅


七最勝 The seven perfections, see 唯識論, 9. 安住最勝 Perfect rest in the bodhisattva nature. 依止最勝 perfect reliance on, or holding fast to the great bodhi (awakened mind). 意果最勝 perfect resultant aim in-pity for all 事業最勝 Perfect in constant performance. 巧便最勝 Perfect in able device (for spiritual presentation). 廻向最勝 Perfect direction towards the highest bodhi. 滿淨最勝 Perfect purity and peace.


七有 七生 The seven stages of existence in a human world, or in any 欲界 desire-world. Also

(1) in the hells,

(2) as animals,

(3) hungry ghosts,

(4) gods,

(5) men,

(6) karma , and

(7) in the intermediate stage.

七生 same as 七有.

七有依福業 The seven grounds for a happy karma through benevolence to the needy―almsgiving to visitors, to travelers' to the sick, to their nurses, gifts of gardens and groves to monasteries, etc., regular provision of food for them, and seasonable clothing and food for their occupants.

七歩蛇 A snake whose bite brings death before seven steps can be taken.

七母天 The seven divine mothers, also styled the seven sisters 七姉妹; v. 七摩怛里.

七姉妹 The seven sisters. See 七摩怛里.

七毘尼 The seven vinaya, v. 七滅諍法.

七治 Seven forms of punishment for monks. v. 七羯磨.

七法The seven (unavoidable) things, v. 七不避.

七法財The seven riches, or seven ways of becoming rich in the Law : faith, 進 zeal, moral restraint, 漸愧 shame, 聞 obedient hearing (of the Law), 捨 abnegation, and 定慧 wisdom arising from meditation.

七淨華 See 七華.

七滅諍法 saptādhikaraṇa-śamatha. Seven rules given in the Vinaya for settling disputes among the monks. Disputes arise from causes : from arguments; from discovery of misconduct; judgment and punishment of such; the correctness or otherwise of a religious observance. The seven rules are : 現前毘尼 saṃmukha-vinaya, face to face evidence, or appeal to the law; 憶念毘尼 smṛti-vinaya, witness or proof; 不痴毘尼 amūḍha-vinaya, irresponsibility, e.g. lunacy; 自言毘尼 tatsvabhavaiṣīya-vinaya, voluntary confession; 多語毘尼 pratijñākāraka-vinaya, decision by majority vote; 罪處所毘尼 yadbhūyasikīya-vinaya, condemnation of unconfessed sin by the 白四 or jñapticaturthin method, i.e. to make a statement and ask thrice for judgment; 草覆地毘尼 tṛṇastāraka-vinaya. , i.e. covering the mud with straw, i.e. in protracted disputes the appointment by each side of an elder to spread the straw of the law over the mud of the dispute.

七災難 v. 七難 prajñā.

七無上道 idem 七種無上.

七珍 idem 七寶.

七生 idem 七有.

七百賢聖 The 700 disciples who met the second synod at Vaiśālī; also 七百結集.

七如眞The seven aspects of the bhūta-tathatā , v. 如眞 One list is 流轉如眞 實相如眞, 唯識如眞, 安立如眞, 邪行如眞, 淸淨如眞, 正行如眞. From the 唯識論 8.

七知 The seven knowings - to know the Law, its meaning, the times for all duties, moderation, oneself, the different classes of people, and people as individuals.

七祖 (1) The seven founders of the 華嚴 Huayan School, whose names are given as 馬鳴 Aśvaghoṣa, 龍樹 Nāgārjuna 杜順 (i.e. 法順) , Zhiyan 智儼, Fazang 法藏, Chengguan 澄觀 and Zongmi 宗密; (2) the seven founders of the Chan School, i.e. 達磨 or 菩提達磨 Bodhidharma, Huike 慧可, Sengcan 僧璨, Daoxin 道信, Hongren 弘忍, Huineng 慧能 and Heze 荷澤 (or Shenhui 神曾); (3) The seven founders of the 淨土 Pure Land School, i.e. Nagarjuna, 世親 Vasubandhu, Tanluan 曇鸞, Daochuo 道綽, Shandao 善導, Yuanxin 源信 and Yuankong 源空 (or Faran 法然), whose teaching is contained in the Qizushengjiao 七祖聖教.

七種不淨 seven kinds of uncleanness, derived from the parental seed, parental intercourse, the womb, the prenatal blood of the mother, birth, one's own flesh, one's own putrid corpse.

七種布施 The seven kinds of almsgiving—to callers, travelers, the sick, their nurses, monasteries, regular food (to monks), general alms; v. 七有, etc.

七種懺悔心 The seven mental attitudes in penitential meditation or worship : shame, at not yet being free from mortality 慚愧心; fear, of the pains of hell, etc.; turning from the evil world; desire for enlightenment and complete renunciation; impartiality in love to all; gratitude to the Buddha; meditation on the unreality of the sin-nature, that sin arises from perversion and that it has no real existence.


七種捨 Seven abandonments or riddances―cherishing none and nothing, no relations with others, riddance of love and hate, of anxiety about the salvation of others, of form, giving to others (e.g. supererogation), benefiting others without hope of return. Another form is―cherishing nothing, riddance of love and hate, of desire, anger, etc., of anxiety about, etc., as above.

七種無上 The seven peerless qualities of a Buddha:―his body with its thirty-two signs and eighty-four marks; his way of universal mercy; his perfect insight or doctrine ; his wisdom ; his supernatural power 力; his ability to overcome hindrances 斷障, e.g. illusion, karma, and suffering; and his abiding place i.e. Nirvana. Cf. 七勝事.

七種無常 sapta-anitya. The seven impermanences, a non-Buddhist nihilistic doctrine discussed in the 楞 伽 4.

七種生死 The seven kinds of mortality, chiefly relating to bodhisattva incarnation.

七種禮佛 Seven degrees of worshipping Buddha, ranging from the merely external to the highest grade.

七種自性 The seven characteristics of a Buddha's nature, v. 自性.

七種般 v. 不還.

七種衣 The seven kinds of clothing, i.e. of hair, hemp, linen, felt, fine linen, wool, or silk.

七種語 Buddha's seven modes of discourse: 因語 from present cause to future effect; 果語 from present effect to past cause; 因果語 inherent cause and effect; 喩語 illustrative or figurative; 不應説語 spontaneous or parabolic; 世界流語 ordinary or popular; 如意語 unreserved, or as he really thought, e.g. as when he said that all things have the Buddha-nature.

七種辯 The seven rhetorical powers or methods of bodhisattvas :― direct and unimpeded; acute and deep; unlimited in scope; irrefutable; appropriate, or according to receptivity; purposive or objective (i.e. nirvana); proving the universal supreme method of attainment, i.e. Mahayana.

七種食 The seven kinds of food or āhāra, sustenance :―sleep for eyes, sound for ears, fragrance for nose, taste for tongue, fine smooth things for the body, the Law for the mind, and freedom from laxness for nirvana.

七空 The seven unrealities or illusions,v.空. There are two lists:(1)相空,性自性空,行空,無行空,一切法離言説空,第一義聖智大空 and彼彼空; v.Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 1.(2) 性空, 自相空, 諸法空, 不可得空,無法空, 有法空, and 有法無法空.智度論36.

七等覺支 See 七菩提分.

七羯磨 karmavācā; the 七治The seven punishments of a monk.

七聖v.七賢七聖, 七聖財.saptadhana. The seven sacred graces variously defined, e.g. faith, observation of the commandments, 聞hearing instruction, 慙 shame (for self), shame (for others); 捨 renunciation; and慧 wisdom.

七聖覺 See 七菩提分.

七聲 See 七轉九列.

七菩提分 saptabodhyaṅga, also 七菩提寶, 七覺分, 七覺支, 七等覺支. Seven characteristics of bodhi; the sixth of the 七科七道品 in the seven categories of the bodhipakṣika dharma, v. 三十七菩提分 it represents seven grades in bodhi,viz,(1)擇法覺支(or 擇法菩提分 and so throughout), dharma-pravicaya-saṃbodhyaṇga, discrimination of the true and the fa1se : (2) 精進 vīrya-saṃbodhyaṇga, zeal, or undeflected progress;(3) prīti-saṃbodhyaṇga., joy, delight; (4) 輕安 or 除 praśrabdhi-saṃbodhyaṇga. Riddance of all grossness or weight of body or mind, so that they may be light, free, and at ease; (5) smrti-saṃbodhyaṇga, power of remembering the various states passed through in contemplation; (6) samādhi-saṃbodhyaṇga.the power to keep the mind in a given realm undiverted; (7) 行捨 or 捨 upekṣā-saṃbodhyaṇga or upekṣaka, complete abandonment, auto-hypnosis, or indifference to all disturbances of the sub-conscious or ecstatic mind.

七華 The seven flowers of enlightenmenmt, idem. 七善提分. Another version is pure in the commandments, in heart, in views, in doubt-discrimination, in judgment, in conduct, and in nirvana.

七葉巖 The crag at Rājagṛha on which the "seven-leaf tree" grew in the cave beneath which the first "synod" is said to have been held after the Buddha's death, to recall and determine his teaching.

七處八會 The eight assemblies in seven different places, at which the sixty sections of the 華嚴經 Avataṃsaka-sūtra are said to have been preached; the same sutra in eighty sections is accredited to the 七處九會. 七處平等相 One of the thirty-two signs on the Budda's body—the perfection of feet, hands, shoulders, and head.


七衆 The seven classes of disciples:―

(1)比丘 bhikṣu,monk;

(2) bhikṣuṇī a female observer of all commandments;

(3) 式叉摩那śikṣamāṇa, a novice, or observer of the six commandments;

(4) 沙彌 śrāmaṇera, and

(5) 沙彌尼 śrāmaṇerika, male and female observers of the minor commandments;

(6) 優婆塞 upāsaka, male observers of the five commandments; and